Tangsa
Tase
Native toBurma, India
EthnicityTangsa people
Native speakers
108,624 (2010-2012)[1][2][3][4]
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
  • Muklom
  • Pangwa Naga
  • Ponthai
  • Tikhak
Latin alphabet, Tangsa alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
nst – Tangsa (multiple varieties)
nqq – Kyan-Karyaw
nlq – Lao Naga
Glottologtang1379  Tangsa

Tangsa, also Tase and Tase Naga, is a Sino-Tibetan languages or language cluster spoken by the Tangsa people of Burma and north-eastern India. Some varieties, such as Shangge, are likely distinct languages. There are about 60,000 speakers in Burma and 40,000 speakers in India.

Geographical distribution

Tangsa is spoken in the following locations of Myanmar (Ethnologue).

In India, Tangsa is spoken in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. Below are locations for some varieties of Tangsa.

Ethnologue also lists the following languages.

Dialects

There are four principal varieties,


Morey (2017)

This what do the numbers mean? may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the what do the numbers mean?. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Within Tangsa, the Pangwa group has about 20 subgroups in India. The Pangwa had migrated from Myanmar to India in the 20th century (Morey 2017). Pangwa subgroups are listed below, with autonyms listed in parentheses.[9]

The Tikhak group consists of:[9]

Other subgroups that do not belong to either the Pangwa or Tikhak groups are:[9]

Besides Pangwa and Tikhak, other Tangsa groups are:[10]

Lann (2018)

This what do the numbers mean? may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the what do the numbers mean?. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Lann (2018:8) classifies the Tangsa language varieties as follows, and recognizes 11 subgroups.[11] IPA transcriptions for dialect names are also provided (Lann 2018:4-6).[12] Note: the superscript digits are language-specific tone marks.

Lann (2018:4) lists the Aktung, Angsü-Angsa, Giiyii, Gawngkaq, Khangcyu, Khangdo, Kumgaq, Punlam, Nukyaq, and Vangtak-Vangkaq dialects as being extinct or nearly extinct.[13]

Orthography

Tangsa is written in the Latin alphabet. This orthography was designed by Reverend Gam Win.

In 1990, Mr. Lakhum Mossang from Namphai Nong, Arunchal Pradesh in India created an alphabet for the Tangsa language. He taught the alphabet in public events and festivals, and promoted the script with community organisations and schools. In 2021, there were about 100 people who are using the script.[14]

Vowels

Consonants

Tone letters

References

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Naga, Tangshang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  3. ^ "Naga, Chen-Kayu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  4. ^ "Naga, Lao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  5. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Jugli Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  6. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Lungchang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  7. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1992. Tutsa Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  8. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1999. Mungshang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  9. ^ a b c Morey, Stephen (2011), "Tangsa song language - art or history? a common language or a remnant?", Als2011 Australian Linguistics Society Annual Conference Conference Proceedings
  10. ^ Morey, Stephen (2015). "The internal diversity of Tangsa: vocabulary and morphosyntax". In Post, Mark; Konnerth, Linda; Morey, Stephen; et al. (eds.). Language and Culture in Northeast India and Beyond: In honor of Robbins Burling. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics. pp. 23–40. hdl:1885/38458.
  11. ^ Lann 2018, p. 8
  12. ^ Lann 2018, pp. 4–6
  13. ^ Lann 2018, p. 4
  14. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  15. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  16. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  17. ^ "Tangsa Alphabet and Language". Omniglot. Retrieved 5 March 2021.