Wui
tʰa³³weɪ⁵² ma³³lan³¹
Native toIndia
RegionWui village, Noklak District, Nagaland
EthnicityWui Naga
Native speakers
< 1,000 (2023)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3

Wui (autonym: tʰa³³wɛ⁵² ma³³lan⁵², lit. 'crab language') is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Wui village, Noklak District, Nagaland, India (26°02′10″N 95°04′01″E / 26.036°N 95.067°E / 26.036; 95.067). There are just under 1,000 speakers.[1]

Background

Wui is spoken in the single village of Wui, which has about 150 houses. Wui village is situated 10 km west of the India-Myanmar border on the Patsho Range in eastern Nagaland. It is estimated that there are less than 1,000 speakers.[1]

Nearby languages include Tikhir (Aoic) and various Khiamniunganic (Konyakian) varieties. Wui speakers consider themselves to be an ethnic subgroup of the Khiamniungan people and also speak Patsho Khiamniungan. Many Wui people are fluent in Nagamese.[1]

Classification

Due to its divergent lexicon and typological features, the classification of Wui is uncertain. Coupe (2023) suggests a divergent Central Naga affiliation. However, Wui lacks rhotics, which are characteristic of most Central Naga languages.[1]

Phonology

The phonological inventory of Wui is as follows.[1]

Consonants
labial/
labiodental
dental palatal/
palato-alveolar
velar glottal
stop, unasiprated p t k ʔ
stop, aspirated
affricate, unaspirated ts
affricate, aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ
nasal m n ɲ ŋ
nasal, glottalized ŋˀ
fricative (v) s ʃ
approximant w l j h
Vowels
i ʉ u
ɛ ɔ
a

There are three phonemic tones in Wui, which are:[2]

Pronouns

Wui personal pronouns are as follows.[1]

singular dual plural
1st person ŋa⁵² i³³tsai⁵² i³³sɪm³³
2nd person naŋ⁵² la³³tsaɪ⁵² la³³sɪm³³
3rd person ta³³pau⁵² tʃaʊ³³ɲɪt³³ tʃaʊ³³la³³

Lexicon

Below are some Swadesh list items for Wui as provided in Coupe (2023).[2]

Gloss Wui
I ŋa⁵²
you (sg.) nâŋ
we i³³tsaɪ⁵²
this tʃaʊ⁵²
that kʰɔ⁵²
who? siʊ⁵²
what? kaʊ⁵⁵tɔ⁵²
all tɛ³³la³³pʊm⁵²
many paŋ⁵²nɛ³³
one kʰaʔ³³
two a³³ɲɪt³³
big ta⁵⁵waʔ³³
long ʃi⁵⁵nɛ³³
small a³³laŋ⁵²
woman tʰa³³ɲu³³lia⁵²
man ta³³pu³³lia⁵²
person maiʔ⁵⁵
fish tha³³ŋɔʔ⁵⁵
bird u³³lia⁵²
dog haɪ⁵²
louse tʃʰɪ⁵⁵paɪ⁵²
tree sɪn⁵²
seed tʃaɪʔ³³
leaf taʊ³³ɔ⁵²
root ta³³lɪn³³
bark siŋ³³kʊap³³
skin tsak³³kʊap³³
flesh ta³³ma³³tɪn⁵⁵
blood tʰaɪʔ³³
bone tă³³lɪt³³
grease ta³³sɛ⁵²
egg vɛ⁵⁵la⁵⁵tai³³
horn ta³³la³³tʃaɪ⁵⁵
tail ta³³la³³ma⁵⁵
hair tă³³kɛ³³ɲɪm³³
head tă³³kɛ⁵²
ear nʉ³³pʉ³³
eye ɲit³³tsaŋ³¹
nose thă³³no³³
mouth tha³³ɔ⁵²
tooth pʰɔ⁵²
tongue ma³³la⁵²
fingernail mă³³lɪn⁵²
foot mă³³pʰɔ⁵²
knee ma³³kʰɔk³³
hand kʰɛt³³
belly han⁵²
neck ʉ⁵²
breasts la³³ɲʉʔ³³
heart tă³³ŋi³³la³³sa⁵²
drink ʉʔ⁵⁵
eat tsɔ⁵⁵jaʔ⁵²
bite ma³³kăk⁵²
see a³³tsaʊ⁵⁵pɛʔ³³
know ma³³tat³³
sleep ip³³
die tă³³saɪ³³wa⁵²
kill ta³³lɛ³³sat⁵⁵
swim tɛɪ³³ la³³tʰak⁵⁵
walk a³³pɪaŋ⁵⁵pɛʔ³¹
come lɔʔ³³
sit nuɪʔ⁵⁵
stand jap³³
give lɛ⁵⁵paɪʔ³³
say hɔʔ³³
sun ja⁵⁵ŋaɪ⁵⁵
moon ɔ⁵²
star tʃɪ⁵⁵nɛ⁵⁵
water taɪ⁵²
rain tɪn³³taɪ⁵²
stone loŋ⁵²
earth la³³la³³
cloud la³³ma⁵²
smoke ma³³ma³³kʰaʊʔ⁵⁵
fire ma⁵²
ash laʊ⁵⁵ʊt⁵⁵
path lam⁵²
white ma³³ŋi⁵²
night tsi³³ɪn³³
full lɛ⁵⁵ta⁵⁵tʃɪ̰n³³
name ɲɪn⁵²

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Coupe, Alexander R. (2023). Preliminary Report on Wui: An Undocumented Language of Eastern Nagaland. 56th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, 10-12 October 2023. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.
  2. ^ a b Coupe, Alexander R. (2023). "Swadesh 100 list comparisons – Wui v. Aoic & Patsho Khiamniungan". Supplementary material in Preliminary Report on Wui: An Undocumented Language of Eastern Nagaland. 56th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, 10-12 October 2023. Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.