Hmar
Manmasi, Sinlung, Mar
Pronunciation[m̥a]
Native toIndia
RegionMizoram, Manipur, Assam, Tripura, and Meghalaya
EthnicityHmar
Native speakers
2,17,021[1]
Early forms
Manmasi
  • Nelachal
    • Tukbemsawm
Latin
Official status
Official language in
India
Recognised minority
language in
Assam, Manipur, Mizoram and Meghalaya
Language codes
ISO 639-3hmr
Glottologhmar1241
ELPHmar

The Hmar language or Khawsak ṭawng belongs to the Kukish branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. The speakers of the language are also known as Hmar. According to the official 2011 Census of India, there are 29,268 Hmar/Khawsak speakers in Assam, 48,375 in Manipur, 1,700 in Meghalaya, 18,587 in Mizoram although Majority of the Hmars in Mizoram speak Duhlian (Mizo).

Hmar/Khawsak is a recognised language in the School curriculum of Assam, Manipur and Mizoram, and also recently recognised as one of the Modern Indian Language (MIL) at Manipur University. Board of Secondary Education, Assam has also included Hmar(Khawsak dialect) as an MIL in its matriculation syllabus from 2005. Both Manipur University and Assam University, Silchar has also permitted Khawsak Hmar language to be studied as Modern Indian Language in the Graduation level.

Geographical distribution

Khawsak dialect of Hmar is spoken in the following locations

Since Hmar speakers are scattered over a vast area in Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Chittagong Hill tracts, North Carolina Hills and Cachar district of Assam state and Myanmar, there appears to be slight dialectal distinction. There is no homogeneous settlement of Hmar speakers alone.[citation needed] In Manipur, Hmar exhibits partial mutual intelligibility with the other Kukish dialects of the area including Thadou, Paite, Vaiphei, Simte, Kom and Gangte languages.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. ^ Singh, Chungkham Yashawanta (1995). "The linguistic situation in Manipur" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 18 (1): 129–134. Retrieved 19 June 2014.