Hmar
Manmasi, Sinlung, Mar
Pronunciation[m̥ar]
Native toIndia
RegionMizoram, Manipur, Assam, Tripura, and Meghalaya
EthnicityHmar
Native speakers
98,988[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3hmr
Glottologhmar1241
ELPHmar

The Hmar language belongs to the Mizo language branch of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. The speakers of this language use Mizo language as their second language (L2).[2][3][4]

Hmar is a recognised language in the School curriculum of Assam, Manipur and Mizoram, and also recently recognised as one of the Modern Indian Language (MIL) at Manipur University. Board of Secondary Education, Assam has also included Hmar as an MIL in its matriculation syllabus from 2005. Both Manipur University and Assam University, Silchar has also permitted Khawsak Hmar language to be studied as Modern Indian Language in the Graduation level.[citation needed]

Geographical distribution

Khawsak dialect of Hmar is spoken in the following locations

Since Hmar speakers are scattered over a vast area in Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Chittagong Hill tracts, North Carolina Hills and Cachar district of Assam state and Myanmar, there appears to be slight dialectal distinction. There is no homogeneous settlement of Hmar speakers alone.[citation needed] In Manipur, Hmar exhibits partial mutual intelligibility with the other Kukish dialects of the area including Thadou, Paite, Aimol, Vaiphei, Simte, Kom and Gangte languages.[5]

References

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Meitei | Ethnologue". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  3. ^ "Did you know Hmar is vulnerable?". Endangered Languages. Retrieved 31 July 2023. ... Hmar speakers of Manipur use Manipuri while Assamese and Bengali are used in Assam. Ethnic Hmars living in Mizoram speak Mizo as their first language....
  4. ^ Lisam, Khomdan Singh (2011). Encyclopaedia Of Manipur (3 Vol.). p. 561. ISBN 978-81-7835-864-2. ... They speak Hmar language and converse well in Manipuri (Meiteilon) ...((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  5. ^ Singh, Chungkham Yashawanta (1995). "The linguistic situation in Manipur" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 18 (1): 129–134. Retrieved 19 June 2014.