Dima Hasao district
Barail Range in Dima Hasao
Barail Range in Dima Hasao
Location in Assam
Location in Assam
Coordinates: 25°11′N 93°02′E / 25.18°N 93.03°E / 25.18; 93.03
Country India
StateAssam
DivisionCentral Assam
District created2 February 1970
HeadquartersHaflong
Government
 • TypeAutonomous district
 • BodyDima Hasao Autonomous Council
 • Chief Executive MemberDebolal Gorlosa, BJP
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesAutonomous District (shared with Karbi Anglong & West Karbi Anglong district)
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesHaflong
Area
 • Total4,890 km2 (1,890 sq mi)
 • Rank2
Elevation
513 m (1,683 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total214,102
 • Density43.667/km2 (113.10/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialEnglish
 • Most spokenSee § Languages
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
788XXX
Telephone code91 - (0) 03673
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
Vehicle registrationAS-08
Websitedimahasao.assam.gov.in

Dima Hasao district (IPA: [ˈdɪmə həˈsaʊ]), is an administrative district in the state of Assam, India. As of 2011, it is the least populous district of Assam.[1] [2]

Dima Hasao district is one of two autonomous hill districts of Assam. The district headquarters Haflong is the only hill station in the state.

Etymology

"Dima Hasao" means "Dimasa Hills" in the Dimasa language.[3]

History

Medieval period

During the medieval period (1500–1854), Dima Hasao was part of the Dimasa Kingdom, with its capital at Maibang and Dimapur.[4][5][6] The Dimasa Kingdom as per Ahom Buranji, stretched from the Kopili river in present-day Nagaon district to the Dhansiri river in present-day Golaghat district. This includes parts of Cachar and North Cachar (Dima Hasao), the districts of Hojai, Nagaon, Golaghat and Karbi Anglong of Assam and Dimapur district, in Nagaland.[7][8]

Colonial period

Tularam Senapati's territory depicted in the map of British India created by W. G. Blackie in 1860
Map of Eastern Bengal and Assam created by J. G. Bartholomew in 1907. A part of Tularam's territory (stretching from Jamuna river to Lumding) was transferred to Sivasagar district and the rest (stretching from Lumding to Maibang) was transferred to Cachar district.

In the colonial period, Khaspur in present-day Cachar district was the administrative centre. However an internal schism led to the division of the old Cachar Kingdom into two parts. The last Dimasa king, Govinda Chandra Hasnusa, assigned Kashi Chandra the hilly tract of Cachar (i.e. the area between Mahur river and the Naga Hills in the south, the Doyang river on the west, the Dhansiri River on the east and Jamuna river in the north.) for administrative purposes. Soon the latter declared his independence over the hilly portion. That led to the treacherous murder of Kashi Chandra by Raja Govinda Chandra Hasnusa.[citation needed] Incensed, the son of Kashi Chandra, Tularam Senapati, incessantly created political turbulence, asserting his sovereignty over hilly portion of Cachar Kingdom. Finally, with British assistance, Tularam succeeded in carving out his own territory from Cachar Kingdom. David Scott, agent to the British Raj in 1829[9] made an arrangement to recognise Tularam as the ruler of hilly tract of Cachar. In 1850, Tularam died and the frequent Angami raids and a grave incident at Semkhor village paved the ground to extend British influence over Tularam's territory. In 1852, his territory was annexed and made part of the Nowgong district of British Assam as a subdivision, with Asalu as its headquarter.[10][Note 1][11][12]

In 1866, this sub-division was abolished and apportioned into three parts among the Cachar, Naga Hills district, and Nowgong district. The present area of the Dima Hasao district was included in the old Cachar district.[13][14] In 1880, this portion was constituted into a sub-division with headquarters at Gunjung under Cachar district.[11] This headquarters was shifted to Haflong in 1895. Since then, Haflong continued to be the headquarters till 1951.[11]

Since Indian independence

On 17 November 1951, United Mikir and North Cachar Hills District was created with area occupying present-day Dima Hasao district, Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong district.[3][15] On 2 February 1970, the government declared an independent administrative district, viz., North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council.[3] The council possesses administrative control over almost all departments of the district except police and Law and Order.[3][16]

Geography

The district headquarters are located at Haflong. Dima Hasao district occupies an area of 4,888 square kilometres (1,887 sq mi),[17] It is the second-largest district of Assam after Karbi Anglong.[18][19] Dima Hasao District is surrounded by Karbi Anglong district and Nagaland on the northeast, Manipur on the east, Hojai District to the north, West Karbi Anglong district on the northwest, Meghalaya on the west and Cachar district in the south.[20]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
190140,812—    
191127,296−3.94%
192128,913+0.58%
193132,844+1.28%
194137,361+1.30%
195139,663+0.60%
196154,319+3.19%
197176,047+3.42%
1991150,801+3.48%
2001188,079+2.23%
2011214,102+1.30%
source:[21]

Population

According to the 2011 census, Dima Hasao had a population of 214,102, giving it a ranking of 588th in India (out of a total of 640). The district had a population density of 44 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.53%. Dima Hasao had a sex ratio of 931 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 78.99%.[1]

Ethnic groups

Dima Hasao is one of the three hill districts in Assam with a tribal majority population, the others being Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong.[3] The tribal population in Dima Hasao accounts for about 70.92% of the total population of the district according to the 2011 census, the highest percentage in the state. Scheduled Castes are 2.02%.[18] The major tribal communities inhabiting the district are Dimasa Kachari, Zeme Naga, Hmar, Kuki, Karbi, Khasi, Hrangkhol, Biate and few others.[22][3] Non-tribal communities includes Bengalis, Nepalis, Hindi-speakers and few other communities who have made the district their home.[22]

As per the language data, the largest non-tribal communities are Bengalis (25,264: change of -7.53% from 2001), Nepalis (13,615: +9.76%), Hindi speakers (9,926: +13.83%), Assamese speakers (4,057: -26.32%), Halam(Ranglong)-Kuki/Khelma/Riam (1,940 : +15.41%), Bodo-Kachari (1,604 : -7.82%), Meitei (1,373 : -24.64%), Tripuri (527: -21.11%), and Bishnupriya (401: -14.32%).[22]

Religions in Dima Hasao district (2011)[23]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
67.07%
Christianity
29.57%
Islam
2.04%
Others (Tribal religion)
0.55%
Other or not stated
0.77%

As of the 2011 census, 67.07% of the population are Hindus, 29.57% Christians and 2.04% Muslims.[23]

Ethnic Group Decadal
growth rate
2001[24] 2011[25] Religion (2001) Religion (2011)
Total +13.83% 188,079 214,102 Hindu - 69.91% Hindu - 67.07%
Dimasa +14.83% 64,881 74,502 Hindu - 98.73% Hindu - 99.19%
Kuki +43.69% 16,757 24,079 Christian - 91.98%, Hindu - 7.56% Christian - 93.17%, Hindu - 6.03%
Naga +21.98% 17,078 20,832 Christian - 52.20%, Hindu - 43.72%, Animist - 3.43% Christian - 53.67%, Hindu - 40.46%, Animist - 5.14%
Hmar +8.7% 13,863 15,070 Christian - 98.71% Christian - 99.18%
Karbi +16.59% 7,973 9,296 Hindu - 63.18%, Christian - 36.52% Hindu - 50.77%, Christian - 48.69%
Khasi +17.89% 3,157 3,722 Christian - 95.31% Christian - 96.94%
Smaller tribes -8.6% 4,719 4,342 Christian - 59.00%, Hindu - 38.12% Christian - 62.92%, Hindu - 34.94%
Non-tribal +3.41% 59,651 61,686 Hindu - 86.57%, Muslim - 7.34%, Christian - 4.57% Hindu - 85.80%, Muslim - 6.50%, Christian - 5.57%

Languages

Languages of Dima Hasao (2011)[22]

  Dimasa (35.72%)
  Bengali (11.80%)
  Zeme (9.65%)
  Hmar (7.65%)
  Nepali (6.36%)
  Kuki (5.11%)
  Karbi (4.46%)
  Hindi (3.14%)
  Khasi (1.93%)
  Assamese (1.89%)
  Others (12.29%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 35.72% of the district spoke Dimasa, 11.80% Bengali, 9.65% Zeme, 7.65% Hmar, 6.36% Nepali, 5.11% Kuki, 4.46% Karbi, 3.14% Hindi, 1.93% Khasi, 1.89% Assamese.[22]

Government and politics

Politics

Main article: Dima Hasao Autonomous Council

Dima Hasao district is an autonomous district with Sixth Schedule status granted by the Constitution of India. The Dima Hasao District is administered by Dima Hasao Autonomous Council (DHADC). Members of the Autonomous Council (MAC) are elected by people of Dima Hasao. The Political party who has majority MACs form the ruling party. The Autonomous Council is a powerful body and almost all the department of government are under its control except the police and Law & Order is under Assam Government.[3]

Administration

Dima Hasao comprises three subdivisions: Haflong, Maibang, and Diyungbra. The district consists of five Community Development Blocks: Jatinga Valley, Mahur; Diyung Valley, Maibang; Harangajao ITD Block, Harangajao; Diyungbra ITD Block, Diyungmukh; and New Sangbar, Sangbar.[26]

Economy

In 2006, the Indian government named Dima Hasao one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[27]

Energy

Kopili Hydro Electric Project is a power project near Umrangso, involving two dams on Kopili river and Umrong nalla, a tributary of Kopili. There are two power stations as part of Kopili HEP, Khandong Stage I & II (75 MW) and Kopili Stage I & II (200 MW), with total output of 275 MW.[28]

Tourism

The village Jatinga is known for mysterious 'suicide of birds', between the months of September and November.[11][29] Large number of tourists visit that time of the year to witness the phenomenon.[11]

The town of Maibang is notable for its rock-cut temple carved out of a single black sandstone in triangular dimension. It houses the Hindu goddess Ranachandi or Mahamaya.[11]

Education

Average literacy rate of Dima Hasao in 2011 were 77.54% compared to 67.62% of 2001. All schools of Dima Hasao are run by the state government or private organisations. English is the primary languages of instruction in most of the schools. The schools are recognised either by the Board of Secondary Education, Assam, the Assam Higher Secondary Education Council, or the Central Board of Secondary Education. All Dima Hasao colleges are affiliated to Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams.

College

Schools

Media

Television

Channel Year founded Language Owned by Ref
NDH (News Dima Hasao) Dimasa, Hindi, English Zed Nunisa [1]
Assam Talks Assamese Mahmadhul Hussan
News Live Assamese Ashim Choudhury
News Time Assam Assamese Anup Biswas
Prag News Assamese Sanjib Dutta
DY365 Assamese Samsul Alam
NKTV Assamese Pankaj Kumar Deb
Hills Live TV
Borail News
Karbi Anglong Live English and Karbi Suroj Barman
Pratidin Times Assamese Pankaj Tumung

Radio

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the given article published by Eastern Mirror, it has not been mentioned which area had been annexed to the Nowgong district as a subdivision in 1852. But, since Asalu has historically been a part of Tularam's territory, it can be implied that the same territory was annexed to the Nowgong district.

References

  1. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Dima Hasao" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  2. ^ "District at a Glance | Dima Hasao District | Government of Assam, India".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Dimahasao District - NC Hills Autonomous Council". Government Of Assam, India. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  4. ^ Shin 2020, p. 64.
  5. ^ Shin 2020, p. 70.
  6. ^ Bhattacharjee 1987, p. 222.
  7. ^ Ramirez 2007, p. 93.
  8. ^ Phukan 1992, p. 57.
  9. ^ Rhodes, NG & Bose, SK. (2006) History of the Dimasa -Kachari As seen Through the coinage. Mira Bose: Dhubri (Assam).
  10. ^ "Historical Demarcation of Nagaland-Assam Border - Eastern Mirror". easternmirrornagaland.com. 29 September 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Assam Information. Directorate of Information & Public Relations. 1981. pp. 47–50.
  12. ^ Stewart, Lieutenant R. "Notes on Northern Cachar (1855).
  13. ^ Prakash, Col Ved (2007). Encyclopaedia of North-East India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 268,269. ISBN 978-81-269-0703-8.
  14. ^ Gait, Edward Albert (9 January 2024). A History of Assam. Thacker, Spink & Company. p. 307.
  15. ^ "District Profile of Karbi Anglong". Government Of Assam, India. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  16. ^ Johari, Binali. "Administrative Structure". North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  17. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti (2010). "States and Union Territories: Assam: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1116. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
  18. ^ a b "District Profile - Dimahasao District". Government Of Assam, India. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  19. ^ "Districts - Assam State Portal". assam.gov.in. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  20. ^ "Administrative Division Map of Assam (Census - 2011)". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  21. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  22. ^ a b c d e "Table C-16 Population By Mother Tongue: Assam". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  23. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population By Religion: Assam". census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2023.
  24. ^ "WELCOME TO CENSUS OF INDIA : Census India Library".
  25. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India".
  26. ^ "Dima Hasao District". North Cachar Hills - Government of Assam. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  27. ^ Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
  28. ^ "Kopili Hydro Electric Project". Water Resources Information System of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  29. ^ "The Valley of Death: Jatinga, the Assam village, where birds are 'suicidal'". Firstpost. 29 August 2023. Retrieved 8 November 2023.

Sources