Dima Hasao district
North Cachar Hills
|• Type||Autonomous district|
|• Body||Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council|
|• Chief Executive Member||Debolal Gorlosa|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Autonomous District (shared with Karbi Anglong & West Karbi Anglong district)|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituencies||Haflong|
|• Total||4,890 km2 (1,890 sq mi)|
|Elevation||513 m (1,683 ft)|
|• Density||43.667/km2 (113.10/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 - (0) 03673|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-AS|
|Most spoken language||Dimasa, Haflong Hindi (as langua franca)|
Dima Hasao district (IPA: [ˈdɪmə həˈsaʊ]), earlier called North Cachar Hills district, is an administrative district in the state of Assam, India. As of 2011, it is the least populous district of Assam. 
Dima Hasao district is one of the two Autonomous hill districts of the state of Assam. The district headquarter Haflong is the only hill station in Assam, a tourist paradise, also named the Switzerland of the north-east.
"Dima Hasao" means "Dimasa Hills" in the Dimasa language.
The earliest inhabitants of the present district were a Mongoloid stock of groups who prefer to stay atop hilly terrain and who practised their own culture, tradition and land rights governing themselves as independent tribes. As per records of different British historians and officials, North Cachar Hills was already occupied by the Dimasa Kacharis, erstwhile old Kuki tribes viz. Biate, Hrangkhol, Sakachep and Zeme Naga tribe during the British Rule in India.
During the medieval period (1500–1854), Dima Hasao was part of the Dimasa Kachari Kingdom called 'Cachar Kingdom' with its capital at Maibang. The Dimasa Kingdom as per Ahom Buranji, stretched from Kallang river in Nagaon to Kapili river that includes, parts from Cachar and North Cachar (Dima Hasao), the districts of Hojai, Nagaon, Golaghat and Karbi Anglong of Assam and Dimapur district, in Nagaland.
In the colonial period, Khaspur in present-day Cachar district, had been administrative centre. However internal schism led to division of old Cachar Kingdom into North Kachar and South Kachar. The last Dimasa king Govinda Chandra Hasnusa assigned Kashi Chandra the hilly tract of Cachar i.e. roughly Dima Hasao (North Kachar Kingdom) for administrative purpose. Soonerthe latter declared its independence over the hilly portion that lead to treacherous murder of Kashi Chandra by Raja Govinda Chandra Hasnusa. Incensed, the son of Kashi Chandra, Tularam incessantly created political turbulence asserting his sovereignty over hilly portion of Cachar Kingdom. Finally, with British assistance, Tularam succeeded in carving North Cachar Hills from Cachar Kingdom. David Scott agent to British Raj in 1829 made an arrangement to recognise Tularam as the ruler of North Cachar (Dima Hasao). In 1850s, Tularam died and the frequent Angami raids and grave incident at Semkhor village paved a ground to extend British influence over North Cachar. In 1853, North Cachar was annexed and made part of Nagaon district of British Assam as subdivision.
In 1867, this sub-division was abolished and apportioned into three parts among the Cachar, Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts, and Nagaon. The present Dima Hasao district, or formerly North Cachar Hills district was included in the old Cachar district with Asalu being only police outpost. In 1880, this portion was constituted into a sub-division with headquarters at Gunjung under Cachar district.
This headquarters was shifted to Haflong in 1895. Since then, Haflong has continued to be the headquarters. In 1951, after the adoption of the Indian constitution, North Cachar Hills ceased to be a part of Cachar district, as specified under paragraph 20 of the sixth schedule to the constitution. This part along with Mikir Hills constituted a new civil district named "United District of North Cachar and Mikir Hills", which went into effect on 17 November 1951. According to a provision of the sixth schedule, two different councils were constituted later on, viz., North Cachar Hills District Council and Mikir Hills District Council within the geographical boundary of that North Cachar Hills District Council was inaugurated on 19 April 1952.
On 17 November 1951, Mikir Hills and North Cachar Hills District was created with area occupying present Dima Hasao district, Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong district. On 2 February 1970, the government declared an independent administrative district, viz., North Cachar Hills District with the geographical boundary of autonomous North Cachar Hills district council. At present,[when?] this autonomous council possesses administrative control over almost all departments of the district except Law and Order, Administration, and Treasury department.
Dima Hasao comprises three subdivisions: (I) Haflong, (II) Maibang and (III) Diyungbra. The district consists of five Community Development Blocks: (I) Jatinga Valley Development Block, Mahur; (II) Diyung Valley Development Block, Maibang; (III) Harangajao ITD Block, Harangajao; (IV) Diyungbra ITD Block, Diyungmukh; and (V) New Sangbar Development Block, Sangbar. There is one municipality board viz. Haflong and three town committees in Dima Hasao viz. Mahur, Maibang and Umrangso and also mini-towns like Harangajao, Langting and Diyungbra.
The district headquarters are located at Haflong. Dima Hasao district occupies an area of 4,888 square kilometres (1,887 sq mi)., comparatively equivalent to Brazil's Ilha Grande do Gurupá. It is the second largest district of Assam after Karbi Anglong. Dima Hasao District is surrounded by Karbi Anglong district and Nagaland on North-East, Manipur on East, Hojai District on North, West Karbi Anglong district on North-West, Meghalaya on West and Cachar district on South.
Main article: North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council
Dima Hasao district is an autonomous district enjoying the Sixth Schedule status granted by the Constitution of India. The Dima Hasao District is administered by North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council (DHADC). Members of the Autonomous Council (MAC) are elected by people of Dima Hasao. The Political party who has majority MACs form the ruling party. The Autonomous Council is a powerful body and almost all the department of government are under its control except the police and Law & Order is under Assam Government.
In 2006, the Indian government named Dima Hasao one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the eleven districts in Assam currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Kopili Hydro Electric Project is a power project near Umrangso, involving two dams on Kopili river and Umrong nalla, a tributary of Kopili. There are two power stations as part of Kopili HEP, Khandong Stage I & II (75 MW) and Kopili Stage I & II (200 MW), with total output of 275 MW.
According to the 2011 census, Dima Hasao has a population of 214,102, roughly equal to the nation of Samoa. This gives it a ranking of 588th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 44 inhabitants per square kilometre (110/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 13.53%. Dima Hasao has a sex ratio of 931 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 78.99%.
Dima Hasao is one of the three hill districts in Assam with a tribal majority population, the others being Karbi Anglong and West Karbi Anglong. The tribal population in Dima Hasao accounting for about 70.92% of the total population of the district according to the 2011 census, the highest percentage in the state. Scheduled Castes are 2.02%. The major indigenous communities inhabiting the district are Dimasa Kachari, Karbi, Zeme Naga, Hmar, Biate and a number of minor indigenous communities including: Hrangkhol, Khasi-Pnars, Rongmei Naga, Khelma and Vaiphei. The Kuki, Hmar, Biate, Hrangkhol and Vaiphei language speakers belong to the Kuki-Chin ethnic group. Non-indigenous communities includes Kanrupi Bengali, Gorkha tribes, Deshwali tribes and few other communities who have made the district their home.
As per the language data, the largest non-tribal communities are Bengalis (25,264: change of -7.53% from 2001), Nepalis (13,615: +9.76%), Hindi speakers (9,926: +13.83%), Assamese speakers (4,057: -26.32%), Halam-Kuki/Khelma/Riam (1,940 : +15.41%), Bodo-Kachari (1,604 : -7.82%), Meitei (1,373 : -24.64%), Tripuri (527: -21.11%), and Bishnupriya (401: -14.32%).
As of the 2011 census, 67.07% of the population are Hindus, 29.57% Christians and 2.04% Muslims.
|2001||2011||Religion (2001)||Religion (2011)|
|Total||+13.83%||188,079||214,102||Hindu - 69.91%||Hindu - 67.07%|
|Dimasa||+14.83%||64,881||74,502||Hindu - 98.73%||Hindu - 99.19%|
|Kuki||+43.69%||16,757||24,079||Christian - 91.98%, Hindu - 7.56%||Christian - 93.17%, Hindu - 6.03%|
|Naga||+21.98%||17,078||20,832||Christian - 52.20%, Hindu - 43.72%, Animist - 3.43%||Christian - 53.67%, Hindu - 40.46%, Animist - 5.14%|
|Hmar||+8.7%||13,863||15,070||Christian - 98.71%||Christian - 99.18%|
|Karbi||+16.59%||7,973||9,296||Hindu - 63.18%, Christian - 36.52%||Hindu - 50.77%, Christian - 48.69%|
|Khasi||+17.89%||3,157||3,722||Christian - 95.31%||Christian - 96.94%|
|Smaller tribes||-8.6%||4,719||4,342||Christian - 59.00%, Hindu - 38.12%||Christian - 62.92%, Hindu - 34.94%|
|Non-tribal||+3.41%||59,651||61,686||Hindu - 86.57%, Muslim - 7.34%, Christian - 4.57%||Hindu - 85.80%, Muslim - 6.50%, Christian - 5.57%|
At the time of the 2011 census, 35.72% of the district spoke Dimasa, 11.8% Bengali, 9.65% Zeme, 7.65% Hmar, 6.36% Nepali, 5.11% Kuki, 4.46% Karbi, 3.14% Hindi, 1.93% Khasi and 1.89% Assamese as their first language.
Dimasa and Haflong Hindi (a speech form of Hindi) are the main lingua franca in the Dima Hasao.
Dima Hasao District is a land of sensuousness. The district is populated by various tribes and races who maintain their own dialect, culture, customs and way of living. Apart from various tribes, non-tribals also account for a sizable amount of the population. They are mostly government employees, traders, graziers living in urban and semi-urban area. The small and serene villages shelter the lovely people – warm and fascinating – and as colourful as the land itself.
The district is home to Dimasa Kacharis, Zeme Naga, Hmars, Kukis, Biates, Hrangkhol.
Judima is a very important brew made by Dimasa tribals used in ceremonies and festivals is very famous in this region. In sept 2021, Judima got GI tag by Government of India making it the first bree in northeastern part of India to bag this title.
Average literacy rate of Dima Hasao in 2011 were 77.54% compared to 67.62% of 2001. All schools of Dima Hasao are run by the state government or private organisations. English is the primary languages of instruction in most of the schools. The schools are recognised either with Board of Secondary Education, Assam (SEBA), Assam Higher Secondary Education Council (AHSEC) or Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All Colleges of Dima Hasao are affiliated to Assam University, a central university, which imparts education in both the general as well as professional streams.
Prominent schools in the district:
|Channel||Year founded||Language||Owned by||Ref|
|NDH (News Dima Hasao)||Dimasa Hindi English||Zed Nunisa|||
|Assam Talks||Assamese||Mahmadhul Hussan|
|News Live||Assamese||Ashim Choudhury|
|News Time Assam||Assamese||Anup Biswas|
|Prag News||Assamese||Sanjib Dutta|
|NKTV||Assamese||Pankaj Kumar Deb|
|Hills Live TV|
|Karbi Anglong Live||English and Karbi||Suroj Barman|
|Pratidin Times||Assamese||Pankaj Tumung|
Ilha Grande do Gurupá 4,864km2