India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 28 states and 8 union territories.[1] All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[2] Their structure has since remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts.

The legislatures of three states Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttarakhand meet in different capitols for their summer and winter sessions. Ladakh has both Leh and Kargil as its administrative capitols.

List

The state and union territory capitols are sorted according to administrative, legislative and judicial capitols. The administrative capitol is where the executive government offices are located.

States

State Administrative/
Executive capitol
Legislative capitol Judicial capitol Year of
establishment
Former capitol
Andhra Pradesh Amaravati Amaravati Amaravati 2017 Hyderabad[a](1956–2017)
Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Itanagar Guwahati 1987  —
Assam Dispur Dispur Guwahati 1972 Shillong[b] (1950–1972)
Bihar Patna Patna Patna 1950  —
Chhattisgarh Raipur[c] Raipur Bilaspur 2000  —
Goa Panaji[d] Porvorim Mumbai 1987  —
Gujarat Gandhinagar Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1970 Ahmedabad (1960–1970)
Haryana Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
Himachal Pradesh Shimla Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[5]
Shimla 1971  —
Jharkhand Ranchi Ranchi Ranchi 2000  —
Karnataka Bangalore Bangalore (Summer)
Belgaum (Winter)
Bangalore 1956  —
Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram Ernakulam 1956  —
Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Bhopal Jabalpur 1956  —
Maharashtra Mumbai[e] Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)
Mumbai 1960  —
Manipur Imphal Imphal Imphal 1972  —
Meghalaya Shillong Shillong Shillong 1972  —
Mizoram Aizawl Aizawl Guwahati 1987  —
Nagaland Kohima Kohima Guwahati 1963  —
Odisha Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Cuttack 1950
Punjab Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966  —
Rajasthan Jaipur Jaipur Jodhpur 1950  —
Sikkim Gangtok[f] Gangtok Gangtok 1975  —
Tamil Nadu Chennai[g] Chennai Chennai 1956  —
Telangana Hyderabad Hyderabad Hyderabad 2014  —
Tripura Agartala Agartala Agartala 1972  —
Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Lucknow Prayagraj 1950  —
Uttarakhand Dehradun Bhararisain (summer)[7]
Dehradun (winter)
Nainital 2000  —
West Bengal Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata 1950  —

Union territories

Union Territory Administrative/
Executive capitol
Legislative capitol Judicial capitol Year of
establishment
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair Kolkata 1956
Chandigarh Chandigarh Chandigarh 1966
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman Mumbai 2020
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
2019
Ladakh Leh (summer)
Kargil (winter)
Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
2019
Lakshadweep Kavaratti Ernakulam 1956
Delhi New Delhi New Delhi New Delhi 1956
Puducherry Pondicherry Pondicherry Chennai 1951

Notes

  1. ^ Hyderabad is de jure joint capital of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana until 2024.
  2. ^ Shillong was the joint capitol of Assam and Meghalaya until 1972.[3]
  3. ^ Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capitol city of Chhattisgarh.
  4. ^ Panaji was the capitol of Goa from 1843 when it was ruled by the Portuguese.[4]
  5. ^ Mumbai (Bombay) was the capitol of Bombay Presidency which was a province until 1950. After that Bombay became the capital of Bombay State. Subsequently, Bombay State was split into Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960.
  6. ^ Gangtok has been the capitol of Sikkim since 1890. Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union in 1975.[6]
  7. ^ Chennai (Madras) was the capitol of the Madras Presidency since 1839, which was redrawn as Madras State in 1956. Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1968.

Citations

  1. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir bifurcated: India has one less state, gets two new UTs in J&K, Ladakh". India Today. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ Sharma 2007, p. 49.
  3. ^ Baruah 1999, p. xiii.
  4. ^ Ring 1996, p. 288.
  5. ^ "Dharamshala Declared Second Capital of Himachal". www.hillpost.in. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  6. ^ Spate 1953, p. 200.
  7. ^ "Bhararisain declared as summer capital of Uttarakhand". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 24 November 2021.

References