Aizawl
Aijal
Clockwise from top: aerial view of Aizawl at night, Solomon's Temple, AR Ground Stadium, terminal of Lengpui Airport, Aizawl Theological College, Aizawl at day
Nickname(s): 
Zofate Jerusalem[1]
"The Jerusalem of the Zo people"
Zawlkhawpui[2]
"The zawl capital"
Aizawl is located in Mizoram
Aizawl
Aizawl
Location of Aizawl in India
Aizawl is located in India
Aizawl
Aizawl
Aizawl (India)
Aizawl is located in Asia
Aizawl
Aizawl
Aizawl (Asia)
Coordinates: 23°43′38″N 92°43′04″E / 23.72722°N 92.71778°E / 23.72722; 92.71778
Country India
StateMizoram
DistrictAizawl
Government
 • BodyAizawl Municipal Corporation
 • MayorLalrinênga Sailo (MNF)
Area
 • Total129.91 km2 (50.16 sq mi)
Elevation
1,132 m (3,714 ft)
Population
 (2024)
 • Total405,000[3]
 • Rank1st in Mizoram
 • Density2,253/km2 (5,840/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialMizo and English
 • Additional  Spokenother Kukish languages, Nepali, Bengali.
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
796001
Telephone code0389
Vehicle registrationMZ-01
Sex ratio1025 females per 1000 males /[4]
ClimateCwa
Literacy98.36%[4]

Aizawl (English: /ˈzɔːl/;[5] Mizo: [ˈaɪ̯.ˈzɔːl] ), formerly known as Aijal, is the capital city and the most populous city of Mizoram, India.[6] It is also the fourth largest city in northeast India after Agartala and Imphal.[7][8] It is situated atop a series of ridges, with an average elevation of around 1,132 metres (3,714 feet) above sea level.[9] In 2024, the city has an estimated population of 405,000 people.[10][11]

Etymology

The word Aizawl is a combination of two Mizo words: "ai" meaning "cardamom" and "zawl" meaning "flatland" or "plain." Therefore, "Aizawl" could roughly translate to "the field of cardamom." This name may have historical significance or could refer to the characteristics of the area before urbanisation.[12]

History

Pre-colonialism (before 1889)

In 1871–72, Kalkhama (recorded by the British as Kalkhom), a Mizo Chief, exhibited disorderly behavior, prompting the British to establish an outpost. This outpost, initially founded by Suakpuilala, the Chief of Reiek, later evolved into Aizawl village. Situated a mere 14 kilometress from Sairang and accessible via flat-bottomed boats, it served as a strategic location, with the Li Bial stream.[13]

Colonial Aijal (1889-1948)

In 1889, Officer Dally of the Assam Police, accompanied by 400 men, arrived in Aizawl village to assist Colonel Skinner's troops during a British military operation against the Mizo natives. Aizawl was subsequently chosen as the site for a fortified post on Dally's recommendation, leading Colonel Skinner to oversee its construction. The troops erected stockades and other essential structures, establishing a significant military presence in the area. In the same year, Fort Aijal was established, a small village that became the capital of British administration in North Lushai Hills.[14]

Aijal was formally established on 25 February 1890 as Fort Aijal.[15]

Aizawl swiftly emerged as the administrative and religious hub for the Mizos, following the establishment of the Welsh Mission Society headquarters in the city. This led to a surge in population as Aizawl Bazar evolved into the primary commercial center of the Lushai Hills region.[14]

Contemporary Aizawl (1948-present)

Capital of Mizo District, Assam, India (1948-1972)

The once modest village, situated on a level hilltop, underwent rapid expansion, transforming into a rugged and uneven settlement. The intensification of the Mautam famine in the late 1950s prompted an influx of people seeking sustenance and opportunities, further fueling Aizawl's growth. Nearby villages like Chaltlang and Durtlang soon became absorbed into the expanding urban landscape, marking the transition of Aizawl into a modern cityscape by the early 1960s.[16]

1966 Mizo National Front Uprising

The expansion of Aizawl came to an abrupt halt in the mid-1960s due to the turmoil caused by the Mizo Independence Movement, spearheaded by the Mizo National Front (MNF), which engaged in open conflict with the Government of India. However, a pivotal and tragic event unfolded in Aizawl in March 1965, marking a dark chapter in its history. In an effort to suppress the MNF's advances, the Government of India launched a devastating bombardment of Aizawl and its surrounding areas, resulting in significant loss of life. By this point, Aizawl had already been largely evacuated, with many seeking refuge in the nearby jungle. This unprecedented act of the Indian government, to conduct airstrikes in its own territory in urban areas, remains the first in Indian history.[16][17]

Capital of Mizoram Union Territory (1972-1987)

Aizawl continued to be the capital of Mizoram after gaining the status of Union Territory. The UT status provided opportunities for economic growth and development in Aizawl. The city emerged as a key commercial and trade centre in the region, with Burmese ethnic Chin immigrants seeking better job opportunities in Aizawl.[18]

Capital of State of Mizoram (1987-present)

Aizawl in the 2000s

Statehood provided Aizawl with enhanced access to resources, funding, and developmental schemes from the central government. This facilitated the implementation of ambitious infrastructure projects, such as Lengpui Airport, educational initiatives, healthcare programs, and poverty alleviation measures aimed at fostering socio-economic growth and improving the quality of life for its citizens.

Geography

Aizawl is located in north of the Tropic of Cancer in the northern part of Mizoram. It is situated on a ridge 1,132 metres (3715 ft) above sea level, with the Tlawng river valley to its west and the Tuirial river valley to its east.[19]

Civic Administration

Aizawl city

The Aizawl Municipal Corporation is the authority of civic administration of Aizawl city.[20] It was formed in 2010 with 19 Members when the Congress-ZNP party coalition was voted to power in the state legislative assembly. The AMC office is being administered by one council chairman, Vice-chairman and three executive members.[21] It consists of 19 elected members representing 19 wards of the city and others appointed by the Governor of Mizoram. One-third of the total membership is reserved for women, these six seats shall be rotated after every five years.[citation needed] The tenure of the council is five years. There is a Ward Committee in every ward that consists of a chairman, who is an elected councillor from that ward, and two members each from all the local council within the ward. There are 78 local councils having a term of five years.[22]

Demographics

Religion in Aizawl City (2011)
Religion Percentage
Christianity
93.63%
Hinduism
4.14%
Islam
1.52%
Buddhism
0.45%
Not Stated
0.11%
Others
0.09%
Sikhism
0.03%
Jainism
0.02%

As of 1910, there were 777 army personnel in Aizawl from different parts of North India as well as Nepal. The Gurkha's among the soldiers eventually settled in Aizawl.[23]

As of the 2011 Census of India,[24] Aizawl had a population of 293,416. Females constitute 50.61% of the population and males made up the remaining 49.39%. Mizos from various tribes make up the majority of the population. Christianity forms majority of the city population about 93.63%.[4] Other minority religions include Hinduism 4.14%, Islam 1.52%, Buddhism 0.45%, Others 0.09%, Sikhism 0.03% and Jainism 0.02%.[4] and 0.11% of peoples did not state their religion.[4] [needs update]

Climate

Aizawl has a mild, sub-tropical climate due to its location and elevation. Under the Köppen climate classification, Aizawl features a humid subtropical climate (Cwa). In summer, temperatures are moderately warm, averaging around 20–30 °C (68–86 °F). In winter, daytime temperatures are cooler in comparison to the rest of the year, averaging around 11–21 °C (52–70 °F).[25]

Climate data for Aizawl (1981–2010, extremes 1973–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
33.8
(92.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.5
(95.9)
34.2
(93.6)
33.6
(92.5)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91.0)
28.5
(83.3)
35.5
(95.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
24.4
(75.9)
27.6
(81.7)
28.7
(83.7)
28.0
(82.4)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
26.9
(80.4)
23.5
(74.3)
26.4
(79.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
13.3
(55.9)
16.5
(61.7)
17.7
(63.9)
19.1
(66.4)
19.9
(67.8)
20.0
(68.0)
20.4
(68.7)
19.9
(67.8)
19.1
(66.4)
16.2
(61.2)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
Record low °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
7.3
(45.1)
9.6
(49.3)
11.7
(53.1)
12.2
(54.0)
15.2
(59.4)
12.0
(53.6)
16.2
(61.2)
16.7
(62.1)
13.5
(56.3)
10.0
(50.0)
8.0
(46.4)
6.1
(43.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.2
(0.36)
24.6
(0.97)
81.3
(3.20)
150.6
(5.93)
306.1
(12.05)
284.7
(11.21)
329.1
(12.96)
338.7
(13.33)
321.1
(12.64)
176.8
(6.96)
52.1
(2.05)
15.9
(0.63)
2,092
(82.36)
Average rainy days 0.7 2.1 4.3 8.2 13.6 17.0 18.7 19.0 14.9 9.5 2.7 0.9 111.4
Source: India Meteorological Department[26][27]
Aizawl
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
13
 
 
20
11
 
 
23
 
 
22
13
 
 
73
 
 
25
16
 
 
168
 
 
27
18
 
 
289
 
 
26
18
 
 
406
 
 
26
19
 
 
320
 
 
25
19
 
 
321
 
 
26
19
 
 
305
 
 
26
19
 
 
184
 
 
25
18
 
 
43
 
 
23
15
 
 
15
 
 
21
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.5
 
 
69
53
 
 
0.9
 
 
71
55
 
 
2.9
 
 
77
60
 
 
6.6
 
 
80
64
 
 
11
 
 
79
65
 
 
16
 
 
78
66
 
 
13
 
 
78
66
 
 
13
 
 
78
66
 
 
12
 
 
78
67
 
 
7.2
 
 
76
64
 
 
1.7
 
 
73
59
 
 
0.6
 
 
70
54
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Transport

Air

Lengpui Airport

Aizawl is connected by air transport through Lengpui Airport which it is situated near Aizawl.[28] The airport provides connectivity to Kolkata, Delhi, Guwahati, Agartala, Shillong and Imphal, operated by Air India, Go First and IndiGo. A helicopter service by Pawan Hans[29] was started in 2012 and connects the city with Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha, Chawngte, Serchhip, Champhai, Kolasib, Khawzawl, Ngopa and Hnahthial.[30][31]

Rail

Mizoram is connected to the national network by a railway up to Bairabi; the government has also begun constructing a broad gauge Bairabi Sairang Railway connection for better connectivity in the state.[32]

The Aizawl Monorail system was proposed in 2011, but as of 2024, it is still uncertain whether the project will proceed with implementation.[33][34][35]

Media

Newspaper: The major media in Aizawl in the Mizo and English languages are:[36]

Radio: All India Radio also has a studio that host programmes at scheduled hours. FM Zoawi is a popular radio station in Aizawl.[43]

Education

Mizoram University Entrance

Tertiary

Pachhunga University College was among the earliest colleges founded in 1958. Aizawl College, the second oldest college in Aizawl City was established in the year 1975. Hrangbana College was established in 1980, located in Chanmari, Aizawl, it has 57 teaching staffs with 22 non-teaching staffs and more than 2,000 students in commerce and arts departments. Mizoram University established in 2001 provides affiliation to all the colleges in Mizoram. Mizoram University also provides post-graduate education as well as B.Tech. education and other departments. ICFAI University, Mizoram located in Durtlang, Aizawl West College, Government Aizawl North College, J. Thankima College also provides undergraduate courses. Mizoram Law College provides education to people who seek profession in Law.[44] Indian Institute of Mass Communication and National Institute of Technology Mizoram has already started operations. Zoram Medical College is inaugurated on 7 August 2018 in Falkawn.[45]

Sports

Lammual Stadium

Football is the most popular sport in Mizoram with a number of footballers playing in national leagues in different parts of India. Some of the more important playing facilities in Aizawl are:

  1. Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, with a seating capacity of 20,000, is located at Mualpui in Aizawl.[46]
  2. Hawla Indoor Stadium is the largest indoor stadium with basketball, badminton and boxing facilities.
  3. Lammual stadium is a single tier stadium. The stadium under construction will have a seating capacity of about 5,000 spectators.[47]
Team Sport League Venue
Mizoram football team Football Santosh Trophy Rajiv Gandhi Stadium
Aizawl F.C. Football I-League Rajiv Gandhi Stadium
Chanmari F.C. Football Mizoram Premier League Lammual
Chawnpui F.C. Football Mizoram Premier League Lammual/Vaivakawn field

Aizawl hosted the third edition of Xchange North East Youth NGO summit from October 3 to 5, 2018.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^ "'Zofate Jerusalem': MNF hopes to ride Mizo nationalism wave post-Manipur, to another term". 27 October 2023.
  2. ^ "Zawlkhawpui senmei chan ni".
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference macotrends.not was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ a b c d e "Aizawl City Census 2011 data". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Definition of Aizawl". The Free Online Dictionary. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  6. ^ "About District".
  7. ^ "Top 10 Most Populated Cities in North-east India". negreens.com.
  8. ^ "North-east India - Emerging Urbanisation". urbanecology.com.
  9. ^ "Aizawl".
  10. ^ "Aizawl, India Metro Area Population 1950-2024". macotrends.net. Retrieved 4 April 2024.
  11. ^ "Aizawl Population 2024". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 4 April 2024.
  12. ^ https://www.mizoramtourism.com/place-to-visit/1
  13. ^ K. C. Kabra (2008). Economic Growth of Mizoram: Role of Business & Industry. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788180695186.
  14. ^ a b "The Making of Aijal". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013.
  15. ^ "Mizoram Tourism". Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  16. ^ a b "The Beautiful Hill Top City of Aizawl".
  17. ^ Hamlet Bareh (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Mizoram. Mittal Publications. pp. 206–216. ISBN 978-81-7099-787-0.
  18. ^ "Chin Refugees Myanmar Receive Mixed Welcome india".
  19. ^ "Aizawl - the State Capital: Mizoram". mizoram.nic.in. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  20. ^ "Home | Aizawl Municipal Corporation (AMC)". amcmizoram.com. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  21. ^ Chetri, Pratap. "Aizawl Gets Its First Municipal Council". Eastern Panorama. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  22. ^ Dr. L.H.Chhuanawma. "Aizawl Municipal Council". T Romana College. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  23. ^ Pachuau, Joy (13 April 2015). The Camera as a Witness. Cambridge. p. 139. ISBN 9781107073395.
  24. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  25. ^ "Aizawl - the State Capital". Mizoram. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  26. ^ "Station: Aizwal Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 17–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Aizwal Climatological Table 1971–2000". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  28. ^ Shulevitz, Uri (2008). How I learned geography. Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 9780374334994. OCLC 123766698.
  29. ^ "Mizorama Helicopter Service Tur Chief Minister in Hawng". Mizoram DIPR. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  30. ^ "Nilaini atangin 'Helicopter Service". The Zozam Times. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  31. ^ "Mizoram Chhunga Helicopter Service Scheduled Thar". DIPR: Govt of Mizoram. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  32. ^ PTI. "Broad gauge track project in Mizoram to be over by March 2015". CNN IBN Live. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  33. ^ "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) | Northeast | Monorail project for Aizawl". 18 May 2018. Archived from the original on 18 May 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  34. ^ "Mono Rail And Cable Car in Aizawl?". Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  35. ^ "AIZAWL KHAWPUI TAWT LUTUK TIHZIAHAWM NGAIHTUAH". dipr.mizoram.gov.in. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  36. ^ "Accredited Journalists". DIPR Mizoram. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  37. ^ "Vanglaini - Mizo Daily Since 1978". vanglaini.org. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  38. ^ "The Zozam Times". Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  39. ^ "The Aizawl Post". Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  40. ^ "Virthli". Archived from the original on 27 March 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  41. ^ "The Mizoram Post". Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  42. ^ "Zozam Weekly". Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  43. ^ "AIR buatsaih FM Zoawi chu le". Vanglaini. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  44. ^ The Mizoram University Act of 25 April 2000 Archived 3 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ "Central Health Services Leh Aiims Doctor Ten Chief Minister HMU". DIPR. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  46. ^ tirhkahthawla. "Mualpui Stadium Design". misual.com. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  47. ^ "Lammual-ah Gallery sak hna tan dawn ta". The Zozam Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  48. ^ "Aizawl will host the third edition of Xchange North East Youth NGO summit from October 3rd to 5th,2018". Archived from the original on 4 September 2018.