Srinagar
City
From the top, clockwise:
Houseboats on Dal lake, Tulips at Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden, Hazratbal shrine, Panorama of Srinagar City, Pari Mahal and Shankaracharya Temple
Map
Interactive map of Srinagar
Srinagar lies in the Kashmir division (neon blue) of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (shaded tan) in the disputed Kashmir region.[1] =
Srinagar lies in the Kashmir division (neon blue) of the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (shaded tan) in the disputed Kashmir region.[1] =
Coordinates: 34°5′24″N 74°47′24″E / 34.09000°N 74.79000°E / 34.09000; 74.79000
Administering countryIndia
Region of administrationUnion Territory of Jammu and Kashmir
DivisionKashmir
DistrictSrinagar
Named forLakshmi or Surya
Government
 • TypeMunicipal corporation
 • BodySrinagar Municipal Corporation
 • MayorVacant
 • Municipal CommissionerOwais Ahmed Rana, IAS
Area
 • City294 km2 (114 sq mi)
 • Metro766 km2 (296 sq mi)
Elevation
1,585 m (5,200 ft)
Population
 (2011)[6][7]
 • City1,180,570
 • Rank31st
 • Density4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,273,312
 • Metro Rank
37th
Demonym(s)Srinagari, Sirinagari, Sirinagaruk, Shaharuk, Srinagarite
Languages
 • OfficialKashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, Dogri, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
190001
Telephone code0194
Vehicle registrationJK 01
Sex ratio888 / 1000
Literacy69.15%
Distance from Delhi876 kilometres (544 mi) NW
Distance from Mumbai2,275 kilometres (1,414 mi) NE (land)
ClimateCfa
Precipitation710 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature23.3 °C (73.9 °F)
Avg. winter temperature3.2 °C (37.8 °F)
Websitewww.smcsite.org
Map

Srinagar (English: /ˈsrnəɡər/ , Kashmiri pronunciation: [siriːnagar]) is a city in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir in the disputed Kashmir region.[1] It is the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, which is an Indian-administered union territory. It lies in the Kashmir Valley along the banks of the Jhelum River, and the shores of Dal Lake and Anchar Lakes, between the Hari Parbat and Shankaracharya hills. The city is known for its natural environment, various gardens, waterfronts and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts like the Kashmir shawl (made of pashmina and cashmere wool), papier-mâché, wood carving, carpet weaving, and jewel making, as well as for dried fruits.[11][12] It is the second-largest metropolitan area in the Himalayas (after Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal).

Founded in the 6th century during the rule of the Gonanda dynasty according to the Rajatarangini, the city took on the name of an earlier capital thought to have been founded by the Mauryas in its vicinity. The city remained the most important capital of the Kashmir Valley under the Hindu dynasties, and was a major centre of learning. During the 14th–16th centuries the city's old town saw major expansions, particularly under the Shah Mir dynasty, whose kings used various parts of it as their capitals. It became the spiritual centre of Kashmir, and attracted several Sufi preachers. It also started to emerge as a hub of shawl weaving and other Kashmiri handicrafts. In the late 16th century, the city became part of the Mughal Empire, many of whose emperors used it as their summer resort. Many Mughal gardens were built in the city and around Dal lake during this time, of which Shalimar and Nishat are the most well-known.

After passing through the hands of the Afghan Durranis and the Sikhs in the late 18th and early 19th century, it eventually became the summer capital of the Dogra kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846. The city became a popular tourist destination among Europeans and Indian elites during this time, with several hotels and its iconic houseboats being built. In 1952, the city became the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, a region administered by India as a state, with Jammu being its winter capital. It was the flashpoint of violence during the 1990s and early 2000s insurgency in the region. In 2019, it became the summer capital of a smaller region which is administered by India as a union territory, after the former state's reorganisation.

Name

The earliest records, such as Kalhana's Rajatarangini, mentions the Sanskrit name shri-nagara which have been interpreted distinctively by scholars in two ways: one being "The city of "Shri" (श्री), the Hindu goddess of wealth, meaning "City of Lakshmi"[13][14][15][16][17][18] and other being sūrya-nagar, meaning "City of the Surya" (trans) "City of Sun."[19][20][21][22] The name was used for an older capital in the vicinity of the present-day city, before being used for it.[23] Between the 14th and 19th centuries, and especially during Mughal rule, the city was also referred to simply as Kashmir or Shahr-i-Kashmir (lit.'City of Kashmir').[24]

History

An 8th century Hindu temple at Pandrethan, in the vicinity of present-day Srinagar

Early history

According to the Rajatarangini of Kalhana, a capital city by the name of Srinagari was built in the Kashmir valley by Ashoka.[a] Kalhana calls this capital puranadhisthana, Sanskrit for 'old capital', identified as present-day Pandrethan, 3.5 kilometres south-east of Srinagar.[25] A 'new capital' was built by king Pravarasena, called Parvarapura, in 6th century CE. Srinagari continued to be used as a name for this capital. This new capital was located at the base of the Hari Parbat hill on the right bank of the Jhelum, corresponding to the location of modern-day Srinagar.[27] Kalhana describes the capital having several markets, mansions, wooden houses, grand temples and canals, and also refers to the Dal lake and Jhelum river.[28] A long embankment was constructed on the Jhelum by Pravarasena to protect the city from floods, parts of which have survived to the present day.[29] The two capitals are also mentioned in the chronicle of Chinese traveller Huein Tsang who visited the city in 631 CE.[30][31] Although several other capitals of Kashmir were constructed by other rulers over the next few centuries, Pravarasena's Srinagar survived as the capital.[b] The city was divided into several parts, each with its own guardian deity, which continue to be worshipped by Hindu Kashmiris.[33] The 8th century scholar Adi Shankara visited the city and founded the Shankaracharya Temple here, at the site of the earlier Jyeshteshwara Temple.[34] The city gradually extended to the left bank of the Jhelum river, and in the early 12th century the royal palace was shifted to this side.[35]

Sultanate period

The Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, built in the beginning of 15th century CE

Rinchana, a Buddhist convert to Islam who briefly ruled Kashmir in the early 14th century, built the first mosque in Kashmir on the site of a Buddhist temple in a colony of Srinagar built by him.[36] The Muslim rulers that came after him established their capitals in areas of present-day old city Srinagar.[37] During the rule of the Sultans, the city became synonymous with the Kashmir valley, and 'Srinagar' fell into disuse as a name for it.[c][35] During the rule of Qutbuddin, Islamic preacher Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani visited the valley and established his seat of preaching in Srinagar. Sultan Sikandar Shahmiri (1389–1413 CE) built the Khanqah-e-Moula at this location, and also built the Jamia Mosque at Nowhatta in 1402.[38] The oldest surviving example of forcible conversion of a Hindu place of worship into Muslim shrine in Kashmir also appears from Srinagar under Sikandar's rule.[39] Sikandar's successor Zain-ul-Abidin undertook several constructions in and around Srinagar. He built the Zainakadal bridge connecting the two halves of the city on either side of the Jhelum river, the Mar canal and two islands inside Dal lake called Sona Lank and Rupa Lank.[40] He also built a stone shrine for his Islamic teacher at Madin Sahib, and a brick mausoleum for his mother constructed using materials from a Hindu structure and showing Timurid influences,[41] where he was also buried after his death. He is also credited with establishing industries around the arts of shawl and carpet weaving, papier-maché, and wood carving in Srinagar.[42]

Mughal rule

Nishat Bagh, a Mughal Garden built during the reign of Shah Jahan on the northern bank of the Dal lake, in the vicinity of Srinagar

The Mughals annexed Kashmir in 1586 after a period of internal instability in the valley, and added it to their Kabul province. Mughal emperor Akbar visited the valley three times. During his second visit in 1592, an elaborate Diwali celebration was held in Srinagar.[43] On the final such visit, he was accompanied by the first recorded European visitors to the area.[d] Akbar built fortifications around the Hari Parbat hill, and established a township called Nagar Nagar there.[44] He also built a shrine for Hamza Makhdoom, a Sufi mystic of Kashmir's Rishi order, on the southern slope of Hari Parbat which was later expanded several times.[45] His successor Jahangir was particularly fond of the Kashmir valley and frequently visited it.[44] His rule brought prosperity to Srinagar, and several Mughal gardens were built in the city and around the Dal lake during his and his successor Shah Jahan's reign, including the Shalimar and Nishat Bagh. Empress Nur Jahan built the Pathar Mosque on the left bank of Jhelum river opposite the Khānqāh-e-Moula in 1623, the mosque was however deemed unfit for worship soon after its construction and used instead for non-religious purposes.[46] Shah Jahan made Kashmir into a separate Subah (province) with its administrative seat at Srinagar in 1638. The Aali Masjid was built during the reign of Aurangzeb (1658–1707), as was the Safa kadal bridge over the Jhelum. The moi muqaddas, a relic believed to be the hair strand of prophet Muhammad's beard, also arrived in Kashmir during this time, and was housed in a Mughal palace at Hazratbal, which became the Hazratbal Dargah. A number of Europeans visited the city during the later Mughal period.[e]

Afghan and Sikh rule

In 1753, Kashmir passed into the hands of the Afghan Durrani Empire. The Afghans undertook reconstructions in Srinagar and built the palace at Shergarhi at the site of a pre-existing ancient palace, as well as the fort atop Hari Parbat.[48] However, contemporary accounts describe the city as filthy and deteriorating, and it also saw worsening inter-community relations during Afghan rule, with repeated Hindu-Muslim and Shia-Sunni riots, and state persecution of Pandits.[49] In 1819, the Sikh Empire assumed control of Kashmir. Under them, Srinagar, the old name of the city, was restored. The situation in the city did not improve much under Sikh rule, and the city remained in a state of decay.[50] They also imposed several restrictions on Muslim religious expression, and closed the gates of the Jamia Mosque, which remained closed until 1843. A Shia-Sunni riot happened in the city in 1837.[49]

Dogra rule

An 1872 painting depicting the city of Srinagar.

With the establishment of Dogra rule following the 1846 Treaty of Amritsar, Srinagar became the capital of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Taxes were increased and the production of silk, saffron, paper, tobacco, wine, and salt, as well as the sale of grain, became the monopoly of the state. It was a capital offence for a Muslim to kill a cow as late as the 1920s; later, the penalty was reduced to ten years of imprisonment and still later to seven years (Section 219 of Ranbir Penal Code).[51] The Dogras found Srinagar deteriorating, filthy and overcrowded.[52] The city used to see several break-outs of cholera, as well as earthquakes, floods, fires and famines. The famine of 1877–79 is said to have halved the city's population.[53] Consequently, due to the famine and forced labour in the villages, a considerable number of people migrated to Srinagar.[54]

Early 20th century painting of Sher Garhi Palace, the official residence of the Dogra rulers in Srinagar
1911 map of Srinagar and its surroundings

The Darbar Move was introduced in 1872 by Ranbir Singh, whereby the capital moved to Jammu for six months during the winter[55] albeit later phased down by Hari Singh who "fixed his headquarters permanently at Jammu". The Ministers and Heads of Departments continued to followed it, nevertheless, it was still a move which was resented by Kashmiris, particularly Pandits.[56] The Raghunath Temple was also completed during Ranbir Singh's rule.[57] With a global decline in shawl trade during late 19th century, the shawl weaving class of the city was upended. Several changes were ushered in during the reign of Pratap Singh (1885–1925). A British Residency was established in Srinagar and direct British influence on the administration of the state grew. During this time, Srinagar, and in turn the Kashmir Valley, was connected to the rest of India via roads, which saw increased trade with Punjab. In 1886, a municipality was established for the city of Srinagar.[58] Works for sanitation and urban development undertaken by the municipality were often met with stiff opposition by the residents, who were averse to changes.[59] In the late 19th and early 20th century, modern tourism began to take hold in the city, especially on and around the Dal lake, with houseboats being built to accommodate British officers and their families who came in the summers seeking respite from the heat of the plains of northern India.[60] The Shergarhi Palace was greatly modified by the Dogras, who used it as their official residence in the city. Pratap Singh and his successor Hari Singh also laid out several parks in the city. The city expanded rapidly between 1891 and 1941, partly due to increased migration from the countryside as a result of famines and due to improvements in sanitation and urban development as well as economic expansion, in particular the growth of the textile and tourism industries in the city.[61] Many Punjabis also settled in Srinagar during this time for trade, commerce and administration.[62][63]

Srinagar emerged as the hub of political activity within the Kashmir valley during later Dogra rule. Kashmiris at large despised the Dogra rule and considered the dynasty an "alien rule".[64] Many Muslim leaders competed for influence and control over Muslim shrines in the city through which they sought to become representatives of Kashmiri Muslims.[65] Sheikh Abdullah, and his National Conference (NC), eventually succeeded in doing so.

Partition and Independence

In 1947, after the princely state's accession to India following an invasion of the state by Pakistani irregulars in the aftermath of the partition of India, Indian forces were airlifted to Srinagar on 27 October to defend the city and the larger Kashmir valley.[66] The National Conference also established a popular people's militia in the city to aid the army in their defence of the territory.[67][68] Srinagar became the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir when it was established in 1952.

Indian Prime Miniter Jawaharlal Nehru attending a parade of NC's Kashmiri militias in Srinagar in 1948
A 1959 map of Srinagar city and its vicinity

In 1963–1964, the relic at the Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar briefly disappeared, causing political turmoil.[69] Following this, the shrine was reconstructed between 1968 and 1979 in a Mughal-inspired style.[70] In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. The city saw increased violence against the minority Hindus—particularly the Kashmiri Pandits—during the insurgency which resulted in their ultimate exodus.[71][72] Kashmiri Hindus constituted 8.39% of Srinagar's population in the 1981 census and 2.75% in the 2011 census.[73][74] The Gawakadal massacre took place in the city in January 1990, resulting in 50–100 deaths.[75] As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, protests still occur against Indian rule, with large demonstrations happening in 2008, 2010, 2013, and 2016.[76][77] After revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and the subsequent devolution of the state into a union territory in August 2019, a lockdown was imposed in Kashmir, including in Srinagar.[78]

Geography

The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River, called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Wular Lake. The city is known for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.

There are a number of lakes and swamps in and around the city. These include the Dal, the Nigeen, the Anchar, Khushal Sar, Gil Sar and Hokersar.

Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.

Hokersar is 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 km2 (5.31 sq mi) including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.[79]

Birds found in Hokersar are migratory ducks and geese which include brahminy duck, tufted duck, gadwall, garganey, greylag goose, mallard, common merganser, northern pintail, common pochard, ferruginous pochard, red-crested pochard, ruddy shelduck, northern shoveller, common teal, and Eurasian wigeon.[80][81]

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Srinagar has a four-season humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Due to influence from the Himalayan rain shadow and western disturbances, Srinagar has year-round precipitation; the spring season is the wettest while autumn is the driest. Winters are colder than most areas with monsoon climates due to this and its elevation,[82] with daily maximum temperatures averaging 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) in January, and dropping below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads, landslides and avalanches. Summers are warm to hot with a July daytime average of 30.0 °C (86.0 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 697.5 millimetres (27.46 in).

The highest temperature reliably recorded is 38.3 °C (100.9 °F) recorded on 10 July 1946, and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) recorded on 6 February 1895.[83]

Climate data for Srinagar (1991–2020, extremes 1893–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
20.6
(69.1)
28.3
(82.9)
31.1
(88.0)
36.4
(97.5)
37.8
(100.0)
38.3
(100.9)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95.0)
33.9
(93.0)
24.5
(76.1)
18.3
(64.9)
38.3
(100.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
10.5
(50.9)
15.5
(59.9)
20.6
(69.1)
24.7
(76.5)
28.5
(83.3)
30.0
(86.0)
29.7
(85.5)
27.6
(81.7)
23.0
(73.4)
15.9
(60.6)
9.9
(49.8)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
5.5
(41.9)
10.0
(50.0)
14.3
(57.7)
18.0
(64.4)
21.6
(70.9)
24.2
(75.6)
23.7
(74.7)
20.2
(68.4)
14.4
(57.9)
8.3
(46.9)
4.0
(39.2)
13.9
(57.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
0.7
(33.3)
4.3
(39.7)
7.9
(46.2)
11.2
(52.2)
15.0
(59.0)
18.4
(65.1)
17.8
(64.0)
13.1
(55.6)
6.2
(43.2)
1.2
(34.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F) −14.4
(6.1)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−6.9
(19.6)
0.0
(32.0)
1.0
(33.8)
7.2
(45.0)
10.3
(50.5)
9.5
(49.1)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
−7.8
(18.0)
−12.8
(9.0)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.6
(2.50)
85.0
(3.35)
104.6
(4.12)
91.8
(3.61)
63.5
(2.50)
46.4
(1.83)
64.0
(2.52)
64.5
(2.54)
37.4
(1.47)
21.8
(0.86)
27.7
(1.09)
27.2
(1.07)
697.5
(27.46)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.3 mm) 8.5 9.9 11 11.1 10.9 8.2 9.2 8.9 5.5 3.4 3.7 4.6 94.9
Average rainy days 5.4 6.0 7.2 7.0 5.9 4.1 5.0 5.4 3.1 2.0 2.2 2.6 55.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 67 59 52 49 49 47 53 55 52 54 62 68 55
Average dew point °C (°F) −2
(28)
1
(34)
3
(37)
7
(45)
11
(52)
14
(57)
17
(63)
17
(63)
13
(55)
8
(46)
3
(37)
0
(32)
8
(46)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 101.7 136.4 189.0 238.7 246.0 241.8 226.3 228.0 226.3 186.0 108.5 2,203.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.4 3.6 4.4 6.3 7.7 8.2 7.8 7.3 7.6 7.3 6.2 3.5 6.0
Average ultraviolet index 3 5 7 10 12 12 12 12 9 6 4 3 8
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[84][85] NOAA(precipitation-extremes[83])Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005–2015)[86]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun 1945–1988),[87] Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1991–2020)[88] Weather Atlas,[89] Ultraviolet[90]

Economy

Market boats on Mar Canal in Srinagar

In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation – an advocacy think tank – announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.[91]

Tourism

Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the "Venice of the East".[92][93][94] Lakes around the city include Dal Lake – noted for its houseboats – and Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal Lake and Nigeen Lake, Wular Lake and Manasbal Lake both lie to the north of Srinagar. Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia.

Srinagar has some Mughal gardens, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; the Naseem Bagh. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in the city, set up in 1969.[95] The Indian government has included these gardens under "Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir" in the tentative list for sites to be included in world Heritage sites.

The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government.[96] Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.[97]

The Shankaracharya Temple lies on a hill top in the middle of the city.[98]

Places of Interest

In and Around Srinagar

Near Srinagar

Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) under the leadership of a Mayor. The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam and Ganderbal districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.

Stray dog controversy

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2023)

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs.[99] Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.

The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.[100]

Demographics

Religion in Srinagar City (2011)[101]

  Islam (96%)
  Hinduism (2.75%)
  Sikhism (0.92%)
  Jainism (0.01%)
  Christianity (0.21%)
  Buddhism (0.02%)
  Other or Not stated (0.13%)
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1901 122,618—    
1911 126,344+3.0%
1921 141,735+12.2%
1931 173,573+22.5%
1941 207,787+19.7%
1951 246,522+18.6%
1961 285,257+15.7%
1971 415,271+45.6%
1981 594,775+43.2%
1991 —    
2001 935,764—    
2011 1,180,570+26.2%
Source: [102]

As of 2011 census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population.[103] Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 70%.[103][104] The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population.[103] Males constituted 53.0% and females 47% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000.[103][105] The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 96% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2.75% of the population. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.[106][107] Kashmiri Hindus constituted 21.9% of Srinagar's population as per 1891 census and 2.75% as per 2011 census.[74]

Transport

Srinagar International Airport
A passenger train at Srinagar Railway Station

Road

The city is served by many highways, including National Highway 1A and National Highway 1D.[108]

Air

Sheikh ul-Alam International Airport has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh, Delhi and Mumbai and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with Air India Express flights to Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia.[109]

Rail

Main articles: Srinagar railway station and Srinagar Metro

Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Banihal-Baramulla line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for a train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR.[110] The train also runs during heavy snow.

There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city.[111] The feasibility report for the Srinagar Metro is planned to be carried out by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.[112]

Cable car

In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of 300 million INR was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.[113]

Boat

Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to Dal Lake, where shikaras (wooden boats) are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River Jhelum.[114]

Culture

Like the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

Places of worship

There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:

Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Mazar-e-Shuhada, Roza Bal shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, Pathar Masjid ("The Stone Mosque"), Hamza Makhdoom shrine, tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal.[116] Apart from these, dozens of smaller mosques are located all over the city. Several temples and temple ghats are located on the banks of river Jhelum in Srinagar, including Shurayar temple, Gadhadhar temple, Pratapishwar temple, Ganpatyar Ganesh temple, Purshyar temple, Sheshyar temple, Raghunath Mandir, Durga Patshala and Dhar temple.[117] Gurdwaras are located in Rainawari, Amira Kadal, Jawahar Nagar, Mehjoor Nagar, Shaheed Gunj, Maharajpur and Indra Nagar areas of the city. There are three Christian churches in Srinagar.

The Sheikh Bagh Cemetery is a Christian cemetery located in Srinagar that dates from the British colonial era. The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a British colonel from the 9th Lancers of 1850 and the cemetery is valued for the variety of persons buried there which provides an insight into the perils faced by British colonisers in India.[118] It was damaged by floods in 2014.[119] It contains a number of war graves.[120] The notable interments here are Robert Thorpe[121] and Jim Borst.

Performing arts

Main article: Music of Kashmir

Education

University of Kashmir

See also: List of colleges in Srinagar

Srinagar is home to various premiere Higher Education Institutes including the University of Kashmir, the Cluster University of Srinagar, Central University of Kashmir besides the National Institute of Technology Srinagar formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). Most of these are among the oldest and earliest Institutions of the country including the University of Kashmir dating back to 1948 while the National Institute of Technology Srinagar was established during the second Five year plan. The educational institutions in the City include:

Schools

Medical colleges

Universities

General degree colleges

Broadcasting

Srinagar is broadcasting hub for radio channels in UT which are Radio Mirchi 98.3FM,[122] Red FM 93.5[123] and AIR Srinagar. State television channel DD Kashir is also broadcast.[124]

Sports

Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar

The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, where international cricket matches have been played.[125] The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation (although the situation has now improved quite considerably).[citation needed] Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches.[126] It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered one of the best golf courses of India.[127] Football is followed by the youth of Srinagar and the TRC Turf Ground is redeveloped for the particular sport in 2015. Srinagar is home to professional football club of I-League, Real Kashmir FC and Downtown Heroes FC of I-League 2.[128] There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam (Water rafting) and Gulmarg (skiing).

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ Despite several discrepancies, scholars identify this Ashoka of the Rajatarangini with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka.[25][26]
  2. ^ Historian Mohammad Ishaq Khan states that this is due Srinagar's central location within the valley and the larger neighbourhood, and due to the presence of various water bodies around the city which provided protection.[32]
  3. ^ The name, however, did not become obsolete and finds mention in several contemporary sources.[36]
  4. ^ These were jesuit priests Jerome Xavier and Bento de Góis.[44]
  5. ^ These include physician Francois Bernier and priests Ippolito Desideri and Manoel Freyre.[47]
  1. ^ a b The application of the term "administered" to the various regions of Kashmir and a mention of the Kashmir dispute is supported by the tertiary sources (a) through (d), reflecting due weight in the coverage. Although "controlled" and "held" are also applied neutrally to the names of the disputants or to the regions administered by them, as evidenced in sources (f) through (h) below, "held" is also considered politicised usage, as is the term "occupied," (see (i) below).
    (a) Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories.";
    (b) Pletcher, Kenneth, Aksai Chin, Plateau Region, Asia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 16 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "Aksai Chin, Chinese (Pinyin) Aksayqin, portion of the Kashmir region, at the northernmost extent of the Indian subcontinent in south-central Asia. It constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India to be part of the Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir state.";
    (c) "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006, p. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6 C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
    (d) Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, pp. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5 Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute betw een India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
    (e) Talbot, Ian (2016), A History of Modern South Asia: Politics, States, Diasporas, Yale University Press, pp. 28–29, ISBN 978-0-300-19694-8 Quote: "We move from a disputed international border to a dotted line on the map that represents a military border not recognized in international law. The line of control separates the Indian and Pakistani administered areas of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir.";
    (f) Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent, Encyclopaedia Britannica, retrieved 15 August 2019 (subscription required) Quote: "... China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
    (g) Bose, Sumantra (2009), Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, pp. 294, 291, 293, ISBN 978-0-674-02855-5 Quote: "J&K: Jammu and Kashmir. The former princely state that is the subject of the Kashmir dispute. Besides IJK (Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir. The larger and more populous part of the former princely state. It has a population of slightly over 10 million, and comprises three regions: Kashmir Valley, Jammu, and Ladakh.) and AJK ('Azad" (Free) Jammu and Kashmir. The more populous part of Pakistani-controlled J&K, with a population of approximately 2.5 million. AJK has six districts: Muzaffarabad, Mirpur, Bagh, Kodi, Rawalakot, and Poonch. Its capital is the town of Muzaffarabad. AJK has its own institutions, but its political life is heavily controlled by Pakistani authorities, especially the military), it includes the sparsely populated "Northern Areas" of Gilgit and Baltistan, remote mountainous regions which are directly administered, unlike AJK, by the Pakistani central authorities, and some high-altitude uninhabitable tracts under Chinese control."
    (h) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 166, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2 Quote: "Kashmir's identity remains hotly disputed with a UN-supervised "Line of Control" still separating Pakistani-held Azad ("Free") Kashmir from Indian-held Kashmir.";
    (i) Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, p. 10, ISBN 978-1-84904-621-3 Quote:"Some politicised terms also are used to describe parts of J&K. These terms include the words 'occupied' and 'held'."
  2. ^ "Srinagar City". kvksrinagar.org. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  3. ^ "Srinagar Updates". The Tribune. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  4. ^ "Srinagar Metropolitan Region" (PDF). sdasrinagar.com. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Srinagar Master Plan". crosstownnews.in. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Srinagar Municipal Corporation Demographics 2011". 2011 Census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  7. ^ "2011 census of India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  8. ^ Pathak, Analiza (2 September 2020). "Hindi, Kashmiri and Dogri to be official languages of Jammu and Kashmir, Cabinet approves Bill". Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  9. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Parliament passes JK Official Languages Bill, 2020". Rising Kashmir. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Here's how beautiful Srinagar's Dal Lake looks this winter". India Today. 5 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  12. ^ "District Srinagar :: Official Website". srinagar.nic.in. Archived from the original on 4 February 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  13. ^ Sharma, Suresh K. (1996). Encyclopaedia of Kashmir. Anmol Publications Pvt Limited. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-7488-051-2. Shri Nagar or, as it is commonly called, Srinagar, is the chief town of the country . ' Shri ' means beauty or wealth of knowledge and ' nagar ' a city
  14. ^ Kashmir. 1953. p. 36. Shri ' is said to be another name for Laxmi, the Goddess of Wealth and Beauty and ' nagari ' means the city . Hence ' Shrinagar ' is the city of wealth and beauty .
  15. ^ Shafi, Aneesa (2002). Working Women in Kashmir: Problems and Prospects. APH Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-7648-350-6. The name Srinagar which means the city of Sri or Lakshmi appears to have been assigned to the capital to commemorate the Buddhist Monastery built by Ashoka between Pandrethan and the nearby steep hill side at a distance of 2 miles from ...
  16. ^ Khan 1978, p.2:"According to Kalhana, ancient Kashmir has had a number of capitals. The most important of these ancient cities was Srinagari, which was founded by Asoka in 250 B.C. 3 Srinagari, the city of Sri, an appellation of the goddess '. Lakshmi ...".
  17. ^ Charnock, Richard Stephen (1859). Local Etymology: A Derivative Dictionary of Geographical Names. Houlston and Wright. p. 187.
  18. ^ Koul, Samsar Chand (1962). Srinagar and Its Environs: Kashmir, India. Lokesh Koul. Shri Nagar or, as it is commonly called, Srinagar, is the chief town of the country . ' Shri ' means beauty or wealth of knowledge and ' nagar ' a city . In ancient times this city was one of the chief seats of learning in Asia
  19. ^ Lawrence, Sir Walter Roper (2005). The Valley of Kashmir. Asian Educational Services. p. 35. ISBN 978-81-206-1630-1.
  20. ^ M. Monier Monier–Williams, "Śrīnagar", in: The Great Sanskrit–English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1899
  21. ^ Sufi, G. M. D. (1974). Kashīr, Being a History of Kashmir from the Earliest Times to Our Own. Light & Life Publishers. p. 42. SRINAGAR * or Suryea Nagar, the City of the Sun, built by Rajah Pravarasene about the beginning of the 6th century, is the Capital of Kashmir, and a plan of it will be found in Montgomerie's Jamoo and Kashinir Map . It is situated about ...
  22. ^ Rabbani 1981, p. 32: "Old Srinagar Kalhana, who lived in the beginning of the twelfth century, mentions in his Rajtarangni the city of Srinagar, a city in the south – east ... Shri here does not mean Surya or the son and it is a mistake to call Srinagar, the city of sun ."
  23. ^ Kaul 2018, p.157: "(in footnote) In reality, it is the name Srinagar that stuck but the location of the modern-day Srinagar, the capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, is at the site of Pravarapura that was founded by King Pravarasena circa 6th century CE.".
  24. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 8–9.
  25. ^ a b Wani & Wani 2023, p. 75.
  26. ^ Kaul 2018, p. 110.
  27. ^ Hamdani 2021, p. 22.
  28. ^ Khan 1978, p. 3–4.
  29. ^ Wani & Wani 2023, p. 159.
  30. ^ Khan 1978, p. 3.
  31. ^ Rabbani 1981, p. 33.
  32. ^ Khan 1978, p. 6–7.
  33. ^ Rabbani 1981, p. 33–35.
  34. ^ Kaul 2018, pp. 124–125.
  35. ^ a b Khan 1978, p. 8.
  36. ^ a b Khan 1978, p. 9.
  37. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 9–10.
  38. ^ Hamdani 2021, p. 83.
  39. ^ Hamdani2021, pp. 99–100.
  40. ^ Khan 1978, p. 10.
  41. ^ Hamdani 2021, p. 65–66.
  42. ^ Khan 1978, p. 11.
  43. ^ Khan 1978, p. 12.
  44. ^ a b c Khan 1978, p. 13.
  45. ^ Hamdani 2021, p. 93–95.
  46. ^ Rai, Mridu (2018), "To 'Tear the Mask off the Face of the Past': Archaeology and Politics in Jammu and Kashmir", in Chitralekha Zutshi (ed.), Kashmir: History, Politics, Representation, Cambridge University Press, pp. 39–41, ISBN 978-1-107-18197-7
  47. ^ Khan 1978, p. 15.
  48. ^ Khan 1978, p. 16.
  49. ^ a b Hamdani 2021, pp. 167–169.
  50. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 16–17.
  51. ^ Dogra raj in Kashmir. FrontLine 8 November 2017.
  52. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 18–20.
  53. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 20–24.
  54. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 32.
  55. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2019), Kashmir, Oxford India Short Introductions, OUP, pp. 53–54, ISBN 978-0-19-012141-9
  56. ^ Bazaz 1941, pp. 91.
  57. ^ Zutshi 2019, p. 54.
  58. ^ Khan 1978, p. 27.
  59. ^ Khan 1978, p. 27–28.
  60. ^ Casimir, Michael J. (2021), Floating Economies: The Cultural Ecology of the Dal Lake in Kashmir, India, Berghahn Books, p. 11, ISBN 978-1-80073-029-8
  61. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 32–33.
  62. ^ Khan 1978, pp. 39–40.
  63. ^ Zutshi 2019, p. 55.
  64. ^ Bazaz 1941, pp. 90.
  65. ^ Zutshi 2019, pp. 59–62.
  66. ^ Zutshi 2019, p. 99.
  67. ^ Zutshi 2019, pp. 99–100.
  68. ^ Whitehead, Andrew (24 October 2017). "Kashmir's Forgotten Women's Militia". The Wire. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  69. ^ Zutshi 2019, p. 114.
  70. ^ Hamdani 2021, p. 196.
  71. ^ Bose, Sumantra (July 2009). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02855-5. As the uprising broke out across the Valley in early 1990, approximately one hundred thousand Pandits left their Valley homes for Jammu city and Delhi in a few weeks in February and March, in one of the most controversial episodes of the war in Kashmir."
  72. ^ Majoul, Bootheina (23 June 2017). On Trauma and Traumatic Memory. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-7483-0.
  73. ^ https://censusindia.gov.in/nada/index.php/catalog/31511/download/34692/29233_1981_POR.pdf
  74. ^ a b Ram, Bhag (1 January 1893). Census of India, 1891. Volume XXVIII, The Kashmir state : the report on the census and imperial and supplementary tables: Census Reports – 1891. JSTOR saoa.crl.25352828.
  75. ^ Schofield, Victoria (2003) [2000], Kashmir in Conflict, London and New York: I. B. Taurus & Co, p. 148, ISBN 1860648983
  76. ^ "Muslims wage huge Kashmir protest". Chicago Tribune. 23 August 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013. A Kashmiri Muslim watches a protest march Friday by hundreds of thousands of Muslims in Srinagar, Indian Kashmir's main city. It was the largest protest against Indian rule in the Himalayan region in more than a decade
  77. ^ Hussein, AijazSt (12 February 2013). "India's hanging of Kashmiri man leads to fears of new unrest after 2 years of quiet". Star Tribune. Retrieved 1 March 2013. In all three years, hundreds of thousands of young men took to the streets, hurling rocks and abuse at Indian forces.[permanent dead link]
  78. ^ "Kashmir city on lockdown after calls for protest march". The Guardian. 23 August 2019.
  79. ^ Ahmed Ali Fayyaz (9 November 2013). "Migratory birds flock avian paradise". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  80. ^ "Three lakh migratory birds throng Kashmir Valley". The Hindu. 28 November 2017.
  81. ^ "Migratory birds keep date with Kashmir valley again". The Tribune. 9 November 2018.
  82. ^ Mahajan, Anand (29 April 2023). India & World Geography. YCT Expert Team. p. 80.
  83. ^ a b "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020: Srinagar" (XLSX). ncei.noaa.gov. NOAA. Retrieved 22 March 2024. WMO Station Number: 42027
  84. ^ "Station: Srinagar Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 721–722. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  85. ^ "Climatological Tables 1991–2020" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  86. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  87. ^ "Klimatafel von Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir / Indische Union" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  88. ^ "Normals Data: Srinagar – India Latitude: 34.08°N Longitude: 74.83°E Height: 1585 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  89. ^ "Climate and monthly weather forecast Srinagar, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  90. ^ Weather2Travel.com. "Srinagar weather by month: monthly climate averages | India". Weather2Travel.com. Retrieved 1 December 2023.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  91. ^ "Srinagar among 100 fastest growing cities in world". Greater Kashmir.com. 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  92. ^ "The Sydney Morning Herald – Google News Archive Search". google.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  93. ^ Holloway, James (13 June 1965). "Fabled Kashmir: An Emerald Set Among Pearls". Pqasb.pqarchiver.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  94. ^ The Earthtimes (24 September 2007). "Can Kashmir become 'Venice of the East' again? | Earth Times News". Earthtimes.org. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  95. ^ "Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden". discoveredindia.com. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  96. ^ "Places of Interest". Government of Jammu & Kashmir. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  97. ^ Saxton, Aditi (25 August 2011). "One hundred years of splendour". India Today. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
  98. ^ "Shankaracharya Temple". jktdc.in. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014.
  99. ^ "Indian authorities to poison 100K stray dogs – World news – South and Central Asia – NBC News". NBC News. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  100. ^ "Stray dogs maul over 3 dozen". Greater Kashmir. 12 May 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  101. ^ "Census of India 2011 (DCHB-Srinagar)" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Census of India. p. 51.
  102. ^ "Historical Census of India". Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  103. ^ a b c d "Jammu and Kashmir Population Census data 2011". 2011 census of India. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  104. ^ "Literacy in India". 2011 census of India. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  105. ^ "Sex Ratio of India". 2011 census of India. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  106. ^ "2011 Census demographics of Srinagar". Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  107. ^ Khan, Mohammad Ishaq (1 August 1996). "Kashmiri Muslims: Social and Identity Consciousness". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 16 (2): 36. doi:10.1215/1089201X-16-2-25. ISSN 1089-201X.
  108. ^ "Road Map with National Highways of India". Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  109. ^ "Srinagar International Airport". Airports Authority of India. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014.
  110. ^ "Kashmir rail by 2017-end, cost overrun Rs 5,500 cr". Business Line. Chennai. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  111. ^ "Now, metro set to roll into Kashmir". The Indian Express. 5 August 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  112. ^ Hassan, Ishfaq-ul (12 February 2010). "Omar Abdullah plans metro in Jammu, Srinagar". DNA. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015. "We will soon have the feasibility of metro services in both cities analysed by experts. Ideally, we would like DMRC to send a team and prepare a project report," minister for urban development Nasir Aslam Wani said.
  113. ^ "Kashmir gets a dream ropeway". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  114. ^ Raina, Muzaffar (7 May 2012). "Boat down the Jhelum". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  115. ^ "Hazratbal Shrine". travelinos.com. 2013. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  116. ^ "Chapter 4 of Ancient Monuments of Kashmir by Ram Chandra Kak (1933)". Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  117. ^ "Srinagar- The city of Bridges (Version 2.0)". Jammu & Kashmir tourism. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021.
  118. ^ Brigid Keenan (20 May 2013). Travels in Kashmir. Hachette India. ISBN 978-93-5009-729-8.
  119. ^ Flood ravages Srinagar's British-era buildings. Archived 27 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Noor-Ul-Qamrain, The Sunday Guardian, 27 September 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  120. ^ Karachi 1914–1918 War Memorial. Archived 21 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  121. ^ Grave of Kashmir's first known martryr lies beneath rubble after floods.[permanent dead link] Swati Bhasin, DNA of Srinagar, 10 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  122. ^ "FM: Mirchi 98.3 starts operations in Srinagar". The Times of India. 18 June 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  123. ^ "Eid-ul-Azha: Red FM launches station in Srinagar". uniindia.com. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  124. ^ "J&K govt starts tele-classes for Valley students". Hindustan Times. 28 April 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  125. ^ "Records / Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, Srinagar / One-Day Internationals". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  126. ^ "J&K stadium hosts football match after 25-year gap". The Times of India. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  127. ^ "India". Robert Trent Jones – Golf Architects. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
  128. ^ Desk, K. R. (28 December 2022). "Downtown Heroes FC management meets AIFF top brass". Kashmir Reader. Archived from the original on 14 January 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2023.

Bibliography