British Punjab
Province of British Raj
1849–1947
Coat of arms of Punjab Province
Coat of arms

Maps of British Punjab
Capital
DemonymPunjabi
Government
 • TypeBritish Colonial Government
 • MottoCrescat e Fluviis
"Let it grow from the rivers"
Governor 
• 1849–1853
Henry Montgomery Lawrence (first)
• 1946–1947
Evan Meredith Jenkins (last)
Premier 
• 1937–1942
Sikandar Hayat Khan
• 1942–1947
Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana
Historical eraNew Imperialism
29 March 1849
• Transfer of Delhi to North-Western Provinces
1858
• Formation of North-West Frontier Province
9 November 1901
• Delhi district separated
1911
14–15 August 1947
Political subdivisions
Preceded by
Succeeded by
1849:
Sikh Empire
1858:
North-Western Provinces
1862:
Cis-Sutlej states
1901:
North-West Frontier Province
1947:
West Punjab
East Punjab
PEPSU
Today part ofIndia
Pakistan

Punjab was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company on 29 March 1849, and declared a province of British rule; it was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British Raj, came under the direct rule of the British Crown. It had an area of 358,354.5 km2.

The province comprised four natural geographic regions – Indo-Gangetic Plain West, Himalayan, Sub-Himalayan, and the North-West Dry Area – along with five administrative divisions – Delhi, Jullundur, Lahore, Multan, and Rawalpindi – and a number of princely states.[1] In 1947, the Partition of India led to the province's division into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly independent dominions of India and Pakistan respectively.

Etymology

The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu Rivers,[2] the Vedic land of the seven rivers originally: Saraswati, Indus, Sutlej, Jehlum, Chenab, Ravi, and Beas.[3] The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", and was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.[4][5] The later name Punjab is a compound of two Persian words[6][7] Panj (five) and āb (water) and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors[8] of India and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.[9][10] Punjab literally means "(The Land of) Five Waters" referring to the rivers: Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[11] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest.

Geography

Geographically, the province was a triangular tract of country of which the Indus River and its tributary the Sutlej formed the two sides up to their confluence, the base of the triangle in the north being the Lower Himalayan Range between those two rivers. Moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir and Tibet. On the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna and Tons separated it from the United Provinces.[1] In total Punjab had an area of approximately 357 000 km square about the same size as modern day Germany, being one of the largest provinces of the British Raj.

It encompassed the present day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and some parts of Himachal Pradesh which were merged with Punjab by the British for administrative purposes (but excluding the former princely states which were later combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union) and the Pakistani regions of the Punjab, Islamabad Capital Territory and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province: the North-West Frontier Province. Subsequently, Punjab was divided into four natural geographical divisions by colonial officials on the decadal census data:[12]: 2 [13]: 4 

  1. Indo-Gangetic Plain West geographical division (including Hisar district, Loharu State, Rohtak district, Dujana State, Gurgaon district, Pataudi State, Delhi, Karnal district, Jalandhar district, Kapurthala State, Ludhiana district, Malerkotla State, Firozpur district, Faridkot State, Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Lahore District, Amritsar district, Gujranwala District, and Sheikhupura District);
  2. Himalayan geographical division (including Sirmoor State, Simla District, Simla Hill States, Bilaspur State, Kangra district, Mandi State, Suket State, and Chamba State);
  3. Sub-Himalayan geographical division (including Ambala district, Kalsia State, Hoshiarpur district, Gurdaspur district, Sialkot District, Gujrat District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Attock District;
  4. North-West Dry Area geographical division (including Montgomery District, Shahpur District, Mianwali District, Lyallpur District, Jhang District, Multan District, Bahawalpur State, Muzaffargarh District, Dera Ghazi Khan District, and the Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract).

History

Company rule

See also: Company rule in India

The Durbar, or assembly of native princes and nobles, convened by Sir John Lawrence at Lahore

On 21 February 1849, the East India Company decisively defeated the Sikh Empire at the Battle of Gujrat bringing to an end the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Following the victory, the East India Company annexed the Punjab on 2 April 1849 and incorporated it within British India. The province whilst nominally under the control of the Bengal Presidency was administratively independent. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers. The Board was led by Sir Henry Lawrence, who had previously worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar and also consisted of his younger brother John Lawrence and Charles Grenville Mansel.[14] Below the Board, a group of acclaimed officers collectively known as Henry Lawrence's "Young Men" assisted in the administration of the newly acquired province. The Board was abolished by Lord Dalhousie in 1853; Sir Henry was assigned to the Rajputana Agency, and his brother John succeeded as the first Chief Commissioner.

Recognising the cultural diversity of the Punjab, the Board maintained a strict policy of non-interference in regard to religious and cultural matters.[15] Sikh aristocrats were given patronage and pensions and groups in control of historical places of worship were allowed to remain in control.[15]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Punjab remained relatively peaceful, apart from rebellion led by Ahmad Khan Kharral.[16] In May, John Lawrence took swift action to disarm potentially mutinous sepoys and redeploy most European troops to the Delhi ridge.[17] Finally he recruited new regiments of Punjabis to replace the depleted force, and was provided with manpower and support from surrounding princely states such as Jind, Patiala, Nabha and Kapurthala and tribal chiefs on the borderlands with Afghanistan. By 1858, an estimated 70,000 extra men had been recruited for the army and militarised police from within the Punjab.[16]

British Raj

See also: British Raj

The Punjab in 1880

In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British Crown.[18] Delhi Territory was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to the Punjab in 1858, partly to punish the city for the important role the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, and the city as a whole, played in the 1857 Rebellion.[19]

Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court. The direct administrative functions of the Government were carried by the Lieutenant-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries. They were usually members of the Indian Civil Service.[20] The territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, and 43 Princely States. Each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner, who reported to the Commissioner of the Division. Each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib (deputy) tahsildar.[21]

In 1885 the Punjab administration began an ambitious plan to transform over six million acres of barren waste land in central and western Punjab into irrigable agricultural land. The creation of canal colonies was designed to relieve demographic pressures in the central parts of the province, increase productivity and revenues, and create a loyal support amongst peasant landholders.[22] The colonisation resulted in an agricultural revolution in the province, rapid industrial growth, and the resettlement of over one million Punjabis in the new areas.[23] A number of towns were created or saw significant development in the colonies, such as Lyallpur, Sargodha and Montgomery. Colonisation led to the canal irrigated area of the Punjab increasing from three to fourteen million acres in the period from 1885 to 1947.[24]

The beginning of the twentieth century saw increasing unrest in the Punjab. Conditions in the Chenab colony, together with land reforms such as the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 and the Colonisation Bill, 1906 contributed to the 1907 Punjab unrest. The unrest was unlike any previous agitation in the province as the government had for the first time aggrieved a large portion of the rural population.[25] Mass demonstrations were organised, headed by Lala Lajpat Rai, a leader of the Hindu revivalist sect Arya Samaj.[25] The unrest resulted in the repeal of the Colonisation Bill and the end of paternalist policies in the colonies.[25]

During the First World War, Punjabi manpower contributed heavily to the Indian Army. Out of a total of 683,149 combat troops, 349,688 hailed from the province.[26] In 1918, an influenza epidemic broke out in the province, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 962,937 people or 4.77 percent of the total estimated population.[27] In March 1919 the Rowlatt Act was passed extending emergency measures of detention and incarceration in response to the perceived threat of terrorism from revolutionary nationalist organisations.[28] This led to the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre in April 1919, where Colonel Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered detachments of the 9th Gorkha Rifles and the 59th Scinde Rifles under his command to fire into a group of some 10,000 unarmed protesters and Baisakhi pilgrims, killing 379.[29]

Administrative reforms

The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms enacted through the Government of India Act 1919 expanded the Punjab Legislative Council and introduced the principle of dyarchy, whereby certain responsibilities such as agriculture, health, education, and local government, were transferred to elected ministers. The first Punjab Legislative Council under the 1919 Act was constituted in 1921, comprising 93 members, seventy per cent to be elected and rest to be nominated.[30] Some of the British Indian ministers under the dyarchy scheme were Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk and Lala Hari Kishen Lal.[31][32]

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy to Punjab replacing the system of dyarchy. It provided for the constitution of Punjab Legislative Assembly of 175 members presided by a Speaker and an executive government responsible to the Assembly. The Unionist Party under Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan formed the government in 1937. Sir Sikandar was succeeded by Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana in 1942 who remained the Premier till partition in 1947. Although the term of the Assembly was five years, the Assembly continued for about eight years and its last sitting was held on 19 March 1945.[33]

Partition

See also: Partition of India

The struggle for Indian independence witnessed competing and conflicting interests in the Punjab. The landed elites of the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities had loyally collaborated with the British since annexation, supported the Unionist Party and were hostile to the Congress party led independence movement.[34] Amongst the peasantry and urban middle classes, the Hindus were the most active National Congress supporters, the Sikhs flocked to the Akali movement whilst the Muslims eventually supported the All-India Muslim League.[34]

Since the partition of the sub-continent had been decided, special meetings of the Western and Eastern Section of the Legislative Assembly were held on 23 June 1947 to decide whether or not the Province of the Punjab be partitioned. After voting on both sides, partition was decided and the existing Punjab Legislative Assembly was also divided into West Punjab Legislative Assembly and the East Punjab Legislative Assembly. This last Assembly before independence, held its last sitting on 4 July 1947.[35]

Demographics

Population history
YearPop.±%
185517,600,000—    
186819,700,000+11.9%
188120,800,995+5.6%
189122,915,894+10.2%
190124,367,113+6.3%
191123,791,841−2.4%
192125,101,514+5.5%
193128,490,869+13.5%
194134,309,861+20.4%
Source: Census of India
[13]: 8 [36]: 6 [37]: 86 

The first British census of the Punjab was carried out in 1855. This covered only British territory to the exclusion of local princely states, and placed the population at 17.6 million. The first regular census of British India carried out in 1881 recorded a population of 20.8 million people. The final British census in 1941 recorded 34.3 million people in the Punjab, which comprised 29 districts within British territory, 43 princely states, 52,047 villages and 283 towns.[37]

In 1881, only Amritsar and Lahore had populations over 100,000. The commercial and industrial city of Amritsar (152,000) was slightly larger than the cultural capital of Lahore (149,000). Over the following sixty years, Lahore increased in population fourfold, whilst Amritsar grew two-fold. By 1941, the province had seven cities with populations over 100,000 with emergence and growth of Rawalpindi, Multan, Sialkot, Jullundur and Ludhiana.[37]

The colonial period saw large scale migration within the Punjab due to the creation of canal colonies in western Punjab. The majority of colonists hailed from the seven most densely populated districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ambala and Sialkot, and consisted primarily of Khatris, Brahmins, Jats, Arains, Sainis, Kambohs and Rajputs. The movement of many highly skilled farmers from eastern and central Punjab to the new colonies, led to western Punjab becoming the most progressive and advanced agricultural region of the province. The period also saw significant numbers of Punjabis emigrate to other regions of the British Empire. The main destinations were East Africa - Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, Southeast Asia - Malaya and Burma, Hong Kong and Canada.[37]

Religion

Main article: Religion in the Punjab

The Punjab was a religiously eclectic province, comprising three major groups: Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. By 1941, the religious Muslims constituting an absolute majority at 53.2%, whilst the Hindu population was at 30.1%.[g] The period between 1881 and 1941 saw a significant increase in the Sikh and Christian populations, growing from 8.2% and 0.1% to 14.9% and 1.9% respectively.[37] The decrease in the Hindu population has been attributed to the conversion of Hindus mainly to Sikhism and Islam, and also to Christianity.[37]

In 1941, the Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs made 30.1,[g] 53.2 and 14.9 per cent of the total population of Punjab but made 37.9, 51.4 and 8.4 per cent of its urban population respectively.[37]

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of the British India(1881–1941)[37][13]: 46 
Religious
group
Population
% 1881
Population
% 1891
Population
% 1901
Population
% 1911[h]
Population
% 1921
Population
% 1931
Population
% 1941
Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%
Hinduism[g] 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 31.7% 30.1%
Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%
Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%
Other religions / No religion 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3%
Religious groups in Punjab Province (1921–1941)
Religious
group
1921[38]: 29  1931[39]: 277  1941[13]: 42 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 12,813,383 51.05% 14,929,896 52.4% 18,259,744 53.22%
Hinduism [g] 8,799,651 35.06% 9,018,509 31.65% 10,336,549 30.13%
Sikhism 3,107,296 12.38% 4,071,624 14.29% 5,116,185 14.91%
Christianity 332,939 1.33% 419,353 1.47% 512,466 1.49%
Jainism 41,321 0.16% 43,140 0.15% 45,475 0.13%
Buddhism 5,912 0.02% 7,753 0.03% 854 0.002%
Zoroastrianism 526 0.002% 569 0.002% 4,359 0.01%
Judaism 19 0.0001% 13 0% 39 0.0001%
Others 13 0% 0 0% 34,190 0.1%
Total population 25,101,060 100% 28,490,857 100% 34,309,861 100%

Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division

Including Hisar district, Loharu State, Rohtak district, Dujana State, Gurgaon district, Pataudi State, Delhi, Karnal district, Jalandhar district, Kapurthala State, Ludhiana district, Malerkotla State, Firozpur district, Faridkot State, Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Lahore District, Amritsar district, Gujranwala District, and Sheikhupura District.[13]: 48 [12]: 2 

Religion in the Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division of Punjab Province (1901—1941)[13]: 48 
Religion Percentage
1901 1911 1921[o] 1931[o] 1941[o]
Hinduism [g] 43.79% 42.62% 41.37% 36.59% 34.42%
Islam 37.36% 37.81% 38.0% 39.72% 40.47%
Sikhism 18.35% 18.73% 19.10% 21.88% 22.37%
Christianity 0.18% 0.51% 1.22% 1.54% 1.60%
Jainism 0.32% 0.33% 0.29% 0.27% 0.23%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division (1941)[13]: 42 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hisar District 285,208 28.33% 652,842 64.85% 60,731 6.03% 1,292 0.13% 6,126 0.61% 510 0.05% 1,006,709 100%
Loharu State 3,960 14.2% 23,923 85.77% 7 0.03% 2 0.01% 0 0% 0 0% 27,892 100%
Rohtak District 166,569 17.42% 780,474 81.61% 1,466 0.15% 1,043 0.11% 6,847 0.72% 0 0% 956,399 100%
Dujana State 6,939 22.63% 23,727 77.37% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 30,666 100%
Gurgaon District 285,992 33.59% 560,537 65.83% 637 0.07% 1,673 0.2% 2,613 0.31% 6 0% 851,458 100%
Pataudi State 3,655 16.98% 17,728 82.38% 0 0% 9 0.04% 128 0.59% 0 0% 21,520 100%
Karnal District 304,346 30.6% 666,301 66.99% 19,887 2% 1,249 0.13% 2,789 0.28% 3 0% 994,575 100%
Jalandhar District 509,804 45.23% 311,010 27.59% 298,741 26.5% 6,233 0.55% 1,395 0.12% 7 0% 1,127,190 100%
Kapurthala State 213,754 56.49% 61,546 16.27% 88,350 23.35% 1,667 0.44% 380 0.1% 12,683 3.35% 378,380 100%
Ludhiana District 302,482 36.95% 171,715 20.98% 341,175 41.68% 1,913 0.23% 1,279 0.16% 51 0.01% 818,615 100%
Malerkotla State 33,881 38.45% 23,482 26.65% 30,320 34.41% 116 0.13% 310 0.35% 0 0% 88,109 100%
Firozpur District 641,448 45.07% 287,733 20.22% 479,486 33.69% 12,607 0.89% 1,674 0.12% 128 0.01% 1,423,076 100%
Faridkot State 61,352 30.79% 21,814 10.95% 115,070 57.74% 247 0.12% 800 0.4% 0 0% 199,283 100%
Patiala State 436,539 22.55% 597,488 30.86% 896,021 46.28% 1,592 0.08% 3,101 0.16% 1,518 0.08% 1,936,259 100%
Jind State 50,972 14.09% 268,355 74.17% 40,981 11.33% 161 0.04% 1,294 0.36% 49 0.01% 361,812 100%
Nabha State 70,373 20.45% 146,518 42.59% 122,451 35.59% 221 0.06% 480 0.14% 1 0% 344,044 100%
Lahore District 1,027,772 60.62% 284,689 16.79% 310,646 18.32% 70,147 4.14% 1,951 0.12% 170 0.01% 1,695,375 100%
Amritsar District 657,695 46.52% 217,431 15.38% 510,845 36.13% 25,973 1.84% 1,911 0.14% 21 0% 1,413,876 100%
Gujranwala District 642,706 70.45% 108,115 11.85% 99,139 10.87% 60,829 6.67% 1,445 0.16% 0 0% 912,234 100%
Sheikhupura District 542,344 63.62% 89,182 10.46% 160,706 18.85% 60,054 7.04% 221 0.03% 1 0% 852,508 100%
Total 6,247,791 40.47% 5,314,610 34.42% 3,454,208 22.37% 247,028 1.6% 34,744 0.23% 15,148 0.1% 15,439,980 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division (1931)[39]: 277 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hisar District 253,784 28.21% 583,429 64.86% 55,169 6.13% 1,107 0.12% 5,988 0.67% 2 0% 899,479 100%
Loharu State 3,119 13.36% 20,198 86.55% 2 0.01% 1 0% 18 0.08% 0 0% 23,338 100%
Rohtak District 137,880 17.11% 655,963 81.42% 596 0.07% 4,807 0.6% 6,375 0.79% 0 0% 805,621 100%
Dujana State 5,863 20.78% 22,347 79.2% 1 0% 5 0.02% 0 0% 0 0% 28,216 100%
Gurgaon District 242,357 32.74% 493,174 66.63% 500 0.07% 1,463 0.2% 2,665 0.36% 4 0% 740,163 100%
Pataudi State 3,168 16.79% 15,596 82.64% 1 0.01% 3 0.02% 105 0.56% 0 0% 18,873 100%
Karnal District 259,730 30.46% 570,297 66.89% 16,928 1.99% 1,469 0.17% 4,190 0.49% 0 0% 852,614 100%
Jalandhar District 419,556 44.46% 268,822 28.49% 249,571 26.45% 4,323 0.46% 1,379 0.15% 70 0.01% 943,721 100%
Kapurthala State 179,251 56.59% 64,319 20.31% 72,177 22.79% 983 0.31% 27 0.01% 0 0% 316,757 100%
Ludhiana District 235,598 35.03% 120,161 17.87% 312,829 46.52% 2,477 0.37% 1,419 0.21% 10 0% 672,494 100%
Malerkotla State 31,417 37.82% 21,252 25.58% 28,982 34.89% 135 0.16% 1,286 1.55% 0 0% 83,072 100%
Firozpur District 515,430 44.56% 244,688 21.15% 388,108 33.55% 7,070 0.61% 1,411 0.12% 25 0% 1,156,732 100%
Faridkot State 49,912 30.37% 20,855 12.69% 92,880 56.51% 167 0.1% 550 0.33% 0 0% 164,364 100%
Patiala State 363,920 22.39% 623,597 38.36% 632,972 38.94% 1,449 0.09% 3,578 0.22% 4 0% 1,625,520 100%
Jind State 46,002 14.17% 243,561 75.02% 33,290 10.25% 210 0.06% 1,613 0.5% 0 0% 324,676 100%
Nabha State 57,393 19.96% 132,354 46.02% 97,452 33.89% 66 0.02% 309 0.11% 0 0% 287,574 100%
Lahore District 815,820 59.18% 259,725 18.84% 244,304 17.72% 57,097 4.14% 1,450 0.11% 174 0.01% 1,378,570 100%
Amritsar District 524,676 46.97% 174,556 15.63% 399,951 35.8% 16,619 1.49% 1,272 0.11% 46 0% 1,117,120 100%
Gujranwala District 521,343 70.82% 92,764 12.6% 71,595 9.73% 49,364 6.71% 1,071 0.15% 1 0% 736,138 100%
Sheikhupura District 445,996 64.01% 81,887 11.75% 119,477 17.15% 49,266 7.07% 100 0.01% 6 0% 696,732 100%
Total 5,112,215 39.72% 4,709,545 36.59% 2,816,785 21.88% 198,081 1.54% 34,806 0.27% 342 0% 12,871,774 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division (1921)[38]: 29 
District/
Princely State
Hinduism Islam Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Hisar District 548,351 67.13% 215,943 26.44% 45,615 5.58% 1,024 0.13% 5,874 0.72% 3 0% 816,810 100%
Loharu State 17,978 87.18% 2,625 12.73% 0 0% 0 0% 18 0.09% 0 0% 20,621 100%
Rohtak District 629,592 81.52% 125,035 16.19% 602 0.08% 10,033 1.3% 7,010 0.91% 0 0% 772,272 100%
Dujana State 20,135 77.94% 5,698 22.06% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 25,833 100%
Gurgaon District 460,134 67.47% 216,860 31.8% 924 0.14% 1,316 0.19% 2,762 0.4% 7 0% 682,003 100%
Pataudi State 15,090 83.38% 2,898 16.01% 0 0% 0 0% 109 0.6% 0 0% 18,097 100%
Karnal District 573,224 69.17% 235,618 28.43% 12,280 1.48% 3,382 0.41% 4,222 0.51% 0 0% 828,726 100%
Jalandhar District 244,995 29.79% 366,586 44.57% 206,130 25.06% 4,088 0.5% 736 0.09% 9 0% 822,544 100%
Kapurthala State 58,412 20.55% 160,457 56.44% 64,074 22.54% 1,100 0.39% 228 0.08% 4 0% 284,275 100%
Ludhiana District 135,512 23.87% 192,961 33.99% 235,721 41.53% 1,613 0.28% 1,796 0.32% 19 0% 567,622 100%
Malerkotla State 29,459 36.68% 28,413 35.37% 21,828 27.18% 37 0.05% 585 0.73% 0 0% 80,322 100%
Firozpur District 306,350 27.89% 482,540 43.94% 302,761 27.57% 5,365 0.49% 1,211 0.11% 21 0% 1,098,248 100%
Faridkot State 38,610 25.63% 44,813 29.74% 66,658 44.24% 107 0.07% 473 0.31% 0 0% 150,661 100%
Patiala State 642,055 42.81% 330,341 22.03% 522,675 34.85% 1,395 0.09% 3,249 0.22% 24 0% 1,499,739 100%
Jind State 234,721 76.16% 43,251 14.03% 28,026 9.09% 637 0.21% 1,548 0.5% 0 0% 308,183 100%
Nabha State 133,870 50.84% 50,756 19.27% 78,389 29.77% 41 0.02% 278 0.11% 0 0% 263,334 100%
Lahore District 255,690 22.6% 647,640 57.25% 179,975 15.91% 46,454 4.11% 1,209 0.11% 368 0.03% 1,131,336 100%
Amritsar District 204,435 22% 423,724 45.59% 287,004 30.88% 12,773 1.37% 1,375 0.15% 63 0.01% 929,374 100%
Gujranwala District 101,566 16.29% 443,147 71.06% 50,802 8.15% 27,308 4.38% 754 0.12% 4 0% 623,581 100%
Sheikhupura District 85,781 16.4% 330,880 63.25% 82,965 15.86% 23,431 4.48% 78 0.01% 0 0% 523,135 100%
Total 4,735,960 41.37% 4,350,186 38% 2,186,429 19.1% 140,104 1.22% 33,515 0.29% 522 0% 11,446,716 100%

Himalayan geographical division

Including Sirmoor State, Simla District, Simla Hill States, Bilaspur State, Kangra district, Mandi State, Suket State, and Chamba State.[13]: 48 [12]: 2 

Religion in the Himalayan geographical division of Punjab Province (1901—1941)[13]: 48 
Religion Percentage
1901 1911 1921[o] 1931[o] 1941[o]
Hinduism [g] 94.60% 94.53% 94.50% 94.42% 94.76%
Islam 4.53% 4.30% 4.46% 4.52% 4.30%
Sikhism 0.23% 0.46% 0.44% 0.49% 0.60%
Christianity 0.20% 0.26% 0.26% 0.14% 0.10%
Jainism 0.03% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Himalayan geographical division (1941)[13]: 42 
District/
Princely State
Hinduism [g] Islam Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Sirmoor State 146,199 93.7% 7,374 4.73% 2,334 1.5% 38 0.02% 81 0.05% 0 0% 156,026 100%
Simla District 29,466 76.38% 7,022 18.2% 1,032 2.68% 934 2.42% 114 0.3% 8 0.02% 38,576 100%
Simla Hill States 345,716 96.16% 10,812 3.01% 2,693 0.75% 161 0.04% 126 0.04% 12 0% 359,520 100%
Bilaspur State 108,375 98.22% 1,498 1.36% 453 0.41% 7 0.01% 3 0% 0 0% 110,336 100%
Kangra District 846,531 94.12% 43,249 4.81% 4,809 0.53% 788 0.09% 101 0.01% 3,899 0.43% 899,377 100%
Mandi State 227,463 97.79% 4,328 1.86% 583 0.25% 11 0% 0 0% 208 0.09% 232,593 100%
Suket State 69,974 98.43% 884 1.24% 234 0.33% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 71,092 100%
Chamba State 155,910 92.3% 12,318 7.29% 107 0.06% 190 0.11% 0 0% 383 0.23% 168,908 100%
Total 1,929,634 94.76% 87,485 4.3% 12,245 0.6% 2,129 0.1% 425 0.02% 4,510 0.22% 2,036,428 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Himalayan geographical division (1931)[39]: 277 
District/
Princely State
Hinduism [g] Islam Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Sirmoor State 139,031 93.58% 7,020 4.73% 2,413 1.62% 52 0.04% 52 0.04% 0 0% 148,568 100%
Simla District 28,661 77.91% 5,810 15.79% 760 2.07% 1,540 4.19% 1 0% 14 0.04% 36,786 100%
Simla Hill States 317,390 95.93% 10,017 3.03% 1,817 0.55% 176 0.05% 141 0.04% 1,309 0.4% 330,850 100%
Bilaspur State 99,023 98.05% 1,458 1.44% 507 0.5% 6 0.01% 0 0% 0 0% 100,994 100%
Kangra District 752,098 93.86% 40,483 5.05% 2,396 0.3% 576 0.07% 94 0.01% 5,665 0.71% 801,312 100%
Mandi State 199,935 96.37% 6,351 3.06% 899 0.43% 141 0.07% 0 0% 139 0.07% 207,465 100%
Suket State 57,616 98.64% 733 1.25% 44 0.08% 1 0% 0 0% 14 0.02% 58,408 100%
Chamba State 135,254 92.09% 10,839 7.38% 112 0.08% 94 0.06% 3 0% 568 0.39% 146,870 100%
Total 1,729,008 94.42% 82,711 4.52% 8,948 0.49% 2,586 0.14% 291 0.02% 7,709 0.42% 1,831,253 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Himalayan geographical division (1921)[38]: 29 
District/
Princely State
Hinduism Islam Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Nahan State 132,431 94.29% 6,449 4.59% 1,449 1.03% 44 0.03% 65 0.05% 10 0.01% 140,448 100%
Simla District 33,228 73.31% 6,953 15.34% 1,173 2.59% 3,823 8.43% 90 0.2% 60 0.13% 45,327 100%
Simla Hill States 292,768 95.45% 9,551 3.11% 2,040 0.67% 164 0.05% 142 0.05% 2,053 0.67% 306,718 100%
Bilaspur State 96,000 97.96% 1,559 1.59% 437 0.45% 4 0% 0 0% 0 0% 98,000 100%
Kangra District 722,277 94.28% 38,263 4.99% 2,083 0.27% 363 0.05% 56 0.01% 3,023 0.39% 766,065 100%
Mandi State 181,358 98.01% 3,462 1.87% 142 0.08% 10 0.01% 0 0% 76 0.04% 185,048 100%
Suket State 53,625 98.71% 659 1.21% 44 0.08% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 54,328 100%
Chamba State 130,489 91.98% 10,529 7.42% 242 0.17% 63 0.04% 3 0% 541 0.38% 141,867 100%
Total 1,642,176 94.5% 77,425 4.46% 7,610 0.44% 4,471 0.26% 356 0.02% 5,763 0.33% 1,737,801 100%

Sub−Himalayan geographical division

Including Ambala district, Kalsia State, Hoshiarpur district, Gurdaspur district, Sialkot District, Gujrat District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Attock District.[13]: 48 [12]: 2 

Religion in the Sub−Himalayan geographical division of Punjab Province (1901—1941)[13]: 48 
Religion Percentage
1901 1911 1921[o] 1931[o] 1941[o]
Islam 60.62% 61.19% 61.44% 61.99% 62.32%
Hinduism [g] 33.09% 27.36% 26.66% 24.20% 23.60%
Sikhism 5.68% 9.74% 9.78% 11.65% 11.89%
Christianity 0.48% 1.59% 2.01% 2.05% 2.04%
Jainism 0.12% 0.12% 0.12% 0.11% 0.12%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Sub−Himalayan geographical division (1941)[13]: 42 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Ambala District 268,999 31.73% 412,658 48.68% 156,543 18.47% 6,065 0.72% 3,065 0.36% 415 0.05% 847,745 100%
Kalsia State 25,049 37.17% 29,866 44.32% 12,235 18.15% 55 0.08% 188 0.28% 0 0% 67,393 100%
Hoshiarpur District 380,759 32.53% 584,080 49.91% 198,194 16.93% 6,165 0.53% 1,125 0.1% 0 0% 1,170,323 100%
Gurdaspur District 589,923 51.14% 290,774 25.21% 221,261 19.18% 51,522 4.47% 25 0% 6 0% 1,153,511 100%
Sialkot District 739,218 62.09% 231,319 19.43% 139,409 11.71% 75,831 6.37% 3,250 0.27% 1,470 0.12% 1,190,497 100%
Gujrat District 945,609 85.58% 84,643 7.66% 70,233 6.36% 4,449 0.4% 10 0% 8 0% 1,104,952 100%
Jhelum District 563,033 89.42% 40,888 6.49% 24,680 3.92% 893 0.14% 159 0.03% 5 0% 629,658 100%
Rawalpindi District 628,193 80% 82,478 10.5% 64,127 8.17% 9,014 1.15% 1,337 0.17% 82 0.01% 785,231 100%
Attock District 611,128 90.42% 43,209 6.39% 20,120 2.98% 1,392 0.21% 13 0% 13 0% 675,875 100%
Total 4,751,911 62.32% 1,799,915 23.6% 906,802 11.89% 155,386 2.04% 9,172 0.12% 1,999 0.03% 7,625,185 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Sub−Himalayan geographical division (1931)[39]: 277 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Ambala District 230,837 31.07% 346,809 46.68% 155,555 20.94% 7,141 0.96% 2,550 0.34% 10 0% 742,902 100%
Kalsia State 21,797 36.42% 28,832 48.18% 9,035 15.1% 22 0.04% 162 0.27% 0 0% 59,848 100%
Hoshiarpur District 328,078 31.78% 526,182 50.98% 173,147 16.77% 3,764 0.36% 1,016 0.1% 0 0% 1,032,187 100%
Gurdaspur District 493,216 50.8% 255,949 26.36% 178,471 18.38% 43,243 4.45% 15 0% 4 0% 970,898 100%
Sialkot District 609,633 62.23% 206,421 21.07% 94,955 9.69% 66,365 6.77% 2,236 0.23% 7 0% 979,617 100%
Gujrat District 786,750 85.29% 73,356 7.95% 59,188 6.42% 3,097 0.34% 32 0% 4 0% 922,427 100%
Jhelum District 482,097 89.1% 36,068 6.67% 22,030 4.07% 672 0.12% 209 0.04% 0 0% 541,076 100%
Rawalpindi District 524,965 82.76% 59,485 9.38% 41,265 6.51% 7,486 1.18% 1,077 0.17% 79 0.01% 634,357 100%
Attock District 531,793 91.07% 31,932 5.47% 19,522 3.34% 710 0.12% 2 0% 1 0% 583,960 100%
Total 4,009,166 61.99% 1,565,034 24.2% 753,168 11.65% 132,500 2.05% 7,299 0.11% 105 0% 6,467,272 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the Sub−Himalayan geographical division (1921)[38]: 29 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Ambala District 205,750 30.19% 370,125 54.31% 97,614 14.32% 5,679 0.83% 2,272 0.33% 37 0.01% 681,477 100%
Kalsia State 20,394 35.55% 28,769 50.15% 8,014 13.97% 4 0.01% 190 0.33% 0 0% 57,371 100%
Hoshiarpur District 289,298 31.19% 500,339 53.95% 132,958 14.34% 3,745 0.4% 1,079 0.12% 0 0% 927,419 100%
Gurdaspur District 422,877 49.62% 258,823 30.37% 137,625 16.15% 32,832 3.85% 20 0% 15 0% 852,192 100%
Sialkot District 580,532 61.9% 217,912 23.24% 74,939 7.99% 62,266 6.64% 2,147 0.23% 27 0% 937,823 100%
Gujrat District 709,684 86.12% 62,529 7.59% 49,456 6% 2,373 0.29% 4 0% 0 0% 824,046 100%
Jhelum District 422,979 88.66% 34,837 7.3% 18,626 3.9% 430 0.09% 195 0.04% 1 0% 477,068 100%
Rawalpindi District 470,038 82.58% 57,185 10.05% 31,718 5.57% 9,286 1.63% 954 0.17% 43 0.01% 569,224 100%
Attock District 465,694 90.91% 26,184 5.11% 19,809 3.87% 557 0.11% 5 0% 0 0% 512,249 100%
Total 3,587,246 61.44% 1,556,703 26.66% 570,759 9.78% 117,172 2.01% 6,866 0.12% 123 0% 5,838,869 100%

North−West Dry Area geographical division

Including Montgomery District, Shahpur District, Mianwali District, Lyallpur District, Jhang District, Multan District, Bahawalpur State, Muzaffargarh District, Dera Ghazi Khan District, and the Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract.[13]: 48 [12]: 2 

Religion in the North−West Dry Area geographical division of Punjab Province (1901—1941)[13]: 48 
Religion Percentage
1901 1911 1921[o] 1931[o] 1941[o]
Islam 79.01% 80.00% 78.95% 78.22% 77.86%
Hinduism [g] 17.84% 13.58% 14.23% 13.86% 14.03%
Sikhism 2.91% 5.62% 5.64% 6.73% 6.74%
Christianity 0.23% 0.79% 1.17% 1.18% 1.17%
Jainism 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the North−West Dry Area geographical division (1941)[13]: 42 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Montgomery District 918,564 69.11% 210,966 15.87% 175,064 13.17% 24,432 1.84% 49 0% 28 0% 1,329,103 100%
Shahpur District 835,918 83.68% 102,172 10.23% 48,046 4.81% 12,770 1.28% 13 0% 2 0% 998,921 100%
Mianwali District 436,260 86.16% 62,814 12.41% 6,865 1.36% 358 0.07% 23 0% 1 0% 506,321 100%
Lyallpur District 877,518 62.85% 204,059 14.61% 262,737 18.82% 51,948 3.72% 35 0% 8 0% 1,396,305 100%
Jhang District 678,736 82.61% 129,889 15.81% 12,238 1.49% 763 0.09% 5 0% 0 0% 821,631 100%
Multan District 1,157,911 78.01% 249,872 16.83% 61,628 4.15% 14,290 0.96% 552 0.04% 80 0.01% 1,484,333 100%
Muzaffargarh District 616,074 86.42% 90,643 12.72% 5,882 0.83% 227 0.03% 0 0% 23 0% 712,849 100%
Dera Ghazi Khan District 512,678 88.19% 67,407 11.59% 1,072 0.18% 87 0.01% 106 0.02% 0 0% 581,350 100%
Bahawalpur State 1,098,814 81.93% 174,408 13% 46,945 3.5% 3,048 0.23% 351 0.03% 17,643 1.32% 1,341,209 100%
Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract 40,084 99.6% 160 0.4% 2 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 40,246 100%
Total 7,172,557 77.86% 1,292,390 14.03% 620,479 6.74% 107,923 1.17% 1,134 0.01% 17,785 0.19% 9,212,268 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the North−West Dry Area geographical division (1931)[39]: 277 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism [g] Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Montgomery District 697,542 69.77% 136,783 13.68% 148,155 14.82% 17,245 1.72% 38 0% 9 0% 999,772 100%
Shahpur District 679,546 82.72% 90,561 11.02% 40,074 4.88% 11,294 1.37% 14 0% 1 0% 821,490 100%
Mianwali District 357,109 86.77% 49,794 12.1% 4,231 1.03% 380 0.09% 20 0% 5 0% 411,539 100%
Lyallpur District 720,996 62.62% 173,344 15.06% 211,391 18.36% 45,518 3.95% 95 0.01% 7 0% 1,151,351 100%
Jhang District 552,853 83.16% 102,990 15.49% 8,476 1.27% 494 0.07% 0 0% 20 0% 664,833 100%
Multan District 942,937 80.26% 182,029 15.49% 39,453 3.36% 9,924 0.84% 440 0.04% 117 0.01% 1,174,900 100%
Muzaffargarh District 513,265 86.79% 72,577 12.27% 5,287 0.89% 246 0.04% 0 0% 0 0% 591,375 100%
Dera Ghazi Khan District 432,911 88.16% 57,217 11.65% 760 0.15% 31 0.01% 125 0.03% 0 0% 491,044 100%
Bahawalpur State 799,176 81.17% 149,454 15.18% 34,896 3.54% 1,054 0.11% 12 0% 20 0% 984,612 100%
Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract 29,469 99.42% 173 0.58% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 29,642 100%
Total 5,725,804 78.22% 1,014,922 13.86% 492,723 6.73% 86,186 1.18% 744 0.01% 179 0% 7,320,558 100%
Religion in the Districts & Princely States of the North−West Dry Area geographical division (1921)[38]: 29 
District/
Princely State
Islam Hinduism Sikhism Christianity Jainism Others[p] Total
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Montgomery District 513,055 71.88% 94,791 13.28% 95,520 13.38% 10,408 1.46% 12 0% 0 0% 713,786 100%
Shahpur District 596,100 82.8% 82,182 11.42% 30,361 4.22% 11,270 1.57% 3 0% 2 0% 719,918 100%
Mianwali District 308,876 86.23% 45,974 12.83% 2,986 0.83% 369 0.1% 0 0% 0 0% 358,205 100%
Lyallpur District 594,917 60.74% 181,488 18.53% 160,821 16.42% 42,004 4.29% 231 0.02% 2 0% 979,463 100%
Jhang District 475,388 83.32% 85,339 14.96% 9,376 1.64% 449 0.08% 7 0% 0 0% 570,559 100%
Multan District 731,605 82.18% 134,013 15.05% 18,562 2.08% 6,006 0.67% 28 0% 50 0.01% 890,264 100%
Muzaffargarh District 493,369 86.79% 69,878 12.29% 4,869 0.86% 356 0.06% 6 0% 0 0% 568,478 100%
Dera Ghazi Khan District 411,431 87.72% 56,346 12.01% 932 0.2% 47 0.01% 296 0.06% 0 0% 469,052 100%
Bahawalpur State 647,207 647207% 114,621 14.67% 19,071 2.44% 283 0.04% 1 0% 8 0% 781,191 100%
Biloch Trans–Frontier Tract 26,578 99.33% 180 0.67% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 26,758 100%
Total 4,798,526 78.95% 864,812 14.23% 342,498 5.64% 71,192 1.17% 584 0.01% 62 0% 6,077,674 100%

Language

As with religion, Punjab was a linguistically eclectically diverse province and region. In 1837, Persian had been abolished as the official language of Company administration and replaced by local Indian vernacular languages. In the Sikh Empire, Persian continued to be the official state language.[40] Shortly after annexing the Punjab in 1849, the Board of Administration canvassed local officials in each of the provinces's six divisions to decide which language was "best suited for the Courts and Public Business".[41] Officials in the western divisions recommended Persian whilst eastern officials suggested a shift to Urdu.[41] In September 1849 a two-language policy was instituted throughout the province. The language policy in the Punjab differed from other Indian provinces in that Urdu was not a widespread local vernacular. In 1849 John Lawrence noted "that Urdu is not the language of these districts and neither is Persian".[41]

In 1854, the Board of Administration abruptly ended the two-language policy and Urdu was designated as the official language of government across the province. The decision was motivated by new civil service rules requiring all officials pass a test in the official language of their local court. In fear of potentially losing their jobs, officials in Persian districts petitioned the board to replace Persian with Urdu, believing Urdu the easier language to master.[42] Urdu remained the official administrative language until 1947.

Officials, although aware that Punjabi was the colloquial language of the majority, instead favoured the use of Urdu for a number of reasons. Criticism of Punjabi included the belief that it was simply a form of patois, lacking any form of standardisation, and that "would be inflexible and barren, and incapable of expressing nice shades of meaning and exact logical ideas with the precision so essential in local proceedings."[42] Similar arguments had earlier been made about Bengali, Oriya and Hindustani; however, those languages were later adopted for local administration. Instead it is believed the advantages of Urdu served the administration greater. Urdu, and initially Persian, allowed the Company to recruit experienced administrators from elsewhere in India who did not speak Punjabi, to facilitate greater integration with other Indian territories which were administered with Urdu, and to help foster ties with local elites who spoke Persian and Urdu and could act as intermediaries with the wider populace.[42]

As per the 1911 census, speakers of the Punjabi dialects and languages, including standard Punjabi along with Lahnda[q] formed just over three-quarters (75.93 per cent) of the total provincial population.

Linguistic Demographics of Punjab Province
Language Percentage
1911[12]: 370 
Punjabi[r] 75.93%
Western Hindi[s] 15.82%
Western Pahari 4.11%
Rajasthani 3.0%
Balochi 0.29%
Pashto 0.28%
English 0.15%
Other 0.42%

Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division

Including Hisar district, Loharu State, Rohtak district, Dujana State, Gurgaon district, Pataudi State, Delhi, Karnal district, Jalandhar district, Kapurthala State, Ludhiana district, Malerkotla State, Firozpur district, Faridkot State, Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Lahore District, Amritsar district, and Gujranwala District.

Linguistic Demographics of the Indo−Gangetic Plain West geographical division
Language Percentage
1911[12]: 370 
Punjabi[t] 64.49%
Western Hindi[s] 29.56%
Rajasthani 6.26%
Western Pahari 0.87%
English 0.11%
Pashto 0.07%
Other 0.13%

Himalayan geographical division

Including Nahan State, Simla district, Simla Hill States, Kangra district, Mandi State, Suket State, and Chamba State.

Linguistic Demographics of the Himalayan geographical division
Language Percentage
1911[12]: 370 
Western Pahari 50.22%
Punjabi 45.15%
Western Hindi[s] 1.39%
English 0.2%
Rajasthani 0.02%
Pashto 0.01%
Other 3.0%

Sub−Himalayan geographical division

Including Ambala district, Kalsia State, Hoshiarpur district, Gurdaspur district, Sialkot District, Gujrat District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Attock District.

Linguistic Demographics of the Sub−Himalayan geographical division
Language Percentage
1911[12]: 370 
Punjabi[u] 88.77%
Western Hindi[s] 8.81%
Western Pahari 1.49%
Pashto 0.5%
English 0.3%
Rajasthani 0.01%
Other 0.12%

North–West Dry Area geographical division

Including Montgomery District, Shahpur District, Mianwali District, Lyallpur District, Jhang District, Multan District, Bahawalpur State, Muzaffargarh District, and Dera Ghazi Khan District.

Linguistic Demographics of the North–West Dry Area geographical division
Language Percentage
1911[12]: 370 
Punjabi[v] 96.45%
Balochi 1.25%
Rajasthani 0.62%
Western Hindi[s] 0.56%
Pashto 0.53%
English 0.05%
Western Pahari 0.01%
Other 0.53%

Tribes

See also: List of Punjabi tribes

Jats in Delhi (1868).
Rajputs in Delhi (1868).
Brahmin in Lahore (c. 1799–1849).
Left to right: Gurkha, Brahmin and Shudra (Chuhra-Chamar) in Shimla (1868).
Arains in Lahore (1868).
Tarkhans in Lahore (c. 1862–72).
Gujjars in Delhi (c. 1859–69).
Arora in Lahore (c. 1862–72).
Kumhars in Lahore (c. 1859–69).

Punjab Province was diverse, with the main castes represented alongside numerous subcastes and tribes (also known as Jāti or Barādarī), forming parts of the various ethnic groups in the province, contemporarily known as Punjabis, Saraikis, Haryanvis, Hindkowans, Dogras, Paharis, and others.

Tribes of Punjab Province (1881–1931)[12]: 478 [43]: 348 [44]: 193–254 [45]: 367 [46]: 281–309 
Tribe 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Jat 4,223,885 20.31% 4,500,340 19.64% 4,884,285 20.04% 4,891,060 20.56% 5,453,747 21.73% 6,070,032 21.31%
Rajput 1,648,426 7.92% 1,747,989 7.63% 1,784,402 7.32% 1,586,274 6.67% 1,853,025 7.38% 2,351,650 8.25%
Brahman 1,040,771 5% 1,069,132 4.67% 1,077,252 4.42% 985,901 4.14% 994,529 3.96% 1,058,598 3.72%
Chuhra 1,039,039 5% 1,175,504 5.13% 1,175,003 4.82% 912,998 3.84% 750,596 2.99% 681,359 2.39%
Chamar 1,033,727 4.97% 1,147,913 5.01% 1,172,118 4.81% 1,075,941 4.52% 1,134,700 4.52% 1,102,465 3.87%
Arain 795,471 3.82% 890,264 3.88% 1,003,698 4.12% 973,888 4.09% 1,086,455 4.33% 1,329,312 4.67%
Julaha 593,199 2.85% 620,401 2.71% 651,800 2.67% 626,960 2.64% 643,403 2.56% 672,243 2.36%
Tarkhan 564,385 2.71% 621,718 2.71% 675,361 2.77% 637,971 2.68% 614,912 2.45% 654,053 2.3%
Gujjar 539,251 2.59% 600,198 2.62% 611,904 2.51% 595,598 2.5% 627,451 2.5% 696,442 2.44%
Arora 538,465 2.59% 603,131 2.63% 647,945 2.66% 667,943 2.81% 707,495 2.82% 769,694 2.7%
Kumhar 465,676 2.24% 515,331 2.25% 561,298 2.3% 542,906 2.28% 570,158 2.27% 62,0402 2.18%
Bania 437,000 2.1% 442,000 1.93% 452,000 1.85% 404,000 1.7% 374,169 1.49%
Jhinwar 418,499 2.01% 458,702 2% 450,362 1.85% 331,951 1.4% 371,418 1.48% 370,168 1.3%
Khatri 392,413 1.89% 418,517 1.83% 433,579 1.78% 423,704 1.78% 452,902 1.8% 516,207 1.81%
Awan 350,848 1.69% 389,402 1.7% 420,504 1.73% 425,450 1.79% 439,975 1.75% 538,760 1.89%
Kanet 346,000 1.66% 370,000 1.61% 390,000 1.6% 404,000 1.7% 288,159 1.15%
Mochi 334,034 1.61% 384,179 1.68% 408,314 1.68% 410,977 1.73% 429,242 1.71% 466,832 1.64%
Baloch 331,851 1.6% 383,138 1.67% 466,645 1.92% 530,976 2.23% 531,084 2.12% 624,691 2.19%
Nai 323,703 1.56% 371,144 1.62% 370,019 1.52% 344,845 1.45% 360,653 1.44% 380,657 1.34%
Sheikh 293,606 1.41% 287,778 1.26% 264,656 1.09% 276,687 1.16% 244,800 0.98% 407,576 1.43%
Lohar 291,506 1.4% 323,420 1.41% 347,099 1.42% 319,847 1.34% 322,195 1.28% 333,910 1.17%
Teli 250,544 1.2% 291,513 1.27% 309,433 1.27% 284,505 1.2% 305,122 1.22% 339,124 1.19%
Pathan 210,613 1.01% 221,262 0.97% 246,790 1.01% 272,547 1.15% 261,729 1.04% 345,438 1.21%
Sayyid 200,728 0.96% 217,034 0.95% 230,802 0.95% 239,160 1.01% 247,087 0.98% 293,313 1.03%
Mirasi 192,107 0.92% 230,700 1.01% 244,506 1% 223,093 0.94% 232,280 0.93% 242,685 0.85%
Machhi 167,882 0.81% 196,574 0.86% 236,122 0.97% 239,702 1.01% 280,956 1.12% 314,791 1.1%
Ahir 165,878 0.8% 188,838 0.82% 197,805 0.81% 201,299 0.85% 201,539 0.8% 221,897 0.78%
Kashmiri 149,733 0.72% 141,280 0.62% 189,878 0.78% 175,334 0.74% 166,449 0.66% 200,066 0.7%
Saini 147,183 0.71% 120,507 0.53% 121,722 0.5% 107,759 0.45% 120,376 0.48% 157,301 0.55%
Sunar 145,903 0.7% 164,087 0.72% 174,628 0.72% 155,993 0.66% 127,090 0.51% 159,655 0.56%
Kamboh 129,468 0.62% 150,646 0.66% 173,780 0.71% 171,536 0.72% 180,870 0.72% 239,385 0.84%
Dhobi 123,767 0.6% 139,421 0.61% 142,342 0.58% 151,566 0.64% 163,908 0.65% 174,519 0.61%
Meo 112,566 0.54% 115,916 0.51% 133,300 0.55% 120,752 0.51% 111,564 0.44% 124,821 0.44%
Faqir 111,995 0.54% 300,214 1.31% 362,266 1.49% 262,511 1.1% 270,070 1.08% 283,634 1%
Ghirath 110,507 0.53% 118,631 0.52% 121,718 0.5% 121,107 0.51% 117,949 0.47% 122,785 0.43%
Chhimba 100,448 0.48% 141,819 0.62% 147,152 0.6% 124,090 0.52% 120,695 0.48% 92,491 0.32%
Qassab 92,571 0.45% 109,435 0.48% 114,158 0.47% 117,363 0.49% 120,820 0.48% 127,198 0.45%
Rathi 82,957 0.4% 100,656 0.44% 37,793 0.16% 97,763 0.41% 118,015 0.47% 134,093 0.47%
Dagi & Koli 78,559 0.38% 167,772 0.73% 153,990 0.63% 172,269 0.72% 165,159 0.66% 182,056 0.64%
Mughal 92,000 0.44% 118,000 0.51% 98,000 0.4% 99,000 0.42% 88,951 0.35%
Jogi-Rawal 90,000 0.43% 91,000 0.4% 76,000 0.31% 83,000 0.35% 80,577 0.32%
Dumna 66,169 0.32% 64,046 0.28% 53,394 0.22% 72,250 0.3% 36,669 0.15% 32,055 0.11%
Dhanuk 66,000 0.32% 74,000 0.32% 77,000 0.32% 83,000 0.35% 87,278 0.35%
Dogar 63,000 0.01% 70,000 0.01% 75,000 0.01% 68,000 0.29% 74,369 0.3%
Khoja 62,000 0.3% 90,000 0.39% 99,000 0.41% 63,000 0.26% 87,461 0.35%
Mallah 62,000 0.3% 77,000 0.34% 73,000 0.3% 78,000 0.33% 74,233 0.3%
Mali 58,672 0.28% 95,989 0.42% 105,956 0.43% 96,883 0.41% 92,933 0.37% 72,299 0.25%
Bharai 56,000 0.27% 67,000 0.29% 66,000 0.27% 58,000 0.24% 61,721 0.25%
Barwala 55,000 0.26% 64,000 0.28% 69,000 0.28% 64,000 0.27% 65,907 0.26%
Mahtam 50,313 0.24% 56,982 0.25% 82,719 0.34% 81,805 0.34% 94,325 0.38% 64,004 0.22%
Labana 47,000 0.23% 55,000 0.24% 56,000 0.23% 58,000 0.24% 56,316 0.22%
Megh 37,373 0.18% 41,068 0.18% 44,315 0.18% 39,549 0.17% 30,465 0.12% 22,539 0.08%
Khokhar 36,000 0.17% 130,000 0.57% 108,000 0.44% 60,000 0.25% 69,169 0.28%
Darzi 30,190 0.15% 36,919 0.16% 39,164 0.16% 35,508 0.15% 38,256 0.15% 45,688 0.16%
Bawaria 22,013 0.11% 26,420 0.12% 29,112 0.12% 32,849 0.14% 34,807 0.14% 32,508 0.11%
Sansi 19,920 0.1% 22,218 0.1% 26,000 0.11% 24,439 0.1% 17,402 0.07% 28,262 0.1%
Od 15,652 0.08% 22,450 0.1% 26,160 0.11% 31,690 0.13% 28,502 0.11% 32,719 0.11%
Sarera 10,792 0.05% 11,366 0.05% 9,587 0.04% 10,743 0.05% 9,873 0.04% 11,230 0.04%
Pakhiwara 3,741 0.02% 3,674 0.02% 3,595 0.01% 3,711 0.02% 2,801 0.01% 3,100 0.01%
Ghosi 2,221 0.01% 2,652 0.01% 3,012 0.01% 2,419 0.01% 502 0% 3,836 0.01%
Harni 1,318 0.01% 4,157 0.02% 3,462 0.01% 3,360 0.01% 2,988 0.01% 3,387 0.01%
Maliar 81,000 0.33% 90,000 0.38% 88,755 0.35%
Mussalli 57,367 0.24% 309,543 1.3% 323,549 1.29% 412,295 1.45%
Qureshi 53,000 0.22% 71,000 0.3% 97,625 0.39%
Aggarwal 339,494 1.43% 349,322 1.39% 373,014 1.31%
Bagaria 1,262 0.01% 1,619 0.01% 2,446 0.01%
Total population 20,800,995 100% 22,915,894 100% 24,367,113 100% 23,791,841 100% 25,101,514 100% 28,490,869 100%

Literacy

Literacy Rate by Religious Community in Punjab Province (1941)[13]: 65 
Religion % Total Literacy % Total Male Literacy % Total Female Literacy
Jains 41.93% 29.03% 12.90%
Sikhs 17.03% 12.13% 4.90%
Hindus 16.35% 11.89% 4.46%
Christians 7.76% 4.69% 3.07%
Muslims 6.97% 5.52% 1.45%
Others 7.62% 6.85% 0.77%
Total 10.87% 8.13% 2.74%

Administrative divisions

Districts of Punjab with Muslim (green) and non-Muslim (pink) majorities, as per 1941 census
Punjab (British India): British Territory and Princely States
Division Districts in British Territory / Princely States
Rawalpindi Division
Lahore Division
Multan Division
Jullundur Division
Delhi Division
Total area, British Territory 97,209 square miles
Native States
Total area, Native States 36,532 square miles
Total area, Punjab 133,741 square miles

Agriculture

Within a few years of its annexation, the Punjab was regarded as British India's model agricultural province. From the 1860s onwards, agricultural prices and land values soared in the Punjab. This stemmed from increasing political security and improvements in infrastructure and communications. New cash crops such as wheat, tobacco, sugar cane and cotton were introduced. By the 1920s the Punjab produced a tenth of India's total cotton crop and a third of its wheat crop. Per capita output of all the crops in the province increased by approximately 45 percent between 1891 and 1921, a growth contrasting to agricultural crises in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa during the period.[47]

The Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute became the first higher educational agricultural institution in the Punjab when established in 1906. Rapid agricultural growth, combined with access to easy credit for landowners, led to a growing crisis of indebtedness.[48] When landowners were unable to pay down their loans, urban based moneylenders took advantage of the law to foreclose debts of mortgaged land.[48] This led to a situation where land increasingly passed to absentee moneylenders who had little connection to the villages were the land was located. The colonial government recognised this as a potential threat to the stability of the province, and a split emerged in the government between paternalists who favoured intervention to ensure order, and those who opposed state intervention in private property relations.[47] The paternalists emerged victorious and the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 prevented urban commercial castes, who were overwhelmingly Hindu, from permanently acquiring land from statutory agriculturalist tribes, who were mainly Muslim and Sikh.[49]

Accompanied by the increasing franchise of the rural population, this interventionist approach led to a long lasting impact on the political landscape of the province. The agricultural lobby remained loyal to the government, and rejected communalism in common defence of its privileges against urban moneylenders.[47] This position was entrenched by the Unionist Party. The Congress Party's opposition to the Act led to it being marginalised in the Punjab, reducing its influence more so than in any other province, and inhibiting its ability to challenge colonial rule locally. The political dominance of the Unionist Party would remain until partition, and significantly it was only on the collapse of its power on the eve of independence from Britain, that communal violence began to spread in rural Punjab.[47]

Army

In the immediate aftermath of annexation, the Sikh Khalsa Army was disbanded, and soldiers were required to surrender their weapons and return to agricultural or other pursuits.[15] The Bengal Army, keen to utilise the highly trained ex-Khalsa army troops began to recruit from the Punjab for Bengal infantry units stationed in the province. However opposition to the recruitment of these soldiers spread and resentment emerged from sepoys of the Bengal Army towards the incursion of Punjabis into their ranks. In 1851, the Punjab Irregular Force also known as the 'Piffars' was raised. Initially they consisted of one garrison and four mule batteries, four regiments of cavalry, eleven of infantry and the Corps of Guides, totalling approximately 13,000 men.[50] The gunners and infantry were mostly Punjabi, many from the Khalsa Army, whilst the cavalry had a considerable Hindustani presence.[50]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, eighteen new regiments were raised from the Punjab which remained loyal to the East India Company throughout the crisis in the Punjab and United Provinces.[51] By June 1858, of the 80,000 native troops in the Bengal Army, 75,000 were Punjabi of which 23,000 were Sikh.[52] In the aftermath of the rebellion, a thorough re-organisation of the army took place. Henceforth recruitment into the British Indian Army was restricted to loyal peoples and provinces. Punjabi Sikhs emerged as a particularly favoured martial race to serve the army.[53] In the midst of The Great Game, and fearful of a Russian invasion of British India, the Punjab was regarded of significant strategic importance as a frontier province. In addition to their loyalty and a belief in their suitability to serve in harsh conditions, Punjabi recruits were favoured as they could be paid at the local service rate, whereas soldiers serving on the frontier from more distant lands had to be paid extra foreign service allowances.[54] By 1875, of the entire Indian army, a third of recruits hailed from the Punjab.[55]

In 1914, three fifths of the Indian army came from the Punjab, despite the region constituting approximately one tenth of the total population of British India.[55] During the First World War, Punjabi Sikhs alone accounted for one quarter of all armed personnel in India.[53] Military service provided access to the wider world, and personnel were deployed across the British Empire from Malaya, the Mediterranean and Africa.[53] Upon completion of their terms of service, these personnel were often amongst the first to seek their fortunes abroad.[53] At the outbreak of the Second World War, 48 percent of the Indian army came from the province.[56] In Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Attock, the percentage of the total male population who enlisted reached fifteen percent.[57] The Punjab continued to be the main supplier of troops throughout the war, contributing 36 percent of the total Indian troops who served in the conflict.[58]

The huge proportion of Punjabis in the army meant that a significant amount of military expenditure went to Punjabis and in turn resulted in an abnormally high level of resource input in the Punjab.[59] It has been suggested that by 1935 if remittances of serving officers were combined with income from military pensions, more than two thirds of Punjab's land revenue could have been paid out of military incomes.[59] Military service further helped reduce the extent of indebtedness across the Province. In Hoshiarpur, a notable source of military personnel, in 1920 thirty percent of proprietors were debt free compared to the region's average of eleven percent.[59] In addition, the benefits of military service and the perception that the government was benevolent towards soldiers, affected the latter's attitudes towards the British.[52] The loyalty of recruited peasantry and the influence of military groups in rural areas across the province limited the reach of the nationalist movement in the province.[52]

Communications and transport

In 1853, the Viceroy Lord Dalhousie issued a minute stressing the military importance of railways across India.[60] In the Punjab, however, it was initially strategic commercial interests which drove investment in railways and communications from 1860.[60]

Independent railway companies emerged, such as the Scinde, Punjab and Delhi railways to build and operate new lines. In 1862, the first section of railway in the Punjab was constructed between Lahore and Amritsar, and Lahore Junction railway station opened. Lines were opened between Lahore and Multan in 1864, and Amritsar and Delhi in 1870.[60] The Scinde, Punjab and Delhi railways merged to form the Scinde, Punjab & Delhi Railway in 1870, creating a link between Karachi and Lahore via Multan. The Punjab Northern State Railway linked Lahore and Peshawar in 1883. By 1886, the independent railways had amalgamated into North Western State Railway.[60]

The construction of railway lines and the network of railway workshops generated employment opportunities, which in turn led to increased immigration into cantonment towns.[60] As connectivity increased across the province, it facilitated the movement of goods, and increased human interaction. It has been observed that the Ferozpur, Lahore and Amritsar began to develop into one composite cultural triangle due to the ease of connectivity between them.[60] Similarly barriers of spoken dialects eroded over time, and cultural affinities were increasingly fostered.[60]

Education

In 1854, the Punjab education department was instituted with a policy to provide secular education in all government managed institutions.[61] Privately run institutions would only receive grants-in-aid in return for providing secular instruction.[61] By 1864 this had resulted in a situation whereby all grants-in-aid to higher education schools and colleges were received by institutions under European management, and no indigenous owned schools received government help.[61]

In the early 1860s, a number of educational colleges were established, including Lawrence College, Murree, King Edward Medical University, Government College, Lahore, Glancy Medical College and Forman Christian College. In 1882, Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner published a damning report on the state of education in the Punjab. He lamented the failure to reconcile government run schools with traditional indigenous schools, and noted a steady decline in the number of schools across the province since annexation.[62] He noted in particular how Punjabi Muslim's avoided government run schools due to the lack of religious subjects taught in them, observing how at least 120,000 Punjabis attended schools unsupported by the state and describing it as 'a protest by the people against our system of education.'[63] Leitner had long advocated the benefits of oriental scholarship, and the fusion of government education with religious instruction. In January 1865 he had established the Anjuman-i-Punjab, a subscription based association aimed at using a European style of learning to promote useful knowledge, whilst also reviving traditional scholarship in Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.[64] In 1884, a reorganisation of the Punjab education system occurred, introducing measures tending towards decentralisation of control over education and the promotion of an indigenous education agency. As a consequence several new institutions were encouraged in the province. The Arya Samaj opened a college in Lahore in 1886, the Sikhs opened the Khalsa College whilst the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam stepped in to organise Muslim education.[65] In 1886, the Punjab Chiefs' College, later renamed Aitchison College, was opened to further the education of the elite classes.

Government

See also: Prime Minister of the Punjab

Early administration

See also: List of Governors of Punjab (British India)

In 1849, a Board of Administration was put in place to govern the newly annexed province. The Board was led by a President and two assistants. Beneath them Commissioners acted as Superintendents of revenue and police and exercised the civil appellate and the original criminal powers of Sessions Judges, whilst Deputy Commissioners were given subordinate civil, criminal and fiscal powers.[66] In 1853, the Board of Administration was abolished, and authority was invested in a single Chief Commissioner. The Government of India Act 1858 led to further restructuring and the office of Lieutenant-Governor replaced that of Chief Commissioner.

Although The Indian Councils Act, 1861 laid the foundation for the establishment of a local legislature in the Punjab, the first legislature was constituted in 1897. It consisted of a body of nominated officials and non-officials and was presided over by the Lieutenant-Governor. The first council lasted for eleven years until 1909. The Morley-Minto Reforms led to an elected members complementing the nominated officials in subsequent councils.[67]

Punjab Legislative Council and Assembly

The Government of India Act 1919 introduced the system of dyarchy across British India and led to the implementation of the first Punjab Legislative Council in 1921. At the same time the office of lieutenant governor was replaced with that of governor. The initial Council had ninety three members, seventy per cent of which were elected and the rest nominated.[67] A president was elected by the Council to preside over the meetings. Between 1921 and 1936, there were four terms of the Council.[67]

Council Inaugurated Dissolved President(s)
First Council 8 January 1921 27 October 1923 Sir Montagu Butler and Herbert Casson
Second Council 2 January 1924 27 October 1926 Herbert Casson, Sir Abdul Qadir and Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk
Third Council 3 January 1927 26 July 1930 Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk
Fourth Council 24 October 1930 10 November 1936 Sir Shahab-ud-Din Virk and Sir Chhotu Ram

In 1935, the Government of India Act 1935 replaced dyarchy with increased provincial autonomy. It introduced direct elections, and enabled elected Indian representatives to form governments in the provincial assemblies. The Punjab Legislative Council was replaced by a Punjab Legislative Assembly, and the role of President with that of a Speaker. Membership of the Assembly was fixed at 175 members, and it was intended to sit for five years.[67]

First Assembly Election

See also: 1937 Punjab Provincial Assembly election

The first election was held in 1937 and was won outright by the Unionist Party. Its leader, Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan was asked by the Governor, Sir Herbert Emerson to form a Ministry and he chose a cabinet consisting of three Muslims, two Hindus and a Sikh.[68] Sir Sikandar died in 1942 and was succeeded as Premier by Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana.

Position Name
Premier Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan
Revenue Minister Sir Sundar Singh Majithia
Development Minister Sir Chhotu Ram
Finance Minister Manohar Lal
Public Works Minister Khizar Hayat Khan Tiwana
Education Minister Mian Abdul Haye

Second Assembly Election

See also: 1946 Punjab Provincial Assembly election

The next election was held in 1946. The Muslim League won the most seats, winning 73 out of a total of 175. However a coalition led by the Unionist Party and consisting of the Congress Party and Akali Party were able to secure an overall majority. A campaign of civil disobedience by the Muslim League followed, lasting six weeks, and led to the resignation of Sir Khizar Tiwana and the collapse of the coalition government on 2 March 1947.[69] The Muslim League however were unable to attract the support of other minorities to form a coalition government themselves.[70] Amid this stalemate the Governor Sir Evan Jenkins assumed control of the government and remained in charge until the independence of India and Pakistan.[70]

Coat of arms

Arms of British Punjab

Crescat e Fluviis meaning, Let it grow from the rivers was the Latin motto used in the coat of arms for Punjab Province. As per the book History of the Sikhs written by Khushwant Singh, it means Strength from the Rivers.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Including Attock District, Jhelum District, Rawalpindi District, and Shahpur District
  2. ^ Including Amritsar District, Gujranwala District, Gujrat District, Gurdaspur District, Lahore District, Lyallpur District, Montgomery District, Sheikhupura District, and Sialkot District
  3. ^ Including Dera Ghazi Khan District, Jhang District, Mianwali District, Multan District, and Muzaffargarh District
  4. ^ Including Firozpur district, Hoshiarpur district, Jalandhar district, Kangra district, and Ludhiana district
  5. ^ Including Ambala district, Delhi district, Gurgaon district, Hisar district, Karnal district, Rohtak district, and Shimla. Later renamed Ambala Division in 1911, following separation of Delhi district from Punjab Province.
  6. ^ Including Patiala State, Jind State, Nabha State, Bahawalpur State, Sirmur State, Loharu State, Dujana, Pataudi State, Kalsia, Simla Hill States, Kapurthala State, Mandi State, Malerkotla State, Suket State, Faridkot State, Siba State, Chamba State, and Kahlur (Bilaspur)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r 1931 & 1941 censuses: Including Ad-Dharmis
  8. ^ Delhi district is made into a separate territory
  9. ^ 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1921 census data here: [38]: 29 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  10. ^ 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1931 census data here: [39]: 277 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  11. ^ 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1941 census data here: [13]: 42 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  12. ^ 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Nahan, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1921 census data here: [38]: 29 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  13. ^ 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Sirmoor, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1931 census data here: [39]: 277 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  14. ^ 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Hisar, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Karnal, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Firozpur, Amritsar, Simla, Kangra, Ambala, Hoshiarpur, and Gurdaspur (minus Shakargarh Tehsil)), and princely states (Loharu, Dujana, Pataudi, Kalsia, Kapurthala, Malerkotla, Faridkot, Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Sirmoor, Simla Hill, Bilaspur, Mandi, Suket, and Chamba) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the eastern side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1941 census data here: [13]: 42 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and princely states would ultimately make up the subdivision of East Punjab, which also included Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh, and Bilaspur State. The states that make up this region in the contemporary era are Punjab, India, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l See total breakdowns in table below.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Including Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Tribals, others, or not stated
  17. ^ a b c d e Western Punjabi languages and dialects including Saraiki, Hindko and Pahari-Pothwari, and other related languages or dialects
  18. ^ Standard Punjabi: 58.34%
    Lahnda:[q] 17.59%
  19. ^ a b c d e Including Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Braj Bhasha, Haryanvi, and other related languages or dialects
  20. ^ Standard Punjabi: 63.49%
    Lahnda:[q] 1.0%
  21. ^ Standard Punjabi: 74.01%
    Lahnda:[q] 14.76%
  22. ^ Lahnda:[q] 60.31%
    Standard Punjabi: 36.14%

References

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  3. ^ A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river" Archived 24 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Current Science Archived 10 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891.
  4. ^ Yule, Henry (31 December 2018). "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  5. ^ Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (31 December 2018). "A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary with Transliteration, Accentuation, and Etymological Analysis Throughout". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  6. ^ H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
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