Regions with significant populations
Hindustani (Urdu-Hindi), Punjabi, Bangla
Persian (formerly)
Related ethnic groups
Mongolic and Turkic peoples

The Mughals (also spelled Moghul or Mogul) are a number of culturally related clans of Indo-Turkic people in modern-day North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.[citation needed] It is claimed they are descended from the various Central Asian Mongolic[1][2] and Turkic tribes and Persians that settled in Mughal India.[citation needed] The term Mughal (or Moghul in Persian) literally means Mongol.[3]

History and origin

In North India, the term Mughal refers to one of the four social groups that are referred to as the Ashraaf in Pakistan, a number of tribal groupings such as the Tanoli in North West Frontier Province and the Gheba and Kassar in Punjab claim Barlas Mughal ancestry. Sir Denzil Ibbetson, the eminent British student of Punjabi tribal structures, noted a tendency among many tribes of the Pothohar and Upper Hazara regions of Northern Pakistan to claim Barlas Mughal ancestry.[citation needed]

In North India

In North India, the term Mughal refers Gürkani Türk or Timurids. They are also sometimes referred to as Chughtais or Chagatai Türks named after Chagatai Turkic language spoken by the Barlas and other Central Asian tribes. But one of the social groups that are claim to as the Ashraaf.[4][full citation needed]

In Uttar Pradesh

The Turk community of Sambhal identify as a Biradari, literally translating to "brotherhood", which is the word used for a social unit based on kinship such as tribe or clan.[5] The chief of the Biradari is the "Sardar", who is usually an elder man annually elected as the greatest man in the Biradari. Decisions on important matters are taken only after consulting the Biradari, and once taken binding on every member.[6]

Present circumstances

North India

The community had traditionally served as soldiers in the armies of the various Turkic dynasties which ruled the Indian subcontinent. They were and still are a community of small to medium-sized farmers. A good many are also traders. Like other Gujarati Muslims, they have a caste association known as the Jamat, which acts both as a welfare organization and an instrument of social control.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Сабитов Ж. М., Баймуханов Н. Б. (2015). "Y-STR гаплотипы узбеков, уйгуров, таджиков, пуштунов, хазарейцев, моголов из базы данных Family Tree DNA". The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (in Russian) (2): 22–23.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  2. ^ Liz Wyse and Caroline Lucas (1997). Atlas Of World History. Scotland: Geddes & Grosset.
  3. ^ Collins Compact Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2002. ISBN 0-00-710984-9.
  4. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960
  5. ^ Shenila Khoja-Moolji (2018). Forging the Ideal Educated Girl:The Production of Desirable Subjects in Muslim South Asia. University of California Press.
  6. ^ Khan Amanat (1938). Agriculture and Live Stock In India Vol-viii. The Imperial Council Agriculture Research. p. 485.
  7. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part Three edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 1394-1399