• Dawoodi Bohra
  • داؤوْدِي بُهرة
Dawoodi Bohra family in their religious attire.
Total population
1,000,000[1]–2,000,000[2]
2021
Regions with significant populations
 India
500,000–1,000,000[3][4]
Religions
Shi'a Islam
Scriptures
Quran
Languages
  • Predominantly spoken:
  • Historical:
  • Sacred:
Related ethnic groups
Website
thedawoodibohras.com

The Dawoodi Bohras are a religious denomination within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam. They number approximately one million worldwide and have settled in over 40 countries around the world. The majority of the Dawoodi Bohra community resides in India, with sizable congregations in Pakistan, Yemen, East Africa, and the Middle East. They also have a growing presence in Europe, North America, and Australia. The present leader is the 53rd al-Dai al-Mutlaq, Mufaddal Saifuddin who assumed office in January 2014.[5]

The Dawoodi Bohras are a close-knit community who follow the tenets of Islam. Their faith is founded on the conviction that there is only one deity, Allah Taʿala, that the Holy Quran is the inspired message of Allah, and that the prophets and their successors have a holy purpose. By abiding by the sharia-mandated religious rituals and pillars of Islam, such as reciting the Quran, performing the five daily prayers, and fasting during the month of Ramadan, they worship Allah in order to be saved in the afterlife.[6] The core of their faith is the belief that the Ahl al-Bayt, members of the Prophet Mohammed's family, are the rightful successors of the Prophet and guides of mankind. Like all Shia Muslims, they hold the traditions that Ali bin Abi Talib, the Prophet Mohammed's legatee, succeeded him and provided an interpretation and explanation of the revelations the Prophet had received. A fundamental tenet of the Dawoodi Bohra faith is that there will always be an imam on earth, descended from the Prophet through his grandson Imam Husain, to carry on the task of leading humanity. When the imam chooses to withdraw from public view, his office is taken over by the Al-Da'i al-Mutlaq (unrestricted missionary) who, like the imam, preserves and protects the faith until the imam's return. The 21st Imam chose seclusion in 1132 AD and Al-dai al-mutlaq first operated from Yemen and subsequently from India, for over the last 450 years. The dais are considered to have played an important role in shaping the lives of Dawoodi Bohras and contributing to the community's progress over the last nine centuries.[5]

Mostly self-reliant, the Bohras are typically well-educated traders, businesspersons, and entrepreneurs. The word "Bohra" comes from the Gujarati word vohrvu or vyavahar, meaning "to trade".[7] Their cultural heritage is in the traditions of the Fatimid imams; direct descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, who ruled over North Africa between the 10th and 11th century CE.[8] Whilst adherence to traditional values is important for the community, they are also known for their mercantilism and modernist approach to their lifestyles.[9]

Lisaan ud-Da'wat is the language of the Bohras. The language is based on a Neo-Indo-Aryan language, Gujarati, but incorporates a heavy amount of Arabic, Urdu, and Persian vocabulary and is written in the Arabic script naskh style. The Bohras' religious attire is known as Libas al-Anwar and men usually grow a full beard. The Bohra community during their gatherings, eat in groups of eight or nine people, seated around a particularly big metal plate called thaal. Prominent religious festivals include Eid-e-Milad an-Nabi, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Muharram. The majlis is an age-old practise of the community in which they congregate on major dates in the Islamic calendar. They also undertake the mandatory Hajj pilgrimage to Makkah and the Prophet's shrine in Medina.[5]

History

Dawoodi Bohras are a subset of the Taiyebi sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, itself a branch of Shia Islam.[10]: 1–4  Reverence for the Fatimid Imams and Muhammad's family is fundamental to Bohras' beliefs whose lineage is traces back to Muhammad's daughter Fatima.[11]

Fatimid imams

The Fatimids, descendants of the Prophet Mohammed , ruled over North Africa and Egypt, Hejaz, and Levant between the 10th and 11th centuries.[8] They flourished during what Maurice Lombard called the Golden Age of Islam,[12] and were patrons of arts, learning, and scientific discovery.[10] The 14th Imam, al-Mui’zz, founded the modern-day city of Cairo and established Al-Azhar University, one of the oldest universities in the world.[13]

Before the empire's decline, Al-Amir bi-Ahkam Allah, the 20th Fatimid imam, directed his grand emissary, Arwa bint Ahmad, the Sulayhid queen of Yemen, to establish the office of the Da'i al-Mutlaq (lit.'unrestricted missionary') to act as vicegerent of his son, the 21st Imam At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim while he was in occultation, and to lead al-Da'wah al-Hadiyah.[10] Arwa bint Ahmad appointed Zoeb bin Musa as the first Da'i al-Mutlaq.[11][14]

Succession to the office of al-Da'i al-Mutlaq happens through nass, whereby each Da'i appoints a successor in his own lifetime. As of 2001 the chain of succession was uninterrupted.[15]

Origins in India

A Gujarati Bohra pictured wearing white and gold turban with a red top.

The roots of the community's establishment in India go back to the Fatimid era, when Al Mustansir Billah, the 18th Imam, sent a Dai named Abdullah from Yemen to initiate the Da’wah on his behalf. Abdullah arrived in Cambay (modern day Khambhat, Gujarat) in AD 1067/H 460 and soon won many converts, including local rulers. Moulai Abdullah was first Wali ul Hind in India.[16][17]

The seclusion of al-Tayyeb led to the establishment of the office of al-Dai al-Mutlaq in Yemen. Subsequently, the Indian community which had pledged allegiance to the Fatimids continued to remain loyal to the Dais in Yemen. This resulted in a secession with the Hafizis, led by Al-Tayyeb's uncle, Abd al-Majid. Twenty-three Dais operated from their mountain bases in Yemen for nearly four centuries, preserving the faith and authoring seminal works. The 19th Dai, Idris Imaduddin, wrote numerous works, including a comprehensive and detailed history of the Fatimid faith.[10]

Meanwhile, the community in Gujarat had maintained ties with their Dais in Yemen, who closely supervised their affairs and regularly welcomed Bohra delegations from Gujarat. During this time, the community grew in size, especially in Cambay, Patan, Sidhpur, and Ahmedabad.[16][18]

Yusuf bin Sulayman Najmuddin, originally from Sidhpur, a town in Gujarat, was one of the Bohras who travelled to Yemen to seek knowledge from the Dai. Najmuddin arrived in Yemen while still in his youth and first studied under Hasan bin Nuh al-Bharuchi. He was eventually nominated by the twenty-third Dai as his successor and became the first from the Indian community to lead the Tayyibi Da’wa as the twenty-fourth al-Dai al-Mutlaq. When Najmuddin died in CE 1567/H 974, the central headquarters of the Da’wa were transferred from Yemen to Gujarat by his Indian successor, Jalal bin Hasan, who established residence at Ahmedabad.[16]

When the 26th al-Dai al-Mutlaq died in CE 1589/H 997, he was succeeded by his deputy, Dawood Bin Qutubshah. However, three years later, Sulayman bin Hasan, a high-ranking dignitary in Yemen, claimed the succession to the leadership of the community for himself. This succession dispute was brought before the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1597. A special tribunal decided in favour of Dawood Bin Qutubshah. However, this did not dissolve tensions, leading to a schism in the community. A majority of Bohras acknowledged Dawood Bin Qutubshah as the rightful successor and henceforth came to be known as Dawoodis (or Da’udis.)[19]

Major centres

A Borah woman, Surat, Gujarat.

Over the next few centuries, the Bohra headquarters moved within India with the changing location of the Dai. The centre of the Da’wah has been in six places: Ahmedabad (eight Dais, from 1567/974 to 1655/1065); Jamnagar in the Kathiawar region of Gujarat (five Dais, from 1655/1065 to 1737/1150); Ujjan in the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh (two Dais, from 1737/1150 to 1779/1193); Burhanpur, Madhya Pradesh (one Dai, from 1779/1193 to 1785/1200); Surat in the present-day state of Gujarat (eight Dais, from 1785/1200 to 1933/1351) and Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra, where the current Dai resides.[20]

Starting in the early 19th century, some community members emigrated in search of better livelihoods. The first wave of Bohra traders to migrate to East Africa did so in the aftermath of a severe drought in Kathiawar. The 43rd Dai, Abdeali Saifuddin, invited 12,000 of his followers to Surat, and provided food, work and lodgings for all of them. His only conditions were that they learn and practice vocational skills, and he gave them their earnings when it was time for them to leave Surat. Many from this group decided to use this capital to venture forth to trade in East Africa.[21]

A century on from Abdeali Saifuddin, Taher Saifuddin succeeded him to the office of al-Dai al-Mutlaq as the 51st Dai, and his leadership was challenged almost immediately upon assuming the office. Taher Saifuddin is credited with revitalising the community by restructuring its organisation on modern lines.[22]

He shifted the community headquarters from Surat to Mumbai, which had become a major centre of trade and commerce in India.[16] His emphasis on acquiring higher education across disciplines[23] saw many young Dawoodi Bohras go on to settle in different parts of the world, resulting in thriving new communities.

Faith and belief

Monotheism

The word 'Allah' in Arabic calligraphy.

As Muslims, the Dawoodi Bohras believe in Tawhid, Islam's central monotheistic concept of a single, indivisible God (Allah). They recite the Shahada (Islamic holy creed): "there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."

Seven pillars

Main article: Seven pillars of Ismailism

For an overview of the Mustaali Shi'a denomination of Islam, see Mustaali.

Walayah – devotion to Allah, Muhammad, his family, and his descendants – is the central of the seven pillars of the Dawoodi Bohra faith.

The other six pillars are tahaarat (purity in body and thought), salaat (daily ritual prayers), zakaat (offering a portion of one's income in the cause of Allah), sawm (fasting, particularly in the month of Ramadan), hajj (a ritual pilgrimage to Mecca), and jihad (striving in the way of Allah).[11] The Bohras build mosques wherever they live[24] to congregate for prayers and majalis (religious occasions) for the zikr of Allah and his prophets, imams, and da'is.[25]

Leadership

Further information: List of Dai of the Dawoodi Bohra

During the seclusion of the Imam,his vicegerent, al-Dai al-Mutlaq[16] was appointed to lead the community and administer, with complete authority, its secular and religious affairs.[26]

Mufaddal Saifuddin, the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq.

The Dai preaches Quranic precepts, which are the foundation of the faith, and guides the community on the path of salvation. Over the nine centuries that this office has existed, each Dai is considered to have played an important role in shaping the community’s social and economic progress. Community members seek and abide by his counsel in different aspects of life.[10]

The 1st Dai, Dhu'ayb bin Musa, was appointed in 1138 (532H) in Yemen by Queen Arwa bint Ahmed when the 21st Imam went into seclusion.[16] Over the next 400 years, 23 Dais established the Dawat in Yemen. The seat of the Dawat then transferred from Yemen to India, where the 24th Dai, Yusuf bin Sulayman Najmuddin, became the first Dai to assume office from this region.[16] Despite territorial and political upheavals through different periods, the Dais persevered and continued to lead the faithful and preserve the faith.[10]

The current leader of the Dawoodi Bohra community is the 53rd al-Dai al-Mutlaq, Aali Qadr Mufaddal Saifuddin, who lives in India.[27][28]

Demographics and culture

As of 2021, there are an estimated 2 to 5 million Dawoodi Bohras living in over 100 countries.[2] The majority reside in the Indian state of Gujarat and in the Pakistani city of Karachi. A sizeable diaspora is spread across Europe, North America, the Middle East, and East Africa.[29]

The Bohras are primarily traders and businesspersons,[30] while some are industrialists and skilled professionals.[31]

Name and etymology

The word Bohra takes root in the Gujarati word vohrvu, in reference to their traditional occupation as traders.[32][33] The prefix Dawoodi is in reference to Dawood Bin Qutubshah, the 27th Da'i al-Mutlaq,[14] who emerged as the leader of the majority following a schism in 1588.[14][1]

Language

Dawoodi Bohras are a blend of Yemeni, Egyptian, African, Pakistani, and Indian cultures.[34] Their common tongue, Lisan al-Dawat, written in Perso-Arabic script, derives from Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Sanskrit, and Gujarati.[35][36][37] Lisan al-Dawat, which takes its basic structure from Gujarati and vocabulary from Arabic, developed as a medium to articulate Islamic values and heritage. Though Arabic remains community's dominant liturgical language, Lisan al-Dawat is its language of sermons and its medium of official and day-to-day communication.[38]

Dress

The Dawoodi Bohras wear a distinct form of attire. The men traditionally dress in a predominantly white, three-piece outfit: kurta, a form of tunic; saaya, an overcoat of equal length; and izaar, loose-fit trousers; with topi, crocheted white cap with a gold design.[39] Men, adhering to the customs of Muhammad, are expected to grow a full beard.[40]

The women wear a two-piece dress called rida, distinct from hijab, purdah, and chador. Its distinguishing features are bright colors, decorative patterns and lace, and the fact that it does not cover a woman's face.[41] The rida is of any colour except black. A flap called pardi is folded to one side to allow a woman's face to be visible, but it can be worn over the face when desired.[42]

Cuisine

Bohras seated around a thaal about to commence their meal with a taste of salt.

Joining each other for meals is a well-known Dawoodi Bohra custom. Families and friends gather around sharing the meal from a single large raised circular tray called thaal.[10] The thaal is raised upon a kundali or tarakti made of wood or metal, on top of a safra, a large cloth that covers the floor. Each course of the meal is served one after the other for those at the thaal to share.[43][44]

The meal begins and ends with a taste of salt, traditionally said to cleanse the palette and prevent diseases.[43][44] Bohras usually cover their heads during the meal with a topi, a cap; and eat with their hands.[42] A common etiquette is for the host to offer to wash their guests' hands using a chilamchi lota (basin and jug).[45] At community feasts, the Bohras first eat mithaas (sweet dish), followed by kharaas (savoury dish), and then the main course.[44][46] Leftovers are frowned upon. Those seated at the thaal are encouraged to take smaller portions and expected to finish those.[47]

The Bohra cuisine, influenced by Gujarati,[48] Persian, Yemeni, and Egyptian cuisines,[49][50] is known for its unique taste and dishes such as bohra-style biryani,[51] dal chaawal palidu (rice, lentils, and curry), kheema samosa (minced mutton samosa), dabba gosht (steamed-mutton-in-a-box), and masala bateta (spicy potatoes).[45][50][52]

Traditions and practices

Qardan Hasana

Islam prohibits riba (lit.'usury') and interest; the Dawoodi Bohras follow the practice of Qardan Hasana[a] (lit.'good loan'),[54][55] which are interest-free loans.[54] Based on the ideal of benefitting advantageous to the borrower (as opposed to the lender), this model has played an important role in the economic growth within the community.[56]

The contributions from the Bohras are freely made to an institutionally-maintained loan corpus, which is initially funded in large part by the Da'i al-Mutlaq. The office of the Da'i al-Mutlaq has appointed committees at the city level to oversee the management of this corpus. The Bohras use these loans to finance their enterprises, acquire homes, and pursue higher education.[56][57]

Mithaq

The central rite of initiation and adoption for the Bohras is the mithaq. This ceremony is a covenant between the believer and God, effected through God's representative on earth. The mithaq binds a believer to the duties owed to Allah, including an oath of allegiance: a vow to accept the spiritual guidance of the Da'i al-Mutlaq wholeheartedly and without reservation. This ceremony, akin to baptism in Christianity, is mandatory to enter the fold of the faith.

The mithaq is first taken at whatever age a child is deemed to have reached maturity: most commonly, thirteen years for girls, fourteen or fifteen for boys. These vows are renewed over a period of a Bohra's adult life. [58]

Calendar

Tazyeen (decoration) of Masjid al-Husaini in Colombo, the host venue of Ashara Mubaraka (2019).

The Dawoodi Bohra follow a Fatimid-era tabular calendar which matches the lunar cycle of 354 days (and hence requires no adjustments).[11]: 318  The odd-numbered months have 30 days and the even-numbered months have 29 days—except in a leap year when the final month, the 12th month Zil Hajj, has 30 days. This contrasts with other Muslim communities, which base the beginnings of specific Islamic months on sightings of the moon crescent.[59]

Occasions

Dawoodi Bohras observe all significant occasions on the Muslim calendar, such as Muharram, Ramadan, Eid al Fitr and Eid al Adha and Mawlid al Nabi. They also observe some occasions particular to their sect, such as the death anniversaries of previous dais and the birthday of the current dai. These occasions typically bring together members of the community for social activities, educational sermons and communal meals.

During Ramadan, the 9th month of the Islamic calendar, the Dawoodi Bohras observe a mandatory fast from dusk to dawn. The Bohras congregate in their local mosques for daily prayers (particularly for the evening prayers), and break the day-long fast with the iftaar (lit.'fast breaking') meal together. Like in the rest of Islamic world, Ramadan is a month of heightened devotional activity for the Bohras that ends with Eid al-Fitr.

In the month of Zil Hajj al-Haram, the Bohras undertake hajj and celebrate Eid al-Adha at its conclusion. In line with Shia traditions, on the 18th of Zil Hajj, the day Muhammad publicly anointed Ali ibn Abi Talib his successor, the Bohras celebrate Eid al-Ghadir, observe fast, and offer special prayers. Special prayers and congregations are also held during other major events such as the day Muhammad first began his Da'wah (lit.'mission'), the night of Isra and Mi'raj, the birthday of Muhammad, the urs mubarak (lit.'remembrance day') of prominent community leaders, and the birthday of the current Da'i al-Mutlaq.

Muharram

Main article: Mourning of Muharram

Saifuddin, the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, presides over a Muharram gathering at Mohammedi Masjid, Houston, 2015.

Husayn ibn Ali was martyred along with his family and companions on the plains of Karbala while on a journey from Mecca, through the deserts of modern-day Iraq, to Kufa.[60][61] The Bohras believe that Husayn's sacrifice was foretold by Muhammad, and that he was destined to change the course of Islam as a result of his martyrdom.[62] Remembrance of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, often linked to the hagiography of John the Baptist[63] and Jesus Christ,[64] is among the most important events of the year for the Bohras.[31]

Known as ʿAshara Mubāraka (lit.'the Blessed Ten'), a series of ten majālis (lit.'congregations') that happen in the beginning of the month of Muharram al-Haram,[65] is a source of blessing and a means to spiritual purification for the Bohras.[66][67] For them, Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom epitomizes the values of humanity, justice, and truth.[68] They consider his stand against tyranny, at great personal cost, to offer lessons in bravery, loyalty, and compassion.[69] These values, they believe, inculcate in them a spirit of self-sacrifice, forbearance, and adherence to their faith.[66][69]

During the ʿAshara Mubāraka, the Bohra communities all over the world host a series of majālis twice a day, one each in the morning and in the evening, recounting Husayn ibn Ali's sacrifice, which forms the central theme of the discourse amidst regular prayers.[68] The majālis led by the Da'i al-Mutlaq on occasion attract hundreds of thousands of followers.[70][71][72]

Traditions

Rasm-e Saifee

Taher Saifuddin presides over a Rasm-e Saifee Nikah in Jamnagar.

To subsidize costs and facilitate marriages among the Dawoodi Bohra, Taher Saifuddin, the 51st Da'i al-Mutlaq, started Rasm-e Saifee[73] in Jamnagar c. 1952 and later institutionalised it c. 1963.[74] Rasm-e Saifee is a singular occasion when multiple nikah are solemnized at the hands of the Da'i al-Mutlaq and his representatives.

Saifuddin's son and successor, Mohammed Burhanuddin, founded the International Taiyseer al-Nikah Committee (ITNC),[74] which now organizes Rasm-e Saifee throughout the year at various miqaat (lit.'(religious) events').[75] Burhanuddin's successor, Mufaddal Saifuddin, continues to uphold the tradition.[76][77]

Pilgrimages

Raudat Tahera, mausoleum of Taher Sayf al-Din and Mohammed Burhanuddin II.

It is customary among the Bohras to visit mausoleums, mosques, and other places of religious importance in Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iran, Iraq, and India. In most places, a community-administered complex (mazaar) provides accommodation, business centers, dining, and various recreational activities to the traveling Bohras.[citation needed]

A Bohra mausoleum typically has white exteriors with a golden finial at the apex of the dome. The interior is usually lit up in incandescent light and Quranic verses are inscribed on its walls. These mausoleums embody several meanings in the form of their structure and build.[citation needed] As an example, Raudat Tahera, an austere structure in Mumbai, has a range of intricacies deliberated into its design. The inner height of Raudat Tahera is 80 feet above the plinth: the number signifies the age of Taher Saifuddin, who is buried there. The sanctum of the mausoleum is 51 × 51 feet, which symbolises Saifuddin's position as the 51st Dai al-Mutlaq. The entire Quran is inscribed in gold on its walls, whilst Bismillah is engraved 113 times in precious stones, and four doors, one on each side of the wall, are made of silver.[78] The inner side of the dome proclaims, "Allah holds the sky and earth together which none else can."[79]

Society

Community centers

The office of the Da'i al-Mutlaq, known as Dawat-e-Hadiyah, governs the secular and religious affairs of the close-knit Dawoodi Bohra community through a distributed network of Jamaat committees.[80][35] The Dawat-e-Hadiyah head office is at Badri Mahal in Fort, Mumbai.[81]

Several sub-committees and trusts administer different aspects of a local Bohra community under the purview of respective Jamat (also called Jamaat or Anjuman). Set up anywhere Bohras live and work, a jamat may number from a hundred to tens of thousands of Bohras.[80] A resident Amil, appointed by the dai is the president of a given jamat.[35] The Amil administers and manages the socio-religious affairs of a jamat. At the local mosque or markaz under their jurisdiction, the Amil leads daily prayers, and presides over sermons and discourses.[80]

Masjid

While a Dawoodi Bohra mosque is primarily a place of worship and congregation, it forms an important socio-cultural hub for the community. Besides sermons and discourses, the mosques are also a center for education and special religious lessons, in line with Fatimid traditions. A mosque complex usually houses several administrative offices along with ceremonial halls.[82] The mosques are built in a distinct Neo-Fatimid style,[82][83][84][85] with the names of Allah and verses from the Quran engraved on its walls.[82][86] The mosques are multi-storied structures; the main prayer hall in the ground floor, a voluminous space, is used by men while women congregate in the upper floors. The centre of the prayer hall is left as a void, making it possible for the women to hear and follow religious liturgy and sermons from the floors above.[24][25][87]

The Masjid-e-Moazzam complex in Surat is among the largest in the community.[88][89]

Masjid-e-Moazzam, a Bohra cultural and educational hub (Surat), renovated by Mohammed Burhanuddin c. 1997, is a striking example of Neo-Fatimid architecture.[88]

The first Dawoodi Bohra mosque in the Middle East was inaugurated in Dubai, UAE in 1983,[83][84] by Mohammed Burhanuddin.[84] Later, mosques in Sharjah, Abu Dhabi

, and Ajman were opened in 2003, 2004, and 2006 respectively.[84][85][90] The Middle East is home to an estimated 60,000 Bohras who first migrated there in the 1860s.[91]

In 1988, Burhanuddin inaugurated Burhani Masjid in Farmington Hills, Michigan, the first Dawoodi Bohra mosque in North America,[92] and a year later, in 1990, the first Canadian mosque in Toronto.[93]

The Bohras first moved to London in the 1960s from East Africa, settling around Ealing. A community center was later set up at Fulham. Decades later, in 1996, Burhanuddin presided over the opening of the first Bohra mosque in Europe in Northolt.[94] Burhanuddin's wife, Amatullah Aaisaheba, is buried within its premises.[95] On 8 July 2007, the first Bohra mosque in France was inaugurated in Paris.[96]

The Bohras migrated to the erstwhile British colony of Ceylon from Gujarat c. 1830.[97] An estimated 2,500 Bohras live in Sri Lanka and the capital city of Colombo is their largest settlement.[98] In 2000, Burhanuddin inaugurated Masjid al-Hussaini at Glen Aber Place, Colombo, the largest Dawoodi Bohra mosque in Sri Lanka, which was the venue of Ashara Mubaraka in 2008, 2009,[98] and 2019.[99] The masjid is part of a bigger complex called Burhani Park, which has a community centre and a school.[97]

Burhanuddin commemorated the 2001 Ashara in Houston, where the Bohras have been since the 1950s. Burhanuddin's son, Mufaddal Saifuddin, inaugurated Mohammedi Masjid, the largest Bohra mosque complex in North America, at Katy Area, Houston during the 2015 Ashara,[100] which was, at the time, the largest Bohra community event held in the West.[65] The same year, in March 2015, Saifuddin inaugurated four more mosques in California, in Los Angeles, San Jose, Bakersfield, and Orange County.[101]

In 2014, as his first official act as the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, Mufaddal Saifuddin inaugurated Masjid Mansoor al-Yemen in the Haraaz region of Sanaa Governorate. Burhanuddin had built the masjid in memory of Amatullah, his wife.[102]

Markaz

Mohammedi Park Complex (Northolt, London), the largest Bohra community center in Europe.

A Bohra community (or jamaat) is centered around a markaz when there is no existing mosque nearby.[citation needed]

Communal meals are served in dining halls called the jamaat khaana, which are generally part of the mosque complex.[82]

FMB community kitchen

In 2012, Mohammed Burhanuddin II, the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq, established Faiz al-Mawaid al-Burhaniyah (FMB) community kitchens to deliver at least one meal per day to all Bohra families and to ensure no one goes to bed hungry. FMB proved beneficial to women in particular as household work reduced, freeing up time to pursue other productive activities.[51][103] Meals are delivered in tiffin containers daily, and have a rotating menu.[97] As of 2021, FMB community kitchens, usually built near mosques,[104] are operational in every Bohra community throughout the world.[35][97]

Whilst FMB has substantially increased food security within the Bohra community,[105] in times of wider crisis (such as the flooding in Texas or the COVID-19 pandemic), it has also supplied meals and provisions to the wider society.[106][107] Bohras consider Niyaz, feeding their brethren an obligation.[35]

Education

In line with Islamic traditions,[108] the Bohras seek both religious and secular education.[109][110] Women's education is encouraged,[104][111][112] and in the modern day, higher education is common in the community.[113]

The community-run Madrasah Saifiyah Burhaniyah (MSB) chain of international co-ed schools teach sciences, humanities, and arts, in addition to theological subjects. In 1984, Mohammad Burhanuddin established the first MSB schools in Nairobi and Mumbai.[110] As of 2021, 24 MSB schools in Asia and Africa operate, affiliated to IGCSE and ICSE boards.[114]

Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah (Jamea) is the community's primary educational and cultural institute. Selected students go through rigorous Islamic and Arabic studies for up to 11 years,[115] and are trained to subsequently lead various institutions run by Dawat-e-Hadiyah.[116][117] Dars-e-Saifee precedes Jamea, an Islamic theology school established by the 43rd Da'i al-Mutlaq Abdeali Saifuddin, in 1814 in Surat, Gujarat. A century later, the 51st Da'i al-Mutlaq Taher Saifuddin renovated and institutionalized it as a university.[118] His son and successor, Mohammed Burhanuddin, further expanded its reach and scope, opening campuses in three more cities and establishing a dedicated center for Qur'anic sciences, Mahad al-Zahra.[119] The second campus was founded in 1983 in Karachi, Pakistan. A third campus was established in Nairobi, Kenya in 2011, and a fourth in 2013 in Mumbai, India.[120] The libraries of Jamea preserve some of the oldest known Arabic manuscripts.[119] Other departments of Jamea specialize in the art of Quran recitation, Arabic calligraphy, and Arabesque design.[121]

A significant volume of treatises, discourses, and sermons of the Dua't Mutlaqeen are part of the Jamea curriculum.[122] Per tradition, the current Da'i al-Mutlaq presides over annual examinations (al-Imtihan al-Sanawi) every year. Senior Jamea students additionally undergo a public viva voce examination (Shafahi Imtihan) where they are questioned by rectors of the institute and occasionally by the Da'i al-Mutlaq.[123]

Status of women

Overview

The status of women in the Bohra community underwent a major change in the latter half of the 20th century. According to Jonah Blank, women of the Bohra faith are among the best-educated women in the Indian subcontinent.[124] Female Bohra in the U.S. and Europe have become business owners, lawyers, doctors, teachers and leaders in a range of professions.[125] At an interfaith celebration of Eid al-Fitr hosted by the Bohra community of Detroit, Michigan, United States on 7 June 2019, U.S. Congresswoman Brenda Lawrence (Democrat, Michigan's 14th congressional district) praised the Bohras for having "used their voices to make progress on countless issues including gender equality and the environment."[126]

Bohra women integrate work with their religious practices, inspired by historical figures like Khadija and community principles of gender equality. Traditionally engaged in physical businesses, they have transitioned to digital entrepreneurship, utilizing online platforms to market diverse products.[127] Supported by community institutions, they receive financial aid, training, and access to virtual markets, showcasing how digital ventures empower women while honoring religious beliefs.[128]

Female circumcision

Further information: Female genital mutilation in India

The Dawoodi Bohra practice what they call khatna,[129] khafd,[130] or khafz,[131] a practice critics consider female genital mutilation (FGM). The procedure is for the most part performed without anaesthesia by a traditional circumciser when girls reach their seventh year.[132] Non-Bohra women who seek to marry into the community are also required to undergo it.[133] There are no authoritative studies on the extent of the practice among the Bohra.[130][134] A 1911 Bombay census of unknown reliability noted that they were performing clitoridectomy.[135] According to a 1991 article in Manushi, the Bohra remove either the clitoral hood or the tip of the clitoris.[136][137] Supporters of the practice say that the Bohra remove only the clitoral hood or perform symbolic nicking, and that it should be referred to as "female circumcision", not FGM.[131]

A qualitative study in 2018 carried out by WeSpeakOut, a group opposed to FGM,[138] concluded that most Bohra girls experience Type I FGM, removal of the clitoral hood or clitoral glans.[139][140] A gynaecologist who took part in the study examined 20 Bohra women and found that both the clitoris and clitoral hood had been cut in most cases.[b] According to the Dawoodi Bohra Women's Association for Religious Freedom, the study's conclusions did not reflect the views of most Bohra women.[140] In Australia in 2018, the convictions of three members of the Bohra community, related to performing FGM on two girls, were overturned when the appeal court accepted that the tip of each girl's clitoris was still visible and had not been "mutilated"; the defence position was that only "symbolic khatna" had been performed.[142] The High Court of Australia overturned that decision in October 2019, ruling that the phrase "otherwise mutilates" in Australian law does encompass cutting or nicking the clitoris. As a result, the convictions were upheld, and the defendants received custodial sentences of at least 11 months.[143]

Social work

[Do] not abhor any science or shun any book, and [do] not be unduly biased against any creed; for our philosophy and creed encompasses all creeds and all knowledge; [for] our creed consists of studying all existing things in their entirety, the physical and the intellectual, from their beginning to their end, their apparent and their hidden, their manifest and their concealed, with the aim to grasp their Truth, with the understanding that they emanate from one source, one cause, one world, [and] one soul, which encompasses their different essences, their diverse species, their various types, and their changing forms.

—Excerpt from the Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa,[144] an encyclopedic work on religion, sciences, and philosophy that permeates the Ismaili school of thought.[145]

The Bohras are considered politically neutral.[146][147][148] The community's stance, in line with sunnah,[149] has been to be loyal to one's country of residence.[150][151][152] A migratory community,[153] they participate in the culture and society they live in,[47] but stay conservative enough to preserve their own identity.[154] The Bohra philosophy and way of life is informed by the Aristotelian and Neo-Platonic Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa.[155] This leads to their belief that every religion is related to one another,[156] that all of creation shares the same purpose.[157] and that true fulfillment is in achieving balance between religious and societal duties, in resourcefulness and philanthropy.[158][159][160]

Environmental activism

The Bohras generally consider environmental activism is their religious duty participate in it.[c][158][163]

The Burhani Foundation

In 1991, Mohammed Burhanuddin established the Burhani Foundation, a charitable trust for environmental security, conservation of biological diversity, effective utilisation of resources, pollution control, and other related measures.[10] In 2017, Mufaddal Saifuddin, Burhanuddin's successor, initiated a worldwide program to plant 200,000 saplings.[164] In 2018, the Bohras, together with Champion of the Earth, launched Turning the Tide, a campaign to remove plastic from oceans, rivers, and beaches in India.[165][166][167]

Zero food waste

Under the aegis of FMB, the Dana Committee (lit.'food grain committee') aims to eliminate food wastage. As of 2021, the committee has 6000 volunteers across 40 countries. After congregations, these volunteers collect leftovers and distribute them to the deprived.[168] To prevent wastage of food due to over-cooking or poor turnout, the committee uses custom web and mobile RSVP apps. Before a meal commences, volunteers are on hand to remind attendees of their responsibility as Muslims[d] in ensuring no food goes to waste.[171] The Bohras also participate in the United Nations' annual World Food Day campaigns.[172]

In September 2019 over 24,000 Bohras', who gathered in Colombo to commemorate Ashara Mubaraka with Mufaddal Saifuddin, the 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, followed "a zero food waste policy". Dana Committee volunteers helped with portion control and distributed leftover food to the disadvantaged.[173] This policy was first adopted at the 2018 Ashara in Indore, which was attended by over 150,000 people.[174]

On 6 November 2023, ahead of the COP28 World leaders summit, Shahzada Husain Burhanuddin on behalf of Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, attended the COP28 Global Faith leaders summit among 28 Faith leaders in Abu Dhabi and signed a joint appeal to take meaningful action in addressing climate crisis.[175][176]

Other initiatives

Project Rise

In June 2018, the Bohra community launched Project Rise, a philanthropy programme focused on the marginalized and the poor. Their first initiative, undertaken in collaboration with Action Against Hunger, sought to address malnutrition among those living in Palghar and Govandi districts of Maharashtra, India.[177][178] During the 2019 floods, volunteers sent aid to the Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat;[179] while during the 2020 lockdown in India, volunteers distributed food packets among the poor.[180][181] In 2020, Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India had acknowledged the community's social service.[182] In 2019 and 2020, volunteers in North America marked United Nations World Food Day by donating to local food banks.[183][172] Since then, based on Islamic traditions of philanthropy,[e] Project Rise has initiated some programs that focus on healthcare, nutrition, sanitation and hygiene, and environmental conservation.[184] As part of these drives, volunteers attempt to raise the standard of living of the elderly and the disadvantaged through revamped housing, access to food, and improved physical and spiritual well-being.[185][186][187]

Bhendi Bazaar cluster redevelopment

In 2009, Mohammed Burhanuddin, the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq, founded the Saifee Burhani Upliftment Trust (SBUT). Its first initiative, the Saifee Burhani Upliftment Project (SBUP), was to rebuild Bhendi Bazaar—a decrepit, under-developed, and dense Bohra-majority locale in South Bombay. Within a year of its formation, the trust had acquired 70% of the identified land. 250 existing buildings, 1250 shops, and 3200 families in over 16.5 acres of land will make way for 13 new buildings, better infrastructure, open spaces, and designated commercial areas. Relocated tenants will own their new premises at no cost to them. Divided into 9 clusters, the project is expected to complete in 2025.[188][189][190] 7 of the 9 clusters, representing over 80% of the project, are reserved for existing tenants and the government-run housing board, MHADA.[191] Due to the scope of SBUP, the largest "cluster redevelopment" project in India at an estimated cost of $550 million (4000 crores),[192] it has been subject to logistical and regulatory challenges, resulting in several delays.[189]

Starting in 2010, the trust began building transit homes near Mazagaon. In 2012, the trust relocated tenants and demolished buildings it had acquired.[189] More transit homes were built in Sion, Ghodapdeo, and Sewri.[192] In early 2016, Mufaddal Saifuddin laid foundation for Clusters I and III.[193][194] In 2020, 600 residents and 128 shop owners relocated to the completed twin towers Al Saadah,[195][196][197] marking completion of the project's first phase.[198]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term Qardan Hasana, in the Islamic context, has been mentioned six times in the Quran.[53]
  2. ^ Sujaat Vali (The Clitoral Hood: A Contested Site, 2018): "Given that most girls are cut at age seven, without anesthesia, by traditional cutters, and the procedure happens in a minute or two, the operator cannot get enough separation between the clitoris and the skin surrounding the clitoris. So, usually they end up cutting the clitoris along with the skin covering the clitoris."[141]
  3. ^ Since Nazafat (lit.'cleanliness') is an integral component of Islamic faith,[161] the Bohras engage in clean-up drives, tree planting, and other such initiatives wherever they reside.[162]
  4. ^ The Quran and the Hadiths inform Muslims to not be wasteful with food.[169][170]
  5. ^ Project Rise is chartered to help eradicate poverty and hunger, improve health and education, empower women, avoid waste, and preserve the environment – align with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Bohras claim to follow this tradition of charity and activism for centuries.[183]

References

  1. ^ a b Lentin, Sifra (25 March 2021). "The globalised Dawoodi Bohras of Bombay". The Gateway House. Indian Council on Global Relations. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b Schleifer, Abdallah; Elgawhary, Tarek; Ahmed, Aftab; Al-Meheid, Minwer; Elqabbany, Moustafa; Asfour, Zeinab, eds. (2013). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims, 2021 (PDF). Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre (published 2021). p. 172. ISBN 978-9957-635-56-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Bohra in India". Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  4. ^ "Who are Dawoodi Bohras: 5 points to understand this Muslim community in India". dnaindia.com. Diligent Media Corporation. 24 September 2018. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Blank, Jonah (2001). Mullahs on the mainframe: Islam and modernity among the Daudi Bohras. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 156. ISBN 0226056767. OCLC 923455839.
  6. ^ Mamujee, Yusuf (2017). "The Dawoodi Bohras of Sri Lanka" (PDF). People of Sri Lanka. Ministry of National Coexistence, Dialogue and Official Languages, Government of Sri Lanka: 291. ISBN 978-955-7537-03-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2020.
  7. ^ Suk-Wai, Cheong (15 October 2015). "Roots, culture and customs". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  8. ^ a b Madraswala, Aliasger (2020). "The Iḥyāʾ of al-Jāmiʿ al-Anwar: Religious Values in the Restoration of Sacred Islamic Monuments". School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University: 1 – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Horan, Deborah. "Same faith, with a difference". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Abdulhussein, Mustafa (27 September 2001). Al-Dai Al-Fatimi, Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin: an illustrated biography. London: Al-Jamea-Tus-Saifiyah Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9536256-0-4.
  11. ^ a b c d Daftary, Farhad (24 April 1992). Ismāʻı̄lı̄s: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521429740. Retrieved 9 March 2013 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Brett, Michael (2017). The Fatimid Empire. UK: Edinburgh University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780748640775.
  13. ^ Glenn Hardaker, Aishah Ahmad Sabki. Pedagogy in Islamic Education: The Madrasa Context. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 16.
  14. ^ a b c Mamujee Hassanally, Yusuf (2017). Gems of History: A Brief History of Doat Mutlaqeen. Colombo: Alvazaratus Saifiyah. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Alt URL
  15. ^ Blank 2001, p. 106.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 269.
  17. ^ https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Lanterns_on_the_Lanes/RK__DwAAQBAJ%7CLanterns on the Lanes: Lit for Life…|George Abraham • 2020
  18. ^ https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Islam_en_India_y_China/OOXNDwAAQBAJ%7CIslam en India y China, by Stanford Mc Krause
  19. ^ Daftary, Farhad (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis. UK: The Scarecrow Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780810861640.
  20. ^ Qutbuddin, Tahera (2013). The Encyclopedia of Islam Three. Brill. p. 58.
  21. ^ Lentin, Sifra (25 March 2021). "The globalised Dawoodi Bohras of Bombay". Gateway House. Archived from the original on 27 March 2021.
  22. ^ Habibullah, Abdul Qaiyum (1947). A Brief Biographical Sketch of His Holiness Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb. Bombay, India: Dawoodi Bohra Book Depot. p. 6.
  23. ^ Daftary, Farhad. "Handbook of Islamic Sects and Movements" (PDF). The Daudi Bohras (Mustali Ismaili Shia) Using Modernity to Institutionalise a Fatimid Tradition. 21: 262.
  24. ^ a b "The Architectural Heritage of the Lamu Bohra Mosque" (PDF). Kenya: Past and Present. No. 40. Section authored by Taibali Hamzali. Kenya Museum Society. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2021 – via kenyamuseumsociety.org.((cite magazine)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  25. ^ a b Munaim, Arfakhashad (2014). Transplanted Continuity: Examining the Ethno-Spatial Prospect of the Dawoodi Bohra Community in Southern California (PDF). escholarship.org (Thesis). Los Angeles: University of California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2021.
  26. ^ Moulvi, Shaikh Dawood (1940). An Authentic Account of the Pontifical Office of Dai-l-Mutlaq and its fifty first incumbent His Holiness Sardar Saiyedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb (PDF). Bombay, British India: The Times of India Press, Bombay. p. 1.
  27. ^ "His Holiness Dr Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin; Chancellor of AMU".
  28. ^ "Bombay high court rejects Dawoodi Bohra succession suit, upholds Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin's claim". 23 April 2024.
  29. ^ Paul, Eva (2006). Die Dawoodi Bohras – eine indische Gemeinschaft in Ostafrika (PDF). Beiträge zur 1. Kölner Afrikawissenschaftlichen Nachwuchstagung. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2021.
  30. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 103.
  31. ^ a b "An interview with Jonah Blank, author of Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity among the Daudi Bohras". University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  32. ^ Blank 2001, p. 14.
  33. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat, Part I. Popular Prakashan. p. 248. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 22 March 2012 – via books.google.com. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  34. ^ Michel Adam (2009). L'Afrique indienne: les minorités d'origine indo-pakistanaise en Afrique orientale. Karthala Editions. p. 272. ISBN 978-2-8111-0273-9. Retrieved 22 March 2012 – via books.google.com.
  35. ^ a b c d e Lentin, Sifra (22 April 2021). "The Bohra transcultural network". Gateway House. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021.
  36. ^ Kamran, Omair (29 May 2021). "Four unique languages you can only hear in Karachi". zemtv.co. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021.
  37. ^ Parikh, Shreya (18 August 2019). "Not just Sanskrit, Gujarati owes a lot to Arabic and Persian languages too". ThePrint. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  38. ^ Madraswala, Aliasger. "Lisan al-Da'wah: Between Expression and Identity" (Document). Harvard University.
  39. ^ Blank 2001, p. 144.
  40. ^ Blank 2001, p. 142.
  41. ^ Himadri Banerjee (10 July 2009). Calcutta Mosaic: Essays and Interviews on the Minority Communities of Calcutta. Anthem Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-81-905835-5-8. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  42. ^ a b Blank 2001, p. 146.
  43. ^ a b "Bohra Cuisine". Journey Kitchen. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  44. ^ a b c Saha, Somdatta (18 July 2020). "Bohra Cuisine: A pinch of salt and desserts first". NDTV. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021.
  45. ^ a b Masudi, Faisal (30 May 2017). "Strong traditions, savoury flavours (and a palidu recipe)". The Gulf News. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021.
  46. ^ Ankolkar, Sama (15 June 2018). "The Bohri Story". Mumbai Foodie. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  47. ^ a b Madsen, Kristina (5 June 2019). "Lower waste, slimmer waists (India)". Young Reporters for the Environment. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  48. ^ Navya, KV (26 August 2019). "Being Bohra in Chennai". Express News Service. Chennai. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  49. ^ "A community affair! How the Dawoodi Bohras celebrate Eid". Economic Times. 14 June 2018. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  50. ^ a b "DBWRF powers Great Dawoodi Bohra Cook-off with influencers in Kandivali". Food and Beverage News. Mumbai. 17 May 2018. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  51. ^ a b Bhattacharyya, Sourish (30 March 2013). "Faith & food in the Bohra way". Mail Today. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.
  52. ^ Ali Zain, Asma (12 June 2016). "The Bohras have a unique iftar custom". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021.
  53. ^ Quran; 2:245, 5:12, 57:11, 57:18, 64:17, 73:20
  54. ^ a b Abdulhussein 2001, p. 106.
  55. ^ "Burhani Qardan Hasana Corporation (America)". www.bqhc.org. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  56. ^ a b "An economic system of the Dawoodi Bohras" (PDF). qardanhasana.info. Finance and Business Development, Dawat-e-Hadiyah. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  57. ^ Hasanaat al-Qard al-Hasan al-Burhaniyah Department, Pg 11
  58. ^ Blank 2001, p. 51.
  59. ^ "12th Rabi ul Awwal, Mawlid, and the Hijri-Misri Calendar". The Dawoodi Bohras. 2 February 2018. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021.
  60. ^ Newman, Andrew J. "Battle of Karbala". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  61. ^ "The Holy Kaaba: A brief history". thedawoodibohras.com. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021.
  62. ^ "The Ziyārat of Imam Husain". thedawoodibohras.com. 30 March 2019. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  63. ^ Talmon-Heller, Daniella; Kedar, Benjamin; Reiter, Yitzhak (January 2016). "Vicissitudes of a Holy Place: Construction, Destruction and Commemoration of Mashhad Ḥusayn in Ascalon" (PDF). Der Islam. 93: 11–13, 28–34. doi:10.1515/islam-2016-0008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2020.
  64. ^ "The Prophet Eesa (Jesus)". thedawoodibohras.com. 10 August 2018. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020.
  65. ^ a b "ʿAshara Mubarāka". The Dawoodi Bohras. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  66. ^ a b "The Message of Imam Husain AS". thedawoodibohras.com. 21 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2021.
  67. ^ "The Grand Theriac". thedawoodibohras.com. 26 August 2020. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  68. ^ a b "USA Dawoodi Bohras observe Ashara Mubaraka at home". 20 August 2020. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  69. ^ a b "Muharram". 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  70. ^ "100,000 Dawoodi Bohras in Mumbai for discourses by Syedna". Indo-Asian News Service. 22 December 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020 – via twocircles.net.
  71. ^ "200,000 Dawoodi Bohras attend Mumbai's Moharram discourses". The New Indian Express. Indo-Asian News Service. 13 November 2013. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Nearly 200,000 Dawoodi Bohras from all over the world attended the 10-day Moharram observance which culminated here Wednesday as Ashura, under the guidance of their 102-year-old spiritual head Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin...Elaborate arrangements for lodging, boarding, transportation, medical and other requirements of the visitors were made...For the benefit of the global community members, the discourses were relayed live via internet to over 650 community centres.
  72. ^ Shelar, Jyoti (25 August 2018). "Dawoodi Bohras to flock to Indore for Syedna's Muharram sermons". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020.
  73. ^ Attarwala, Fatima (12 March 2012). "101 years: At Rasm-e-Saifee, lucky 41 tie the nuptial knot". tribune.com.pk. Karachi: Tribune Pakistan. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012.
  74. ^ a b Raghib, Qureish (2006). "Rasme Saifee". islamvoice.com. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020.
  75. ^ "Welcome to International Taiseer un Nikah Committee (ITNC)". taiseerunnikah.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  76. ^ Goswami, Vajrasar (29 December 2013). "Mass procession organized by Bohra community". udaipurtimes.com. Udaipur. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020.
  77. ^ "Syedna to inaugurate Masjid in Secunderabad". teleganatoday.com. 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020.
  78. ^ Shelar, Jyoti (26 June 2019). "Raudat Tahera: Etched in stone, a labour of love". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 15 June 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  79. ^ Marfatia, Meher (24 February 2018). "Meher Marfatia: One hundred years behind the bazaar". mid-day.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020.
  80. ^ a b c Abdulhussein 2001, p. 97.
  81. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 142.
  82. ^ a b c d "The Masjid and its significance". thedawoodibohras.com. 21 April 2021. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  83. ^ a b "Head of Dawoodi Bohras arrives in Dubai". gulfnews.com. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  84. ^ a b c d "Bohra leader to open grand Dh 25 million mosque". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  85. ^ a b "Bohra mosque opens in Sharjah today". Khaleej Times. 26 July 2003. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  86. ^ Lim, Desmond (15 October 2015). "In Pictures: Sacred sanctuary". The Straits Times. Singapore. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020.
  87. ^ Zameer Basrai. "Evolution of the Bohra Masjid in Gujarat". In Shikha Jain (ed.). Context (PDF). Vol. 4. New Delhi: Center for Science and Environment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2021 – via dronah.org. ((cite book)): |journal= ignored (help)
  88. ^ a b Abdulhussein 2001, p. 49.
  89. ^ Anusha (8 September 2014). "Surat - The City of Unique Attractions, Gujarat". nativeplanet.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  90. ^ "Bohra spiritual leader opens mosque in Ajman". Khaleej Times. 28 December 2006. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  91. ^ "Welcome to the website of the Dawoodi Bohras of the Middle East". middleeast.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  92. ^ "The Dawoodi Bohras of Detroit". usa.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  93. ^ "Our Community - Toronto". canada.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  94. ^ "We are the Dawoodi Bohra community of London". uk.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  95. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 175.
  96. ^ "Aqa Maula TUS presided over the Urus majlis of Syedna Ismail Badruddin Saheb RA in the new Masjid in Paris which was also inaugurated by Aqa Maula TUS". malumaat.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  97. ^ a b c d Hussein, Asiff (1 February 2018). "The Bohras – Plucky Business Barons". Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  98. ^ a b Yusuf Mamujee (2017). "The Dawoodi Bohras of Sri Lanka". In S. Pathmanathan; B. A. Hussainmiya; Malani Endagama; Vajira Narampanawa; Kalinga Tudor Silva (eds.). People of Sri Lanka (PDF). Ministry of National Coexistence, Dialogue and Official Languages. ISBN 9789557537030. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2020 – via reliefweb.int. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  99. ^ De Alwis, Natasha (6 September 2019). "Annual congregation of Dawoodi Bohra Community in Sri Lanka". newsfirst.lk. Colombo. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020.
  100. ^ "The Dawoodi Bohra community of Houston". usa.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  101. ^ "The Dawoodi Bohra community of Bakersfield". usa.thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021. In March 2015, our leader His Holiness, Syedna wa Moulana Aali Qadr Mufaddal Saifuddin (TUS) made an historic visit – or safar – to California, visiting the Dawoodi Bohra communities of Orange County, Los Angeles, Bakersfield, San Jose, and Fremont. His Holiness (TUS) performed the iftitah (inauguration) of four Masajid, including Fakhri Masjid in the Bakersfield Jamaat.
  102. ^ "Dawoodi Bohra Leader Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin Receives Warm Welcome from Thousands of his Followers on his Return from Historic First Pilgrimage as 53rd Dai Al-Mutlaq". businesswireindia.com (Press release). Mumbai. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020.
  103. ^ Parmar, Vijaysinh (15 February 2012). "'Community kitchen' gives Bohra women freedom from cooking". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014.
  104. ^ a b V Mithran (19 November 2019). "How the Bohras enriched Kozhikode's cultural heritage". Onmanorama. Kozhikode. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021.
  105. ^ Sadriwala, Maryam (November 2019). "Fighting world hunger" (PDF). South Asia Magazine. Karachi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2021.
  106. ^ Sapatwalla, Mudar (8 March 2012). "Food drive for needy by North Texas Bohras". India Post. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021.
  107. ^ Bose, Mrityunjay (27 June 2020). "Dawoodi Bohras join other volunteers to serve migrants food, water during their arduous journey back home". Deccan Herald. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021.
  108. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 98.
  109. ^ "Guidance for schools with Muslims pupils". Ealing SACRE. Government of the United Kingdom. September 2014. Archived from the original on 6 July 2021.
  110. ^ a b "Education". 5 February 2018. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020 – via thedawoodibohras.com.
  111. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 23.
  112. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 99.
  113. ^ Zaenal Muttaqin (2011). Siti Fauziyah; Mohamad Rohman (eds.). "Modernity in the frame of Mullah authorities in Dawoodi Bohra denomination" (PDF). Al Qalam: Journal Keagamaan dan Kemasyarakatan. Vol. 28, no. 3. Indonesia. p. 449. doi:10.32678/alqalam.v28i3.886. ISSN 1410-3222. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2021 – via media.neliti.com.
  114. ^ "About MSB". idaramsb.net. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  115. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 19.
  116. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 22.
  117. ^ Izzuddin, Tasneem Saify (2016). "Chapter 4: The Management System of Dawoodi Bohra for Maximum Literacy Rate Through Quranic Education" (PDF). Conceptual study of the Quranic education system managed under Dawoodi Bohra Spiritual leadership (Thesis). Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibarewala University. hdl:10603/111649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2020 – via shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in.
  118. ^ "From Gurukul to IBO varsity". The Times of India. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
  119. ^ a b Abdulhussein 2001, p. 21.
  120. ^ "City's Arabic univ now opens campus in Nairobi". Times of India. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  121. ^ Das, Ria. "At 6 This Youngest Hafiz Ever Is A Child Prodigy On Quran". www.shethepeople.tv. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  122. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 17.
  123. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 26.
  124. ^ Blank 2001, pp. 125–126.
  125. ^ "Letter: Dawoodi Bohra women of Detroit speak up". Detroit News. 12 December 2018.
  126. ^ "Dawoodi Bohras of Detroit Share Message of Unity and Peace with Friends and Neighbors". 21 April 2017. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  127. ^ Hussain, Arwa (4 October 2022). "Bohra digital entrepreneurship shows how religious communities can help women thrive". The Conversation. Retrieved 25 April 2024.
  128. ^ Register, Deepa Bharath | Orange County (21 January 2022). "Dawoodi Bohra women organize first-ever business expo in U.S. to showcase female entrepreneurship". Daily Bulletin. Retrieved 25 April 2024.
  129. ^ Ghadially, R. (September–October 1991). "All for 'Izzat' The Practice of Female Circumcision among Bohra Muslims" (PDF). Manushi (66): 17–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2019., cited in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Global Concern Archived 10 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, New York: United Nations Children's Fund, February 2016, footnote 2.
  130. ^ a b Nair, Shalini (28 December 2017). "No official data on existence of Female Genital Mutilation in India, Centre tells SC". The Indian Express.
  131. ^ a b "Dawoodi Bohra women's group defends khafz". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 26 August 2018.
  132. ^ Anantnarayan, Lakshmi; Diler, Shabana; Menon, Natasha (2018). "The Clitoral Hood: A Contested Site" (PDF). WeSpeakOut. pp. 40, 42. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 September 2018.
  133. ^ Anantnarayan, Diler & Menon 2018, p. 28.
  134. ^ Cole, Diana (8 February 2016). "UNICEF Estimate Of Female Genital Mutilation Up By 70 Million". National Public Radio.
  135. ^ Blank 2001, p. 57.
  136. ^ Ghadially 1991, pp. 17, 19.
  137. ^ Baweja, Harinder (21 February 2016). "India's Dark Secret". Hindustan Times.
  138. ^ Cantera, Angel L. Martínez (6 March 2018). "'I was crying with unbearable pain': study reveals extent of FGM in India'". The Guardian.
  139. ^ Anantnarayan, Diler & Menon 2018, p. 2.
  140. ^ a b Batha, Emma (5 February 2018). "'Heartwrenching' study shows FGM prevalent among India's Bohra sect". Reuters.
  141. ^ Anantnarayan, Diler & Menon 2018, p. 37.
  142. ^ A2 v R; Magennis v R; Vaziri v R [2018] NSWCCA 174 (10 August 2018), Court of Criminal Appeal (NSW, Australia).

    Laurence, Emily (11 August 2018). "Genital mutilation convictions overturned after new evidence showing victims remain intact". ABC News (Australia).

  143. ^ The Queen v A2 [2019] HCA 35 Judgment summary (PDF), High Court of Australia, 16 October 2019.

    "High Court upholds NSW genital mutilation convictions". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 October 2019.

  144. ^ Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa' (in Arabic). Vol. 4. Beirut: Dar Sadir. 1957. p. 52.
  145. ^ Steigerwald, Diana. "Ikhwan al-Safa'". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on 30 June 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2020 – via iep.utm.edu.
  146. ^ Hill 2015, p. 6.
  147. ^ Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (25 September 2017). "Muslim as chief guest at RSS' function: Political compulsion or a paradigm shift?". The Economic Times. Nagpur. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020.
  148. ^ Ingber, Hanna (24 April 2011). "How Bohra Muslims set themselves apart". Global Post. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021 – via pri.org.
  149. ^ "From text to context: An exercise in patriotism". jameasaifiyah.edu. 15 August 2018. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020.
  150. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 95.
  151. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 141.
  152. ^ "Indore: Work for welfare of humanity, says spiritual leader Dr. Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin". The Free Press Journal. Indore. 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  153. ^ "The Bohras Today". thedawoodibohras.com. Archived from the original on 30 June 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  154. ^ Abdulhussein 2001, p. 89.
  155. ^ "The essence of humanity". thedawoodibohras.com. 26 June 2021. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021.
  156. ^ "Preserving the old and embracing the new". thedawoodibohras.com. 2 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021.
  157. ^ "An Address by Syedna Burhanuddin on his 80th birthday". thedawoodibohras.com. 4 December 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021.
  158. ^ a b "Pregnant with meaning". thedawoodibohras.com. 6 February 2021. Archived from the original on 12 June 2021.
  159. ^ "Project Rise Annual Report - 2020" (PDF). thedawoodibohras.com. June 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  160. ^ "Ethereal beauty". thedawoodibohras.com. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021.
  161. ^ "Kalemat Nooraniyah". nazafat.com (in Urdu). Al Nazafat Minal Iman: Hygiene and Cleanliness is Integral to Belief. Archived from the original on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  162. ^ "Green vision statement". nazafat.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  163. ^ "Big Versus Small". thedawoodibohras.com. 31 May 2020. Archived from the original on 21 June 2021.
  164. ^ "Bohra community launches plantation drive". Rawalpindi. 11 June 2017. Archived from the original on 6 July 2021.
  165. ^ Linah, Baliga (24 June 2019). "Afroz Shah gives Mithi River a new life, manages to clear 1.25-km stretch in Mithi of plastic waste". Mumbai: Mumbai Mirror. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  166. ^ "Dawoodi Bohras join river clean-up". The Hindu. Mumbai. 29 November 2018. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  167. ^ Shelar, Jyoti (5 March 2019). "Dawoodi Bohra women enlist in clean-up army". The Hindu. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  168. ^ Mistry, Rhea (16 June 2018). "No food wastage this Eid". The Hindu. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  169. ^ Altaher, Nada; Fahim, Omnia (14 June 2016). "Islam does not accept food wastage at any time". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021. Reciting verses from the Quran, the Awqaf official said: '...and eat and drink be not extravagant; surely [Allah] does not love the extravagant.'
  170. ^ Jiffry, Fadia (2 August 2013). "Scholars tell Muslims not to waste food". Arab News. Jeddah. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021. In another Hadith, the Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) said: The food of one person is sufficient for two, the food of two people suffices for four people and the food of four people suffices for eight.
  171. ^ "In holy Ramzan, Muslims urged not to waste food". The Times of India. 27 May 2018. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  172. ^ a b "Global Dawoodi Bohra faith feeds the hungry on World Food Day". Tricuro (Press release). Washington, D.C. 16 October 2020. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021 – via einnews.com.
  173. ^ Deane, Ruqyyaha (8 September 2019). "Shining lesson on zero food wastage policy at massive Bohra conference". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  174. ^ "Bohras set world record for largest zero waste religious event". indoremirror.in. Indore. 20 September 2018. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021.
  175. ^ "COP28 UAE | COP28 Presidency receives 'Abu Dhabi Interfaith Statement for COP28' at Global Faith Leaders' Summit". www.cop28.com. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  176. ^ Abdulla, Nasreen. "Abu Dhabi: Powerful interfaith document promising climate change signed by 28 faith leaders". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  177. ^ "Get involved with us to support a child in need". Action Against Hunger. Mumbai. 20 June 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021.
  178. ^ "'Project Rise' food assistance programme launched". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 20 June 2018. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021.
  179. ^ "Dawoodi Bohras Support Flood Victims in India". Global Newswire. Mumbai: Yahoo Finance. 17 September 2019. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021.
  180. ^ "Dawoodi Bohras serve poor, needy". The Times of India. 13 April 2020. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Humanity over hate: Religious organizations help out with covid-19 relief". 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 16 June 2021.
  182. ^ "PM Modi interacts with Dawoodi Bohra community's Shahzada Husain Burhanuddin". The Times Of India. 2 November 2020. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021.
  183. ^ a b "Dawoodi Bohras in North America Support U.N. World Food Day" (Press release). Global Newswire. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020.
  184. ^ "About Project Rise". The Dawoodi Bohras. 25 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 June 2021.
  185. ^ "Dawoodi Bohras offer much-needed support to the elderly". globalnewswire.com (Press release). Calgary. 2 December 2019. Archived from the original on 19 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  186. ^ "Exordium Networks, Inc. Involved in Local and Global Charitable "Upliftment" Initiatives". globalnewswire.com (Press release). 26 January 2017. Archived from the original on 19 June 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  187. ^ "The Blessings of our elders". thedawoodibohras.com. 22 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021.
  188. ^ Thakur, Pooja Mahrotri; Antony, Anto (3 October 2016). "Biggest Urban Makeover: How A Mumbai Trust Is Bringing Free Homes For 20,000". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021 – via Huffington Post.
  189. ^ a b c Sadhwani, Yogesh (10 September 2017). "What ails the Bhendi Bazaar project". India Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  190. ^ Bhargava, Anjuli (29 October 2016). "Beautifying Bhendi Bazaar". Sunday Business Standard. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021.
  191. ^ Khergamkar, Gajanan (7 February 2015). "Bhendi Bazaar makeover set to be a global precedent" (PDF). Mumbai: Times of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2021 – via sbut.com. ((cite magazine)): Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  192. ^ a b "Changing landscape of Mumbai" (PDF). Governance, Democracy, and Politics. May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2020 – via sbut.com. ((cite magazine)): Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  193. ^ "Tasees – Foundation Laying Ceremony of Sub Cluster 3". sbut.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  194. ^ "Tasees – Foundation Laying Ceremony of Sub Cluster 1". sbut.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  195. ^ "Congested Bhendi Bazaar in Mumbai gets a new spanking look". Press Trust of India. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021 – via Rediff.
  196. ^ Kamath, Naresh (6 February 2020). "Bhendi Bazaar's home run: 550 families move into 2 new towers". Mumbai: Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2021.
  197. ^ Mahale, Ajeet (23 March 2020). "A whole new world". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  198. ^ "Bhendi Bazaar cluster redevelopment: Civic authority issues". Mumbai: India Times. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021.

Further reading