This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Dhikr" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Dhikr (Arabic: ذِكْر;[a] /ðɪkr/; lit.'remembrance, reminder,[4] mention[5]') is a form of Islamic worship in which phrases or prayers are repeatedly recited for the purpose of remembering God.[4][6] It plays a central role in Sufism,[7] and each Sufi order typically adopts a specific dhikr, accompanied by specific posture, breathing, and movement.[8] In Sufism, dhikr refers to both the act of this remembrance as well as the prayers used in these acts of remembrance.[4] Dhikr usually includes the names of God or supplication from the Quran or hadith. It may be counted with either one's fingers or prayer beads,[4] and may be performed alone or with a collective group.[8] A person who recites dhikr is called a dhākir (ذَاكِر; [ðaːkɪr]; lit.'rememberer').[5]

The Quran frequently refers to itself and other scriptures and prophetic messages as "reminders" (dhikrah, tadhkīrah), which is understood as a call to "remember" (dhikr) an innate knowledge of God humans already possess. The Quran uses the term dhikr to denote the reminder from God conveyed through the prophets and messengers, as well as the human response to that reminder, signifying a reciprocal interaction between the divine and human. Muslims believe the prophets deliver God's message as a reminder to humans, who, in turn, should remember and acknowledge it.

The Arabic name of God (Allāh) depicted as being written on the rememberer's heart

Importance

There are several verses in the Quran that emphasize the importance of remembering the will of God by saying phrases such as "God willing" "God knows best," and "If it is your will.' This is the basis for dhikr. Surah al-Kahf (18), Ayah 24 states a person who forgets to say, "God willing", should immediately remember God by saying, "Maybe my Lord will guide me to [something] more akin to rectitude than this."[9] Other verses include Surah al-Ahzab (33), Ayah 41, "O you who have faith! Remember Allah with frequent remembrance",[10] and Surah ar-Ra'd (13), Ayah 28, "those who have faith, and whose hearts find rest in the remembrance of Allah.' Look! The hearts find rest in Allah's remembrance!"[11]

Muslims believe dhikr is one of the best ways to enter the higher level of Heaven and to glorify the Monotheistic Oneness of God.[12]

To Sufis, dhikr is seen as a way to gain spiritual enlightenment and achieve annihilation of self (fana) in order to seek permanence in God.[13] All Muslim sects endorse individual rosaries as a method dhikr and meditation, the goal of which is to obtain a feeling of peace, separation from worldly values (dunya), and, in general, strengthen Iman (faith). The main purpose of dhikr is to fill the heart with spiritual meaning and not simply chant the invocations with an empty heart and absent mind. When performed with awareness, the heart then becomes receptive to the activity of the tongue and is aware of God's presence.[14]

Common types

Arabic
Qurʾanic spelling
Transliteration
IPA
Phrase
بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ bismi -llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi
/bis.mi‿l.laː.hi‌‿r.raħ.maː.ni ‿r.ra.ħiː.mi/
In the name of God, the All-Merciful, the Especially-Merciful.
أَعُوذُ بِٱللَّٰهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi
/ʔa.ʕuː.ðu bil.laː.hi mi.na‿ʃ.ʃaj.tˤaː.ni‿r.ra.d͡ʒiː.mi/
I seek refuge in God from the exiled Satan.
أَعُوذُ بِٱللَّٰهِ ٱلسَّمِيعِ ٱلْعَلِيمِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi s-samīʿi l-ʿalīmi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi
/ʔa.ʕuː.ðu bil.laː.hi‿s.sa.miː.ʕi‿l.ʕa.liː.mi mi.na‿ʃ.ʃaj.tˤaː.ni‿r.ra.d͡ʒiː.mi/
I seek refuge in God, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from the exiled Satan.
سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّٰهِ subḥāna -llāhi
/sub.ħaː.na‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi/
Glorified is God.
ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّٰهِ ʾalḥamdu lillāhi
/ʔal.ħam.du lil.laː.hi/
All praise is due to God.
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ lā ʾilāha ʾillā -llāhu
/laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.la‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu/
There is no deity but God.
ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ ʾallāhu ʾakbaru
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hu ʔak.ba.ru/
God is greater [than everything].
أَسْتَغْفِرُ ٱللَّٰهَ ʾastaḡfiru -llāha
/ʔas.taɣ.fi.ru‿ɫ.ɫaː.ha/
I seek the forgiveness of God.
أَسْتَغْفِرُ ٱللَّٰهَ رَبِّي وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْهِ ʾastaḡfiru -llāha rabbī wa-ʾatūbu ʾilayhi
/ʔas.taɣ.fi.ru‿ɫ.ɫaː.ha rab.biː wa.ʔa.tuː.bu ʔi.laj.hi/
I seek the forgiveness of God, my Lord, and repent to Him.
سُبْحَانَكَ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ subḥānaka -llāhumma
/sub.ħaː.na.ka‿ɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma/
Glorified are you, O God.
سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّٰهِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ subḥāna -llāhi wa-bi-ḥamdihī
/sub.ħaː.na‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi wa.bi.ħam.di.hiː/
Glorified is God and with His praise.
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ ٱلْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ subḥāna rabbiya l-ʿaẓīmi wa-bi-ḥamdihī
/sub.ħaː.na rab.bi.ja‿l.ʕa.ðˤiː.mi wa.bi.ħam.di.hiː/
Glorified is my God, the Great, and with His praise.
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ ٱلْأَعْلَىٰ وَبِحَمْدِهِ subḥāna rabbiya l-ʾaʿlā wa-bi-ḥamdihī
/sub.ħaː.na rab.bi.ja‿l.ʔaʕ.laː wa.bi.ħam.di.hiː/
Glorified is my God, the Most High, and with His praise.
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْعَلِيِّ ٱلْعَظِيمِ lā ḥawla wa-lā quwwata ʾillā bi-llāhi l-ʿalīyi l-ʿaẓīmi
/laː ħaw.la wa.laː quw.wa.ta ʔil.laː bil.laː.hi‿l.ʕa.liː.ji‿l.ʕa.ðˤiː.mi/
There is no power no strength except from God, the Exalted, the Great.
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ ٱلظَّالِمِينَ lā ʾilāha ʾillā ʾanta subḥānaka ʾinnī kuntu mina ẓ-ẓālimīna
/laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.laː ʔan.ta sub.ħaː.na.ka ʔin.niː kun.tu mi.na‿ðˤ.ðˤaː.li.miː.na/
There is no god except You, glorified are you! I have indeed been among the wrongdoers.
حَسْبُنَا ٱللَّٰهُ وَنِعْمَ ٱلْوَكِيلُ ḥasbunā -llāhu wa-niʿma l-wakīlu
/ħas.bu.na‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu wa.niʕ.ma‿l.wa.kiː.lu/
God is sufficient for us, and He is an excellent Trustee.
إِنَّا لِلَّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ ʾinnā lillāhi wa-ʾinnā ʾilayhi rājiʿūna
/ʔin.naː lil.laː.hi wa.ʔin.naː ʔi.laj.hi raː.d͡ʒi.ʕuː.na/
Verily we belong to God, and verily to Him do we return.
مَا شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ كَانَ وَمَا لَمْ يَشَأْ لَمْ يَكُنْ mā šāʾa -llāhu kāna wa-mā lam yašaʾ lam yakun
/maː ʃaː.ʔa‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu kaː.na wa.maː lam ja.ʃaʔ lam ja.kun/
What God wills will be, and what God does not will, will not be.
إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ ʾin šāʾa -llāhu
/ʔin ʃaː.ʔa‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu/
If God wills.
مَا شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ mā šāʾa -llāhu
/maː ʃaː.ʔa‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu/
What God wills.
بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّٰهِ bi-ʾiḏni -llāhi
/bi.ʔið.ni‿l.laː.hi/
With the permission of God.
جَزَاكَ ٱللَّٰهُ خَيْرًا jazāka -llāhu khayrān
/d͡ʒa.zaː.ka‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu xaj.ran/
God reward you [with] goodness.
بَارَكَ ٱللَّٰهُ فِيكَ bāraka -llāhu fīka
/baː.ra.ka‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu fiː.ka/
God bless you.
فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّٰهِ fī sabīli -llāhi
/fiː sa.biː.li‿l.laː.hi/
On the path of God.
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱللَّٰهِ lā ʾilāha ʾillā -llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu -llāhi
/laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.la‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu mu.ħam.ma.dun ra.suː.lu‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi/
There is no deity but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱللَّٰهِ عَلِيٌّ وَلِيُّ ٱللَّٰهِ lā ʾilāha ʾillā -llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu -llāhi ʿalīyun walīyu -llāhi
/laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.la‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu mu.ħam.ma.dun ra.suː.lu‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi ʕa.liː.jun wa.liː.ju‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi/
There is no deity but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, Ali is the vicegerent of God. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ ٱللَّٰهِ ʾašhadu ʾan lā ʾilāha ʾillā -llāhu wa-ʾašhadu ʾanna muḥammadan rasūlu -llāhi
/ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.la‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu wa.ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan.na mu.ħam.ma.dan ra.suː.lu‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi/
I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ ٱللَّٰهِ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيًّا وَلِيُّ ٱللَّٰهِ ʾašhadu ʾan lā ʾilāha ʾillā -llāhu wa-ʾašhadu ʾanna muḥammadan rasūlu -llāhi wa-ʾašhadu ʾanna ʿalīyan walīyu -llāhi
/ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan laː ʔi.laː.ha ʔil.la‿ɫ.ɫaː.hu wa.ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan.na mu.ħam.ma.dan ra.suː.lu‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi wa.ʔaʃ.ha.du ʔan.na ʕa.liː.jan wa.liː.ju‿ɫ.ɫaː.hi/
I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God, and I bear witness that Ali is the vicegerent of God. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad.
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَجِّلْ فَرَجَهُمْ وَٱلْعَنْ أَعْدَاءَهُمْ ʾallāhumma ṣalli ʿalā muḥammadin wa-ʾāli muḥammadin wa-ʿajjil farajahum wa-lʿan ʾaʿdāʾahum
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma sˤal.li ʕa.laː mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʔaː.li mu.ħam.ma.din wa.ʕad͡ʒ.d͡ʒil fa.ra.d͡ʒa.hum wal.ʕan ʔaʕ.daː.ʔa.hum/
O God, bless Muhammad and the Progeny of Muhammad, and hasten their alleviation and curse their enemies. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)
ٱللَّٰهُمَّ عَجِّلْ لِوَلِيِّكَ ٱلْفَرَجَ وَٱلْعَافِيَةَ وَٱلنَّصْرَ ʾallāhumma ʿajjil li-walīyika l-faraja wa-l-ʿāfiyata wa-n-naṣra
/ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hum.ma ʕad͡ʒ.d͡ʒil li.wa.liː.ji.ka‿l.fa.ra.d͡ʒa wal.ʕaː.fi.ja.ta wan.nasˤ.ra/
O God, hasten the alleviation of your vicegerent (i.e. Imam Mahdi), and grant him vitality and victory. (Usually recited by Shia Muslims)

Phrases and expressions

There are numerous conventional phrases and expressions invoking God.

Name Phrase Citation
(Quran or Sunnah)
Takbir
تَكْبِير
allāhu ʾakbaru 9:72, 29:45, 40:10
ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ
God is greater [than all things]
Tasbih
تَسْبِيح
subḥāna llāhi 23:91, 28:68, 37:159, 52:43, 59:23
سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّٰهِ
Glory to God
Tahmid
تَحْمِيد
al-ḥamdu li-llāhi 1:2, 6:1, 6:45, 7:43, 10:10, 14:39, 16:75, 17:111, 18:1, 23:28, 27:15, 27:59, 27:93, 29:63, 31:25, 34:1, 35:1, 35:34, 37:182, 39:29, 39:74, 39:75, 40:65
ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّٰهِ
Praise be to God
Tahlil
تَهْلِيل
lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāhu 37:38, 47:19
لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّٰهُ
There is no deity but God
Shahadatayn
شَهَادَتَيْن
muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi 48:29
مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱللَّٰهِ
Muhammad is the messenger of God
Tasmiyah
تَسْمِيَّة
bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi 1:1
بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ [15]
In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Inshallah
إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ
ʾin shāʾa llāhu 2:70, 12:99, 18:69, 28:27, 48:27
إِنْ شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ
If God wills
Mashallah
مَا شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ
mā shāʾa llāhu 6:128, 7:188, 10:49, 18:39, 87:7
مَا شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ
What God wills
Alayhi as-Salam
عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ
salāmu -llāhi ʿalayhī
سَلَامُ ٱللَّٰهِ عَلَيْهِ [16]
Blessing of God be upon him
Salawat
صَلَوَات
ṣallā llāhu ʿalayhi wa-ʾālihī wa-sallama
صَلَّىٰ ٱللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ [16]
God bless him and give him salvation
Rahimahullah
رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ
raḥimahu llāhu / raḥimaka llāhu
رَحِمَهُ ٱللَّٰهُ / رَحِمَكَ ٱللَّٰهُ
God have mercy upon him / God have mercy upon you
Istighfar
ٱسْتِغْفَار
ʾastaġfiru llāhi 12:98, 19:47
أَسْتَغْفِرُ ٱللَّٰهَ
I seek forgiveness from God
Hawqalah
حَوْقَلَة
ʾlā ḥawla wa-lā quwwata ʾillā bi-llāhi Riyad as-Salihin 16:36
لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِٱللَّٰهِ
There is no might nor power except in God
Istirja
ٱسْتِرْجَاع
ʾinnā li-llāhi wa-ʾinnā ʾilayhi rājiʿūna 2:156, 2:46, 2:156
إِنَّا لِلَّٰهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
Indeed, (we belong) to God and indeed to Him we shall return
Jazakallah
جَزَاكَ ٱللَّٰهُ
jazāka llāhu ḫayran Riyad as-Salihin 17:32, Tirmidhi 27:141, Bukhari 7:3
جَزَاكَ ٱللَّٰهُ خَيْرًا
May God reward you well
Ta'awwudh
تَعَوُّذ
ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi Riyad as-Salihin 1:46
أَعُوذُ بِٱللَّٰهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the pelted Satan
Fi sabilillah
fī sabīli llāhi 2:154, 2:190, 2:195, 2:218, 2:244, 2:246, etc.
فِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّٰهِ
in the cause (way) of God
Yarhamuka-llah
yarḥamuka llāhu Bukhari 78:248, Riyad as-Salihin 6:35
يَرْحَمُكَ ٱللَّٰهُ
May God have mercy on you
Honorifics often said or written alongside Allah
Subhanahu wa-Ta'ala
subḥānahu wa-taʿālā[17] 6:100, 10:18, 16:1, 17:43, 30:40, 39:67
سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ
Praised and exalted[18][19]
Tabaraka wa-Ta'ala
tabāraka wa-taʿālā
تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَىٰ
Blessed and exalted
Jalla Jalalah
jalla jalālahu
جَلَّ جَلَالَهُ[20]
May His glory be glorified
Azza wa Jall
ʿazza wa-jalla
عَزَّ وَجَلَّ
Prestigious and Majestic

Recitation of Quran

Reciting the Quran sincerely is also considered a kind of Dhikr. For example:

Quranic ayat and hadiths

See also: Dua

Quranic ayat

"It is truly I. I am Allah! There is no god [worthy of worship] except Me. So worship Me [alone], and establish prayer for My remembrance" — Surah Taha, Ayah 14[26]

"O believers! Always remember Allah often" — Surah Al- Ahzab, Ayah 41[27]

"Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the day and night there are signs for people of reason. [They are] those who remember Allah while standing, sitting, and lying on their sides, and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth [and pray], 'Our Lord! You have not created [all of] this without purpose. Glory be to You! Protect us from the torment of the Fire'" — Surah Al 'Imran, Ayat 190-191[28]

Hadiths

Narrated by Abu Al-Darda that the Messenger of Allah said:

"Shall I tell you about the best of deeds, the most pure in the Sight of your Lord, about the one that is of the highest order and is far better for you than spending gold and silver, even better for you than meeting your enemies in the battlefield where you strike at their necks and they at yours?" The companions replied, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah!" He replied, 'Remembrance of Allah."

Jami Al-Tirmidhi 3337[29]

Narrated by Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

"People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah without the angels surrounding them, mercy covering them, and Allah Mentioning them among those who are with Him."

— Bulugh Al-Maram: Book 16, Hadith 1540[30]

Narrated by Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

"Lo! Indeed the world is cursed. What is in it is cursed, except for remembrance of Allah, what is conducive to that, the knowledgeable person and the learning person."

—Jami Al-Tirmidhi 2322 [31]

Narrated by Abdullah bin Busr that the Messenger of Allah said:

"'Always keep your tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.'"

Sunan Ibn Majah 3793[32]

Narrated by Mu'adh ibn Jabal that the Messenger of Allah said:

"The People of Paradise will not regret except one thing alone: the house that passed them by and in which they made no remembrance of Allah."

—Shu'ab al-Iman: Book 1, Hadith 392[33]

Tasbih of Fatimah

The Islamic prophet Muhammad is reported to have taught his daughter Fatimah bint Rasul Allah a special manner of Dhikr which is known as the "Tasbih of Fatimah".[34] This consists of:

  1. 33 repetitions of subḥāna -llahi (سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّٰهِ), meaning "Glorified is God". This saying is known as Tasbih (تَسْبِيح).
  2. 33 repetitions of al-ḥamdu lillāhi (ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّٰهِ), meaning "All Praise belongs to God". This saying is known as Tahmid (تَحْمِيد).
  3. 34 repetitions of ʾallāhu ʾakbaru (ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ), meaning "God is Greater [than everything]". This saying is known as Takbir (تَكْبِير).

The Shia way of doing the Tasbih of Fatimah[34] is:

  1. 34 repetitions of ʾallāhu ʾakbaru (ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ), meaning "God is Greater [than everything]". This saying is known as Takbir (تَكْبِير).
  2. 33 repetitions of al-ḥamdu lillāhi (ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّٰهِ), meaning "All Praise belongs to God". This saying is known as Tahmid (تَحْمِيد).
  3. 33 repetitions of subḥāna -llahi (سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّٰهِ), meaning "Glorified is God". This saying is known as Tasbih (تَسْبِيح).
  4. Saying one time at the end: La ilaha il Allah (There is no god but Allah).

Prayer beads

An example of a Tasbih that Muslims use to track their count for dhikr.

Like many other religions, the use of rosaries is also recommended when remembering God. Since it can get difficult to keep track of the counting of the prayers, the beads are used to keep track so that the person reciting the prayer can turn all of their focus on what is actually being said - as it can become difficult to concentrate simultaneously on the number and phrasing when one is doing so a substantial number of times.[35] Similarly, as dhikr involves the repetition of particular phrases a specific number of times, prayer beads are used to keep track of the count.

Known also as Tasbih, these are usually Misbaha (prayer beads) upon a string, 33, 99, or 100 in number, which correspond to the names of God in Islam and other recitations. The beads are used to keep track of the number of recitations that make up the dhikr.[4]

In the United States, Muslim inmates are allowed to utilize prayer beads for therapeutic effects.[36] In Alameen v. Coughlin, 892 F. Supp. 440 (E.D.N.Y 1995), Imam Hamzah S. Alameen, a/k/a Gilbert Henry, and Robert Golden brought suit against Thomas A. Coughlin III, etc., et alia (Head of the Department of Corrections) in the State of New York pursuant to 42 USC Section 1983.[37] The plaintiffs argued that prisoners have a First Amendment Constitutional right to pursue Islamic healing therapy called KASM (قاسَمَهُ | qaasama | taking an oath ) which uses prayer beads. The rosary of oaths, which Alameen developed, was used to successfully rehabilitate inmates suffering from co-occurring mental health challenges and substance abuse issues during the 1990s. All people, including Muslims and Catholics, were allowed to use prayer beads inside prisons, lest their freedom of religion be violated when the prison administration forbade their possession as contraband in the penal system. The practice of carrying prayer beads became controversial when gang-members began carrying specific colors of prayer beads to identify themselves[citation needed].

Dhakir

A group of Iranian Maddahs/Dhakirs, in a gathering

A "dhakir" (ذَاكِر) or "Zaker" (literally "mentioner"' a speaker who refers to something briefly/incidentally),[38][39] or reminder,[40] is considered a maddah who reminds the remembering of Allah (and His Dhikr) for people, and he himself should also be reciter of dhikhr; namely, not only he ought to be a recital of Dhikr, but also he should put the audience in the situation of dhikr reminding (of Allah and likewise Ahl al-Bayt).[41] Idiomatically the term means "praiser of God" or "professional narrator of the tragedies of Karbala (and Ahl al-Bayt)". To some extent, it can mean Maddah/panegyrist too.[42][43]

The root of the word "Dhakir" (ذَاكِر) is "Dhikr" (ذِكْر) which means remembering/praising; and the word "Dhakiri" (ذَاكِرِيّ) is the act which is done by Dhakir, i.e. mentioning the Dhikr (of Allah, the Ahl al-Bayt, etc.) by observing its specific principles/manners.[44][45][46]

Sufi practice

Followers of Sufism have two main ways of engaging in dhikr: silent and vocal dhikr. Silent dhikr has been considered by many Sufi practitioners to be the best form of dhikr, where dhikr is done silently and in one position without moving the body.[47] This method of dhikr allowed it to be done whenever one could, and it avoided showing off as it was privately done. Among the biggest advocates for silent dhikr was Baha' al-Dïn Naqshband, and his form of dhikr "...required the practitioners to force internal energy into different parts within the body through concentrating the mind and regulating the breath. This was to be undertaken while repeating the verbal formula that constitutes the Islamic profession of faith: 'there is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God'".[48] Each word in the verbal statement was for a specific part of the body, such as the navel or the upper chest.

The other form of Sufi dhikr is vocal dhikr performed using the tongue and body, where showing off was not considered a primary concern. This dhikr could be done privately or within a group and like the Naqshband dhikr, it placed emphasis on having the verbal invocations ripple throughout the body.[48] Similar to the Naqshband practice of dhikr, where specific words were for specific locations of the body, exists the 'four-beat' (chahar iarb) dhikr that is attributed the Kubravï master 'Alï Hamadanï.

Sufis often engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies that have stemmed from these two types of dhikr, the details of which vary between Sufi orders or tariqah.[49] An example of this is the initiation of an applicant, where the repetition of dhikr is a necessary component in the ceremony.[49] Each order, or lineage within an order, has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, singing, music, dance, costumes, incense, muraqaba (meditation), ecstasy, and trance.[50] Common terms for the forms of litany employed include "hizb" (pl. "ahzab"), "wird" (pl. "awrad") and durood. An example of a popular work of litany is Dala'il al-Khayrat. Another type of group dhikr ceremony that is most commonly performed in Arab countries is called the haḍra (lit. presence).[51] A haḍra can draw upon secular Arab genres and typically last for hours.[52] Finally, sama` (lit. audition) is a type of group ceremony that consist mostly of recited spiritual poetry and Quranic recitation.[citation needed]

Revelations and prophetic messages

According to William Chittick, "The Koran commonly refers to the knowledge brought by the prophets as “remembrance” (dhikr) and “reminder” (dhikra, tadhkir), terms that derive from the root dh-k-r".[53] These terms appear more than forty times in the Quran to describe the Quran itself.[53] For example, the Quran refers to itself as "The Wise Reminder" (al-dhikr al-ḥakīm) in 3:58,[54] "a Reminder for the believers" (dhikra Lil mu'minin) in 7:2,[55] and "The reminder for the worlds" (dhikra Lil 'alamin) in 6:90.[56] The prophet Muhammad himself is described in 88:21 as a "reminder" ("So remind! thou art but a reminder").[57] The same terms are also used to refer to other prophetic messages such as the Torah and the Gospel.[53] In that vein, the Jews and the Christians are thus referred to as "the people of the Reminder" (ahl al dhikr) (16:43, 21:7).[58] The Quran justifies the sending of numerous prophets by God by stating that human beings, similar to their forefather Adam, have a propensity to forget and become heedless. The key to confronting this shortcoming is the remembrance that God conveys through his prophets.[53] According to Islamic beliefs, prophets have the function of reminding (dhikr) people of what they already know, while humans only need to remember (dhikr) their innate knowledge of God. This knowledge is said to be present in the divine spirit that God breathed into Adam, as the Quran states that God molded Adam's clay with His own hands and blew into him His own spirit (32:9, 15:29, 38:72).[59][60]

[The message of Islam] is a call for recollection, for the remembrance of a knowledge kneaded into the very substance of our being even before our coming into this world. In a famous verse that defines the relationship between human beings and God, the Quran, in referring to the precosmic existence of man, states, “‘Am I not your Lord?’ They said: ‘Yes, we bear witness’” (7:172). The “they” refers to all the children of Adam, male and female, and the “yes” confirms the affirmation of God’s Oneness by us in our pre-eternal ontological reality. Men and women still bear the echo of this “yes” deep down within their souls, and the call of Islam is precisely to this primordial nature, which uttered the “yes” even before the creation of the heavens and the earth. The call of Islam therefore concerns, above all, the remembrance of a knowledge deeply embedded in our being, the confirmation of a knowledge that saves, hence the soteriological function of knowledge in Islam.[61]

— William Chittick, The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2007

The Quran also highlights that God called upon all souls to witness His lordship, so that no one can plead ignorance on the Day of Judgment: ""Lest you say on the Day of Resurrection, "As for us, we were heedless of this," or lest you say, "Our fathers associated others with God before us, and we were their offspring after them. What, wilt Thou destroy us for what the vain-doers did?"" (7:172-73).[62]

The Quran uses the term "dhikr" to refer to both the reminder that comes from God through the prophets and the response of humans to that reminder. This word reflects a two-way communication process between the Divine and the human. The prophets deliver the message of God, which is intended to serve as a reminder to humans, and humans respond to it by remembering and acknowledging it.[63] In addition, the Quran clarifies that "dhikr" as the human response to God's reminder is not limited to merely acknowledging the truth of tawhid (the oneness of God). Rather, the term "dhikr" also means "to mention." Thus, on the human side, "dhikr" involves not only being aware of God's presence but also expressing that awareness through language, whether spoken or unspoken. Therefore, "dhikr" encompasses both the inner state of being mindful of God and the outer expression of that mindfulness through verbal or nonverbal means.[63]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Also spelled thikr, zikr, zekr,[1] and zikar.[2][3]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi (26 March 2016). The Laws of Islam (PDF). Enlight Press. ISBN 978-0994240989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  2. ^ "Evening Azkar". Dua and Adhkar. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Mishkat al-Masabih 2264 - Supplications - كتاب الدعوات - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2021-04-17.
  4. ^ a b c d e The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. OCLC 50280143.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ a b Jalal al-Din al-Rumi (1983). The Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi. William C. Chittick. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-87395-723-7. OCLC 9196745.
  6. ^ Morris, Julia (2014-03-01). "Baay Fall Sufi Da'iras: Voicing Identity Through Acoustic Communities". African Arts. 47 (1): 42–53. doi:10.1162/AFAR_a_00121. ISSN 0001-9933. S2CID 57563314.
  7. ^ Le Gall, Dina (2005). A Culture of Sufism: Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450-1700. SUNY Press. p. 117. ISBN 9780791462454. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  8. ^ a b The encyclopaedia of Islam. H. A. R. Gibb, P. J. Bearman. Leiden: Brill. 1960–2009. pp. 223–224. ISBN 90-04-16121-X. OCLC 399624.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ Quran 18:24
  10. ^ Quran 33:41
  11. ^ Quran 13:28
  12. ^ "Dhikr, remembrance of God". sunnah.org. Archived from the original on 2019-10-24. Retrieved 2015-09-28.
  13. ^ Engineer, Irfan (2021). "Sufism: In the Spirit of Eastern Spiritual Traditions" (PDF). Sambhāṣaṇ. 2 (1 and 2) – via Center for the Study of Society & Secularism.
  14. ^ Ali, Mukhtar (2017-01-01). "The Power of the Spoken Word Prayer, Invocation, and Supplication in Islam". Spirituality and the Good Life: Philosophical Approaches.
  15. ^ The phrase is encoded at Unicode code point U+FDFD
  16. ^ a b The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point FDFA
  17. ^ Often abbreviated "SWT" or "swt".
  18. ^ Grob, Eva Mira (2010). Documentary Arabic private and business letters on papyrus: form and function, content and context. New York, N.Y.: De Gruyter. p. 26. ISBN 978-3110247046.
  19. ^ Reynolds, Gabriel Said, ed. (2011). New perspectives on the Qur'an: The Qur'an in its historical context 2. London: Routledge. p. 259. ISBN 978-1136700781.
  20. ^ The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFB
  21. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 5013 - Virtues of the Qur'an - كتاب فضائل القرآن - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  22. ^ "Mishkat al-Masabih 2185 - The Excellent Qualities of the Qur'an - كتاب فضائل القرآن - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  23. ^ "Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2893 - Chapters on The Virtues of the Qur'an - كتاب ثواب القرآن عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  24. ^ a b "Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2895 - Chapters on The Virtues of the Qur'an - كتاب ثواب القرآن عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  25. ^ a b Tafsir Ibn Kathir.
  26. ^ "Surah Taha - 1-135". Quran.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  27. ^ "Surah Al-Ahzab - 41". Quran.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  28. ^ "Surah Ali 'Imran - 1-200". Quran.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  29. ^ "Jami` at-Tirmidhi 3377 - Chapters on Supplication - كتاب الدعوات عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-20.
  30. ^ "Hadith - The Comprehensive Book - Bulugh al-Maram - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  31. ^ "Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2322 - Chapters On Zuhd - كتاب الزهد عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  32. ^ "Sunan Ibn Majah 3793 - Etiquette - كتاب الأدب - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-04.
  33. ^ "Dhikr, remembrance of God — As-Sunnah Foundation of America". sunnah.org. Retrieved 2023-10-20.
  34. ^ a b "Riyad as-Salihin 1459 - The Book of the Remembrance of Allah - كتاب الأذكار - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2023-10-02.
  35. ^ Kelly, Elizabeth (2004). The Rosary: A Path into Prayer (1st ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Loyola Press. ISBN 978-0829420241.
  36. ^ "United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York". Archived from the original on March 11, 2007.
  37. ^ "Alameen v. Coughlin, 892 F. Supp. 440 (E.D.N.Y. 1995)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
  38. ^ Mentioner (in dictionary) vocabulary.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  39. ^ Definitions for mentioner definitions.net Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  40. ^ Dhakir vajehyab.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  41. ^ The definition of Dhakiri maddahi.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  42. ^ (The meaning of) Dhakir vajehyab.com
  43. ^ Dhakir (meaning of) dictionary.abadis.ir Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  44. ^ Rules/principles of Dhakiri estejab.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  45. ^ The rules and principles of Dhakiri Archived 2019-04-09 at the Wayback Machine maddahi.com Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  46. ^ Rules and principles of Dhakiri bayanbox.ir Retrieved 12 Jan 2019
  47. ^ Eifring, Halvor, and Shahzad Bashir. “Movement and Stillness: The Practice of Sufi Dhikr in Fourteenth-Century Central Asia.” Meditation in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Cultural Histories, Bloomsbury Press, New York, NY, 2013, pp. 203.
  48. ^ a b Eifring, Halvor, and Shahzad Bashir. “Movement and Stillness: The Practice of Sufi Dhikr in Fourteenth-Century Central Asia.” Meditation in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Cultural Histories, Bloomsbury Press, New York, NY, 2013, pp. 203.
  49. ^ a b Friedlander, Ira (1975). The Whirling Dervishes. Albany, NY: Macmillan. p. 22. ISBN 0-02-541540-9.
  50. ^ Touma, p.162.
  51. ^ In earlier orders, the "presence" referred to was that of God, but since the 18th century it has been considered to be the spiritual presence of Muhammad (John L. Esposito, "Hadrah." The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Web. 3 Apr. 2010.) The shifting focus, however, is not shared by all and is a result of the Sufi reforms which sought to mitigate the heretical belief of theopanism committed by some Sufi claimants through a greater focus on the spirit and active life of Muhammad instead of a metaphorical union with God.(Ira Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, p. 210)
  52. ^ Touma, p.165.
  53. ^ a b c d Chittick 2000, p. 63.
  54. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 147.
  55. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 407.
  56. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 373.
  57. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 1508.
  58. ^ Nasr et al. 2015, p. 129, 811.
  59. ^ Chittick 1998, pp. 97–98.
  60. ^ Chittick 1989, p. 17.
  61. ^ Nasr & Chittick 2007, p. 45.
  62. ^ Murata & Chittick 1996, p. 127.
  63. ^ a b Chittick 2002, p. 49.

Sources

Further reading