Quba Mosque
Masjid Qubāʾ (مَسْجِد قُبَاء)
The original mosque, prior to its demolition in the 20th century
Religion
AffiliationIslam
ProvinceMedina
RegionHejaz, Saudi Arabia
Location
LocationMedina, Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates24°26′21″N 39°37′02″E / 24.43917°N 39.61722°E / 24.43917; 39.61722 (Quba Mosque)
Architecture
TypeMosque
StyleIslamic
New Classical
Date establishedAround 622 C.E. / 1 A.H.
Groundbreaking622 C.E. / 1 A.H.
Completed1986 (current)
Specifications
Capacity30,000+
Dome(s)6
Minaret(s)4 (current)
1 (original)

The Quba Mosque (Arabic: مَسْجِد قُبَاء, romanizedMasjid Qubāʾ) is a mosque located in Medina, in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, built in the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century C.E.[1][2][3] It is thought to be the first mosque in the world, built on the first day of Muhammad's emigration to Medina.[4][5] Its first stone is said to have been laid by the prophet, and the structure completed by his companions.[6]

As per historical Islamic texts, Muhammad migrated alongside Abu Bakr and spent 14 days in this mosque praying qaṣr (Arabic: قَصْر, a short prayer) while waiting for Ali to arrive in Medina, after he stayed behind in Mecca to safeguard Muhammad's life and escape, by sleeping in Muhammad's bed in his place.[7] Performing Wuḍūʾ ('Ablution') in one's home, then offering two Rakaʿāt of Nafl (Optional) prayers in the Quba Mosque, is considered to be equal to performing one ʿUmrah. Muhammad used to go there, riding or on foot, every Saturday and offer a two rakaʿāt prayer. He advised others to do the same, saying, "Whoever makes ablutions at home and then goes and prays in the Mosque of Quba, he will have a reward like that of an 'Umrah."[8] This ḥadīth was reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Hakim al-Nishaburi.[citation needed] Initially, the mosque was built 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) off Medina in the village of Quba, before Medina expanded to include this village.[9]

Architecture

When the Driehaus Prize winner and New Classical architect Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil was commissioned in 1986, to conceive a larger mosque, he intended to incorporate the old structure into his design. But the old mosque was torn down and replaced with a new one.[10]

The new mosque consists of a rectangular prayer hall raised on a second story platform. The prayer hall connects to a cluster containing residential areas, offices, ablution facilities, shops and a library.[citation needed]

The recent new construction of the Quba Mosque that happened in 1984 include many new additions, such as 7 main entrances, 4 parallel minarets, and the 56 mini domes that surround the perimeter of the mosque from an overhead point of view.[9] The courtyard of this mosque is composed of black, red, and white marble,[11] and majority of the structure and interior structures such as the minbar and mihrab are all composed of white marble. Originally, there was one minaret, the new renovations included the addition of the other three minarets, they rest on square bases, have octagonal shafts which take on a circular shape as they reach the top.[citation needed]

Prayer hall

The prayer hall is arranged around a central courtyard, characterised by six large domes resting on clustered columns. A portico, which is two bays in depth, borders the courtyard on the east and west, while a one-bayed portico borders it on the north, and separates it from the women's prayer area.

The women's prayer area, which is surrounded by a screen, is divided into two parts as a passageway connects the northern entrance with the courtyard.[citation needed] When Quba Mosque was rebuilt in 1986, the Medina architecture was retained – ribbed white domes, and basalt facing and modest exterior – qualities that recalls Madina's simplicity. The courtyard, is flagged with black, red and white marble. It is screened overhead by day from the scorching heat with shades. Arabesque latticework filters the light of the palm groves outside. Elements of the new building include work by the Egyptian architect Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil, Pakistani architect Hassan Khan Sayyid and the Stuttgart tensile architect Mahmoud Bodo Rasch,[12] a student of Frei Otto.

Landmarks

Status as First Mosque in Islamic History

Depending on whether the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa[13] is older or not, it may be the first mosque in the world, but according to legend, the sanctuary of the Kaaba in Mecca dates to the time of Ibrahim (Abraham) and Ismaʿil (Ishmael).[14][15]

Mentions

In ahadith

The merits of the mosque are mentioned in nineteen Sahih al-Bukhari hadiths; thirteen Sahih Muslim hadiths; two Sunan Abu Dawood hadiths; six Al-Muwatta hadiths.[16]

Muhammad frequented the mosque and prayed there. This is referred to in a number of hadith:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Dinar: Ibn 'Umar said, "The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding." 'Abdullah (Ibn 'Umar) used to do the same

— Collected by Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 2, Book 21, Number 284[17]

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba (sometimes) walking and sometimes riding. Added Nafi Mawla Ibn Umar (in another narration), "He then would offer two Rakat (in the Mosque of Quba)."

— Collected by Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 2, Book 21, Number 285[18]

In the Quran

It is believed to be the mosque which the Quran mentions as being founded on piety and devoutness (Masjid al-Taqwa)[19]

There are also those ˹hypocrites˺ who set up a mosque ˹only˺ to cause harm, promote disbelief, divide the believers, and as a base for those who had previously fought against Allah and His Messenger. They will definitely swear, "We intended nothing but good," but Allah bears witness that they are surely liars. Do not ˹O Prophet˺ ever pray in it. Certainly, a mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy of your prayers. In it are men who love to be purified. And Allah loves those who purify themselves.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V. (eds.). The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. Vol. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 0-918720-58-3.
  2. ^ Mustafa Abu Sway. "The Holy Land, Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Qur'an, Sunnah and other Islamic Literary Source" (PDF). Central Conference of American Rabbis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28.
  3. ^ Dyrness, W. A. (2013-05-29). Senses of Devotion: Interfaith Aesthetics in Buddhist and Muslim Communities. Vol. 7. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-62032-136-2.
  4. ^ Macca, A. A.; Aryanti, T. (16–18 November 2016). "The Domes: El Wakil's Traditionalist Architecture of Quba Mosque". IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 180: 012092. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/180/1/012092. S2CID 131955391.
  5. ^ Alahmadi, M.; Mansour, S.; Dasgupta, N.; Abulibdeh, A.; Atkinson, P. M.; Martin, D. J. (2021). "Using daily nighttime lights to monitor spatiotemporal patterns of human lifestyle under covid-19: The case of Saudi Arabia". Remote Sensing. 13 (22): 4633. Bibcode:2021RemS...13.4633A. doi:10.3390/rs13224633.
  6. ^ "Masjid Quba is the first mosque in Islam's history". Masjid Quba'. The Ministry of Hajj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved 2010-10-19.
  7. ^ "Ali in the Quran". Balaghah.net. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
  8. ^ "Quba — the first mosque in the history of Islam". Arab News. 12 July 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  9. ^ a b Çakmak, Cenap (2017-05-18). Islam: a worldwide encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California, the US. ISBN 978-1-61069-217-5. OCLC 962409918.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  10. ^ "Description of the new mosque and architectural documents at archnet.org". Archived from the original on January 8, 2009.
  11. ^ "Masjid al-Quba – 3D Virtual Tour". www.3dmekanlar.com. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  12. ^ Dr. Rasch (6 November 2002), "Alles muss von innen kommen", Gespräch mit dem Stuttgarter Architekten, Islamische Zeitung
  13. ^ Reid, Richard J. (12 January 2012). "The Islamic Frontier in Eastern Africa". A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present. John Wiley and Sons. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-470-65898-7. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  14. ^ Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Islamic Texts Society. ISBN 978-0-946621-33-0.
  15. ^ Glassé, Cyril (1991). "Kaaba". The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-0606-3126-0.
  16. ^ Enter Quba Mosque in the "Search the Hadith" box and check off all hadith collections. Archived October 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:21:284
  18. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:21:285
  19. ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir 9:108