In Islam, the munafiqun ('hypocrites', Arabic: منافقون‎, singular منافق munāfiq) or false Muslim were a group decried in the Quran as outward Muslims who were inwardly concealing disbelief and actively sought to undermine the Muslim community.[1] Munafiq is a person who in public and in community shows that he is a Muslim but rejects Islam or propagate against it either in his heart or among enemies of Islam. The hypocrisy itself is called nifāq (نفاق).[2]

Types of hypocrisy

Munafiqun in the Qur'an

The Qur'an has many verses discussing munāfiqūn, referring to them as more dangerous to Muslims than the worst non-Muslim enemies of Islam.

Traits of the Munafiq according to Hadith

Hadith (record of the words, actions attributed to Muhammad) describe several traits of a hypocrite and these trait include both apparent actions and his/her inner iman/faith like the following:

  1. when he talks he lies,
  2. when he makes a promise he violates it,
  3. when he makes a covenant he acts treacherously, and
  4. when he quarrels, he deviates from the Truth.[3][4][5][6][7][8]
  1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
  2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).
  3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)" Another narration adds the words: "Even if he observes Saum (fasts), performs Salat (prayer) and claims to be a Muslim."[9][10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Nisan, Mordechai (5 July 2017). Politics and War in Lebanon: Unraveling the Enigma. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 9781351498333.
  2. ^ Lamptey, Jerusha Tanner (15 January 2016). Never Wholly Other: A Muslima Theology of Religious Pluralism. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9780190458010.
  3. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 4688 In-book reference  : Book 42, Hadith 93 English translation  : Book 41, Hadith 4671
  4. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 2, Hadith 690
  5. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 18, Hadith 1584
  6. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi In-book reference  : Book 40, Hadith 27 English translation  : Vol. 5, Book 38, Hadith 2632
  7. ^ Sahih Muslim 58 In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 116 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 111 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  8. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 34 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 27 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 34 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  9. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 33 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 26 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 33 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  10. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 2, Hadith 689 Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
  11. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5394 In-book reference  : Book 70, Hadith 22 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 7, Book 65, Hadith 306 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  12. ^ Bulugh al-Maram English reference  : Book 11, Hadith 1298 Arabic reference  : Book 11, Hadith 1271
  13. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i In-book reference  : Book 25, Hadith 13 English translation  : Vol. 1, Book 25, Hadith 3099
  14. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 2502 In-book reference  : Book 15, Hadith 26
  15. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2027 In-book reference  : Book 27, Hadith 133 English translation  : Vol. 4, Book 1, Hadith 2027
  16. ^ Mishkat al-Masabih 4796
  17. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5018 In-book reference  : Book 47, Hadith 34 English translation  : Vol. 6, Book 47, Hadith 5021
  18. ^ Sahih Muslim 78 In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 146 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 141 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  19. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi English reference  : Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3736 Arabic reference  : Book 49, Hadith 4101
  20. ^ Sunan Ibn Majah English reference  : Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 114 Arabic reference  : Book 1, Hadith 119
  21. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 17 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 10 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 17 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  22. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 3784 In-book reference  : Book 63, Hadith 9 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 5, Book 58, Hadith 128 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  23. ^ Sahih Muslim 74 b In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 142 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 137 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  24. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5037 In-book reference  : Book 47, Hadith 53 English translation  : Vol. 6, Book 47, Hadith 5040
  25. ^ Sahih Muslim 2809 a In-book reference  : Book 52, Hadith 46 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 39, Hadith 6742 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  26. ^ Sahih Muslim 2810 b In-book reference  : Book 52, Hadith 49 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 39, Hadith 6745 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  27. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i from Ayyub, from Al-Hasan, from Abu Hurairah, 3461 In-book reference  : Book 27, Hadith 73 English translation  : Vol. 4, Book 27, Hadith 3491
  28. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi from Thawban 1186 In-book reference  : Book 13, Hadith 13 English translation  : Vol. 2, Book 8, Hadith 1186