In Islam, the munafiqun ('hypocrites', Arabic: منافقون, singular منافق munāfiq) or false Muslims or false believers are a group decried in the Quran as outward Muslims who were inwardly concealing disbelief ("kufr") and actively sought to undermine the Muslim community.[1] Munafiq is a person who in public and in community shows that he is a Muslim but rejects Islam or propagates against it either in his heart or among the enemies of Islam. The hypocrisy itself is called nifāq (نفاق).[2]

Types of hypocrisy

Hadith - Four signs of a pure hypocrite:

Abdullah ibn Amr reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “There are four signs that make someone a pure hypocrite and whoever has them has a characteristic of hypocrisy until he abandons it: (1) when he speaks he lies; (2) when he makes a covenant he is treacherous; (3) when he makes a promise he breaks it; and (4) when he argues he is wicked.[3]

Munafiqun in the Quran

The Quran has many verses discussing munāfiqūn, referring to them as more dangerous to Muslims than the worst non-Muslim enemies of Islam.

In the Quran, the munafiqun are berated for their disloyalty towards the Muslims.[4] They are described as seeking the subversion of Islam from within by dissembling a false allegiance. According to Surah 9:107-108 there was even a "mosque" of dissent that they built; this "mosque" was burned down by Muhammad.[5]

The 63rd chapter (surah) of the Quran is titled Al-Munafiqun. The chapter deals with the phenomenon of hypocrisy; it criticizes hypocrisy and condemns the hypocrites; the treachery of the hypocrites of Medina is exposed and rebuked; Muhammad is warned to beware of trusting the hypocrites; the hypocrites are cursed and declared reprobates; the hypocrites are threatened with expulsion from Medina.[6] In Surah An-Nisa, verses 88-89 of the Quran, hypocrites are threatened with death.[7]

Traits of the Munafiqeen according to Hadith

Hadith (record of the words, actions attributed to Muhammad) describe several traits of a hypocrite and these traits include both apparent actions and his/her inner iman/faith like the following:

  1. when he talks he lies,
  2. when he makes a promise he violates it,
  3. when he makes a covenant he acts treacherously, and
  4. when he quarrels/engages in a dispute, he explodes (فَجَرَ, fajara) (abuses/deviates from the truth/behaves very imprudently, irrationally, foolishly, evilly and insultingly) [8][9][10][11][12][13]
  1. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
  2. Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).
  3. If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)" Another narration adds the words: "Even if he observes Saum (fasts), performs Salat (prayer) and claims to be a Muslim."[14][15]

Salih Al Munajjid in his book Nifaq describes the nature and character of hypocrites as described in Quran and Hadith. These are:

  1. Disordered mind
  2. Seduction of pleasure
  3. Show of pride
  4. Mocking with the verses of Allah
  5. Jokes with the believers
  6. Forbidding people to spend on the way of Allah
  7. Maintaining harmony with unbelievers calling believers fools
  8. Waiting for believers' result
  9. Deception with Allah and laziness in worship
  10. Tense and wavering attitude
  11. Fooling the believers
  12. Submitting lawsuits to apostate rulers
  13. False oaths, fear, cowardice and restlessness
  14. Create havoc among the believers
  15. They thirst for praise in the name of doing what they did not do
  16. They consider good deeds polluting
  17. Happy at the lowest position
  18. The order of injustice and the prohibition of justice
  19. Disliking Jihad and turning away from it
  20. Inciting not to fight and spreading scaremongering rumours
  21. Unwillingness for being with the believers
  22. Ask permission not to participate in Jihad
  23. Excuses for holding back from Jihad
  24. Trying to hide from people's eyes
  25. Rejoicing at the loss of the believers
  26. Betraying trusts, lying in conversation, breaking promises and using bad language in arguments.
  27. Delaying Salat from its due time
  28. Do not participate in Salaat Jama'a.
  29. Ugly words and vulgarity
  30. Listening to music[35]

Remedy of Nifaq

Salih Al-Munajjid in his book Nifaq, as a remedy for Nifaq, says to do 10 things according to Quran and Sahih Hadith,

  1. Attending daily congregational prayers (Salat al-jama‘ah) with Takbeer Ula (known as Takbeer Tahrima) or First Takbeer for 40 consecutive days and attending in all the congregational prayers regularly

Anas bin Malik narrated that : Allah's Messenger said: "Whoever performs Salat for Allah for forty days in congregation, catching the first Takbir, two absolutions are written for him: absolution from the Fire, and absolution from hypocrisy."

— Grade: Da'if (Darussalam)/Hasan Ligairihi,

Reference  : (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 241 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 93

English translation  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 241), Sahihah 1979, Sahih At-Targhib 409, Sahih Al-Jami' 6365.
  1. Doing good deeds and gaining knowledge about religion
  2. Philanthropy
  3. Praying at night
  4. Jihad in the way of Allah
  5. Remembrance of Allah more and more (Dhikr)
  6. Dua
  7. Love for the Ansar
  8. Love for Ali Ibn Abi Talib[36]

What Muslims should do with hypocrites

Salih Al Munajjid told Muslims to deal with hypocrites as follows according to the Quran and Sahih Hadith:

  1. Disobey them
  2. Ignoring, intimidating and admonishing the hypocrites
  3. Do not engage in debate with the hypocrites and do not favor them
  4. Do not make friends with hypocrites
  5. Waging jihad against the hypocrites and imposing austerity
  6. Show contempt for hypocrites and do not make them leaders
  7. Not participating in the funeral procession of the hypocrites[37]

See also

References

  1. ^ Nisan, Mordechai (5 July 2017). Politics and War in Lebanon: Unraveling the Enigma. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 9781351498333.
  2. ^ Lamptey, Jerusha Tanner (15 January 2016). Never Wholly Other: A Muslima Theology of Religious Pluralism. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9780190458010.
  3. ^ Elias, Abu Amina (22 April 2012). "Hadith on Hypocrisy: Four signs of a pure hypocrite". Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  4. ^ Ruthven, Malise (26 January 2012). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. ISBN 978-0-19-964287-8.
  5. ^ Singh, David Emmanuel (2008). Jesus and the Cross: Reflections of Christians from Islamic Contexts. ISBN 9781870345651.
  6. ^ Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi. "A Thematic Introduction to the Surahs of the Qur'an | SoundVision.com". www.soundvision.com.
  7. ^ "Surah An-Nisa Roman Transliteration".
  8. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 4688 In-book reference  : Book 42, Hadith 93 English translation  : Book 41, Hadith 4671
  9. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 2, Hadith 690
  10. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 18, Hadith 1584
  11. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi In-book reference  : Book 40, Hadith 27 English translation  : Vol. 5, Book 38, Hadith 2632
  12. ^ Sahih Muslim 58 In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 116 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 111 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  13. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 34 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 27 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 34 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  14. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 33 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 26 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 33 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  15. ^ Riyad as-Salihin Book 2, Hadith 689 Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim
  16. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5394 In-book reference  : Book 70, Hadith 22 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 7, Book 65, Hadith 306 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  17. ^ Bulugh al-Maram English reference  : Book 11, Hadith 1298 Arabic reference  : Book 11, Hadith 1271
  18. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i In-book reference  : Book 25, Hadith 13 English translation  : Vol. 1, Book 25, Hadith 3099
  19. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud 2502 In-book reference  : Book 15, Hadith 26
  20. ^ Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2027 In-book reference  : Book 27, Hadith 133 English translation  : Vol. 4, Book 1, Hadith 2027
  21. ^ Mishkat al-Masabih 4796
  22. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5018 In-book reference  : Book 47, Hadith 34 English translation  : Vol. 6, Book 47, Hadith 5021
  23. ^ Sahih Muslim 78 In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 146 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 141 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  24. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi English reference  : Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3736 Arabic reference  : Book 49, Hadith 4101
  25. ^ Sunan Ibn Majah English reference  : Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 114 Arabic reference  : Book 1, Hadith 119
  26. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 17 In-book reference  : Book 2, Hadith 10 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 1, Book 2, Hadith 17 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  27. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 3784 In-book reference  : Book 63, Hadith 9 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 5, Book 58, Hadith 128 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  28. ^ Sahih Muslim 74 b In-book reference  : Book 1, Hadith 142 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 1, Hadith 137 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  29. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i 5037 In-book reference  : Book 47, Hadith 53 English translation  : Vol. 6, Book 47, Hadith 5040
  30. ^ Sahih Muslim 2809 a In-book reference  : Book 52, Hadith 46 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 39, Hadith 6742 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  31. ^ Sahih Muslim 2810 b In-book reference  : Book 52, Hadith 49 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 39, Hadith 6745 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  32. ^ Sunan an-Nasa'i from Ayyub, from Al-Hasan, from Abu Hurairah, 3461 In-book reference  : Book 27, Hadith 73 English translation  : Vol. 4, Book 27, Hadith 3491
  33. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi from Thawban 1186 In-book reference  : Book 13, Hadith 13 English translation  : Vol. 2, Book 8, Hadith 1186
  34. ^ Reference  : Sunan Abi Dawud 4977 In-book reference  : Book 43, Hadith 205 English translation  : Book 42, Hadith 4959
  35. ^ Munafiqi - Saleh Al-Munajjid - Translation: Muhammad Abdul Malek (Bangla) pp. 13-42
  36. ^ Munafiqi - Saleh Al-Munajjid - Translation: Muhammad Abdul Malek (Bangla) pp. 43-48
  37. ^ Munafiqi - Saleh Al-Munajjid - Translation: Muhammad Abdul Malek (Bangla) pp. 48-54