In Islam, the munafiqun ('hypocrites', Arabic: منافقون, singular منافق munāfiq) or false Muslim were a group decried in the Quran as outward Muslims who were inwardly concealing disbelief and actively sought to undermine the Muslim community. Munafiq is a person who in public and in community shows that he is a Muslim but rejects Islam or propagate against it either in his heart or among enemies of Islam. The hypocrisy itself is called nifāq (نفاق).
Munafiqun in the Qur'an
The Qur'an has many verses discussing munāfiqūn, referring to them as more dangerous to Muslims than the worst non-Muslim enemies of Islam.
Traits of the Munafiq according to Hadith
Hadith (record of the words, actions attributed to Muhammad) describe several traits of a hypocrite and these trait include both apparent actions and his/her inner iman/faith like the following:
- 'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: Four characteristics constitute anyone who possesses them a sheer hypocrite (munafiq), and anyone who possesses one of them possesses a characteristics of hypocrisy till he abandons it:
- when he talks he lies,
- when he makes a promise he violates it,
- when he makes a covenant he acts treacherously, and
- when he quarrels, he deviates from the Truth.
- Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The signs of a munafiq are three:
- Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie.
- Whenever he promises, he always breaks it (his promise).
- If you trust him, he proves to be dishonest. (If you keep something as a trust with him, he will not return it.)" Another narration adds the words: "Even if he observes Saum (fasts), performs Salat (prayer) and claims to be a Muslim."
- Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: Allah's Messenger said, "A believer eats in one intestine (is satisfied with a little food), and a kafir (unbeliever) or a munafiq eats in seven intestines (eats too much).
- Abu Hurairah narrated that The Messenger of Allah said:“He who dies without having gone or thought of going out for Jihad in the Cause of Allah, will die while being guilty of having one of the qualities of hypocrisy.” Related by Imam Muslim.
- Abu Umamah al Bahili narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: "Al-Haya'(modesty) and Al-'Iy(terse, brief & not talkative) are two branches of faith, and Al-Badha(vulgar) and Al-Bayan(very talkative) are two branches of Hypocrisy."
- It was narrated that Zirr said:Ali ibn Abi Talib said: "The Unlettered Prophet (Muhammad) made a covenant with me, that none but a believer would love me, and none but a munafiq would hate me."
- It was narrated from Ibn 'Umar that :The Messenger of Allah said: "The parable of the munafiq is that of a sheep that hesitates between two flocks, sometimes following one, and sometimes following another, not knowing which to follow."
- Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger as saying: The Similitude of a believer is that of (a standing) crop which the air continues to toss from one side to another; in the same way a believer always (receives the strokes) of misfortune. The similitude of a munafiq is that of a cypress tree which does not move until it is uprooted.
- It was narrated that the Prophet said: "Women who seek divorce and Khul' without just cause are like the female munafiq."