The Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, romanizedal-Anṣār, lit.'The Helpers’ or ‘Those who bring victory') were the local inhabitants of Medina who, in Islamic tradition, took the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca during the hijra.[citation needed]

They belonged to the tribes of Banu Khazraj and Banu Aus.

Background

Further information: Medina § History

Banu Aws branches
Banu Aws branches

The Medinese, which consisted of Aws and Khazraj, along with their Jewish allies, Banu Nadir, Banu Qurayza, and Banu Qaynuqa, were involved in degenerating years of warfare such as battle of Sumair, battle of Banu Jahjaha of Aus-Banu Mazin of Khazraj, battle of Sararah day, battle of Banu Wa'il ibn Zayd, battle of Zhufr-Malik, battle of Fari', battle of Hathib, battle of Rabi' day, first battle of Fijar in Yathrib (not Fijar war between Qays with Kinana in Mecca[1]), battle of Ma'is, battle of Mudharras, and second battle of Fijar in Yathrib.[1] The Medinese also even contacted against foreign invaders came from outside Hejaz, including such as Shapur II of Sasanian Empire in relatively vague result,[2] and also in successful defense against Himyarite Kingdom under their sovereign, Tabban Abu Karib,[3][4] who also known as Dhu al-Adh'ar.[5] However, the most terrible conflict for both Aws and Khazraj were a civil war called the battle of Bu'ath, which leave bitter taste for both clans, and caused them to grew weary of war, due to the exceptionally high level of violence, even by their standards, and the needless massacres that occurred during that battle.[1][6]

Thus, in search of enlightenments and seeking arbitration from third party, the Yathribese then pledge their allegiance to Muhammad, a Qurayshite Meccan who preach new faith of Islam during the Medinese pilgrimage to Kaaba time.[7] As Muhammad managed to convince many notables of both Aws and Khazraj, which also included Abbad ibn Bishr who personally convinced by a Muhajirun named Mus'ab ibn Umayr[8] of his cause on his new faith, the chieftains of both Aus and Khazraj tribe, particularly Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, Usaid Bin Hudair, Saʽd ibn ʽUbadah, and As'ad ibn Zurara agreed to embrace Islam and appoint Muhammad as arbitrator and de facto leader of Medina.[4][6] In no time, Abbad and other Yathribese agreed to provide shelter for Meccan Muslims who has been persecuted by Quraysh polytheists, while also agreed to changed their city name from Yathrib to Medina, as Yathrib has bad connotation in Arabic.[4]

Battles where the Ansar helped Muhammad

Main article: List of expeditions of Muhammad

The Ansar helped Muhammad in several battles. One of the earliest battles they helped him in was the Patrol of Buwat. A month after the raid at al-Abwa that was ordered by Muhammad, he personally led two hundred men including Muhajirs and Ansars to Bawat, a place on the caravan route of the Quraysh merchants. A herd of fifteen hundred camels was proceeding, accompanied by one hundred riders under the leadership of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a Quraysh. The purpose of the raid was to plunder this rich Quraysh caravan. No battle took place and the raid resulted in no booty. This was due to the caravan taking an untrodden unknown route. Muhammad then went up to Dhat al-Saq, in the desert of al-Khabar. He prayed there and a mosque was built at the spot. This was the first raid where a few Ansars took part. [9][10]

After the death of Muhammad

Banner of the Ansar at the Battle of Siffin
Banner of the Ansar at the Battle of Siffin

During the tenure of Caliphates after Muhammad, the Ansar mainly became important military elements in many conquests, (as indicated with the appointing of Thabit, bin Qays bin Shammas, an orator of Ansar), to lead Ansaris in support of Khalid ibn al-Walid in the Battle of Buzakha[11] at the time of Caliph Abu Bakr. Later they also played a prominent role in the Battle of Yamama where Ansars under Al Bara bin Malik Al Ansari charged at a perilous moment of the battle marking its turning point.[12] The battle of Yamama is also where the Ansar's most prominent warrior, Abu Dujana, fell.

During the caliphate of Umar, prominent Ansaris contributed greatly during campaigns against Byzantium. The Ansari chief 'Ubadah ibn al-Samit particularly played many significant roles during Muslim conquest of Egypt and Muslim conquest of Levant under the likes of Abu Ubaydah, Khalid ibn Walid, Amr ibn al-Aas, and Muawiyah

In the year 24/645, during the caliphate of Uthman Ibn Affan, prominent Ansaris also held major positions like Al-Bara' ibn `Azib who was made governor of al-Ray (in Persia). He eventually retired to Kūfā and there he died in the year 71/690.[13]

During the Umayyad era the Ansar became somewhat of an opposing political faction of the regime.[14][15] They are described as closely affiliated with the Hashim Clan Contingent rather than with the incumbent Umayyad. Such Ansar-Hashim connections are described as forming a new elite local political hegemony in Hejaz.[16]

List of Ansaris

Banu Khazraj

Men

Women

Banu Aus

Uncategorized

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Ali 2019, p. 98-101
  2. ^ Labīb Rizq 1993, p. 16
  3. ^ Avigdor Chaikin 1899
  4. ^ a b c bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Baṣri, Abd al-Malik (2019). Sirah ibn Hisham (in Indonesian). Translated by Ikhlas Hikmatiar. Qisthi Press. Retrieved 6 December 2021.Sirah Nabawiyyah Ke 3 - Masuknya Agama Yahudi dan Nasrani ke Jazirah Arab (3rd Sirah Nabawiyyah - The Entry of Judaism and Christianity to the Arabian Peninsula) Book review by Khalid Basalamah's channel on YouTube
  5. ^ Ali 2019, p. 145
  6. ^ a b Al-Mishri, Mahmud; Karimi, Izzudin; Syuaeb al-Faiz, Mohammad (2010). "Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas". Sahabat-sahabat Rasulullah: chapter Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas (in Malay). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir. ISBN 9789791294393. Retrieved 28 November 2021.Khalid Zeed Abdullah Basalamah (2015). bedah buku Kisah Sahabat Nabi ﷺ Ke-8: Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqash; review of Sahabat-sahabat Rasulullah book (in Indonesian and Arabic). Jakarta, Java Island. Sahih Bukhari; Sahih Muslim; Siyar A'lam Nubala
  7. ^ Abū Khalīl 2004, p. 85, "The second Pledge of Al-'Aqabah (the pledge of war) was: "Blood is blood and blood not to be paid for is blood not to be paid for. I am of you and you are of me. I will war against them that war against you, and be at peace with those and peace with you""
  8. ^ Ibn Sa'd 1990
  9. ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 244, ISBN 978-9960899558
  10. ^ "List of Battles of Muhammad". Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
  11. ^ The History of al-Tabari Vol. 10: The Conquest of Arabia: The Riddah Wars A.D. 632-633/A.H. 11
  12. ^ Golden Stories of Accepted Prayers By Abdul Malik Mujahid
  13. ^ Khatib Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol.1, pg.177
  14. ^ Literary Criticism in Medieval Arabic-Islamic Culture: The Making of a Tradition By Wen-chin Ouyang
  15. ^ The History of al-Tabari Vol. 26: The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate Footnote by W. Montgomery Watt
  16. ^ The Religious Elite of the Early Islamic Ḥijāz: Five Prosopographical Case Studies by Asad Q. Ahmed
  17. ^ a b c "Imamate: The Vicegerency of the Prophet". www.al-islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  18. ^ a b c "Narrators of Hadith al Thaqalayn From Among the Sahabah". www.al-islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  19. ^ "A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims, Umar bin al-Khattab, the Second Khalifa of the Muslims". www.al-islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. 10 November 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  20. ^ a b "Al-Bara' ibn Malik Al-Ansari: Allah & Paradise". islamonline.net. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010.
  21. ^ a b "Letter 80". www.al-islam.org. A Shi'i-Sunni dialogue. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  22. ^ "The life of Rufaydah Al-Aslamiyyah". islamweb.net. Islamweb. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  23. ^ William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad at Medina, Oxford, 1966.
  24. ^ a b c d "Seventh Session, Wednesday Night, 29th Rajab 1345 A.H." www.al-islam.org. Peshawar Nights. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014. Tarikh al-Yaqubi, as quoted in Peshawar Nights. Also, a list composed of sources such as Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani and Al-Baladhuri, each in his Tarikh. Muhammad ibn Khwand in his Rawdatu 's-safa and, Ibn 'Abd al-Barr in his The Comprehensive Compilation of the Names of the Prophet's Companions
  25. ^ "Seventh Session, Wednesday Night, 29th Rajab 1345 A.H." www.al-islam.org. Peshawar Nights. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  26. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:34:439
  27. ^ "253. Chapter: The miracles of the friends of Allah and their excellence". qibla.com. Qibla. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007.
  28. ^ History of the Caliphs by al-Suyuti

Sources