Names of God in Islam (Arabic: أَسْمَاءُ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ʾasmāʾu llāhi l-ḥusnā, "Allah's Beautiful Names") are names attributed to God in Islam by Muslims. Some names are known from either the Qur’an or the hadith, while others can be found in both sources, although most are found in the Qur’an.[1]

Names of Allah in arabic calligraphy.


Classical Arabic

(Quranic/ classical written forms)[2]


[Various Spellings]

Translationa Reference



[* = classical written form]



The Beneficent/ All-Compassionate/ Most Gracious/ Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except of the first and numerous other places. The first verse ('ayat) of Surah ar-Raḥman (Surah 55) consists only of this Name.
2i اَلرَّحِيْمُ ar-Raḥīm


The Most Merciful/ Ever-Merciful/ Merciful/ Most Clement Quran: Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places (there are a total of 114 Surahs in the Quran.)
3i اَلْمَلِك

[* = classical written form]



The King/ Lord/ Sovereign/ Dominion/ Master

[also means "the God/ Lord, the One and Only", "Possessor of Supreme Power or Authority"]

59:23, 20:114, 23:116
4i اَلقُدُّوسُ al-Quddus



The Holy/ All-Holy/ All-Pure/ Sacred/ All-Sacred 59:23, 62:1
5i ٱلْسَّلَامُ

[* = classical written form]



The Giver of Peace/ Peace/ All-Calm/ Ever-Tranquil 59:23
6i ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ al-Muʿmin The Granter of Security/ the Giver/ Faith/ Supreme Believer (of Belief)/ Giver of Belief/ All-Assurer 59:23
7i ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ al-Muhaymin The Controller/ Absolute Authority Over All/ Guardian Over All/ Absolute Master/ Eternal Dominating 59:23
8i ٱلْعَزِيزُ



The Exalted in Might and Power/ Exalted/ Powerful/ Almighty/ Mighty 3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23
9i ٱلْجَبَّارُ al-Jabbar


The Omnipotent/ Supreme Power/ Possessor of Having All Power/ Strong 59:23
10i ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ al-Mutakabbir The Possessor of Greatness/ Supreme/ Justly Proud 59:23
11i ٱلْخَالِقُ

[* = classical written form]



The Creator/ Creator of the Universe/ Maker/ True Originator/ Absolute Author 6:102, 13:16,[3] 36:81, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24
12i ٱلْبَارِئُ al-Bariʿ

[al-Baari’/ al-Baarie]

The Initiator/ Evolver/ Eternal Spirit Worshipped By All, Have Absolute Power Over All Matters, Nature and Events 59:24
13i ٱلْمُصَوِّرُ al-Muṣawwir



The Fashioner/ Shaper/ Designer/ Artist 59:24
14i \*


[* = classical written form]



The Repeatedly Forgiving/ Absolute Forgiver/ Pardoner/ Condoner

[He Who is Ready to Pardon and Forgive]

20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10
15i ٱلْقَهَّارُ

[* = classical written form]



The Subduer/ Overcomer/ Conqueror/ Absolute Vanquisher

[Possessor of Who Subdues Evil and Oppression]

12:39, 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16
ٱلْوَهَّابُ al-Wahhab


The Absolute Bestower/ Giver/ Grantor/ Great Donor 38:9, 38:35
ٱلْرَّزَّاقُ Ar-Razzaq


The Provider/ Sustainer/ Bestower of Sustenance/ All-Provider 51:58
ٱلْفَتَّاحُ al-Fattaḥ


The Opener/ Opener of the Gates of Profits/ Reliever/ The Victory Giver 34:26
ٱلْعَلِيمُ al-Alim


The Knowing/ All-Knower/ Omniscient/ All-Knowledgeable/ Possessor of Knowing Much of Ever Thing/ All-Knowing 2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40
20i ٱلْقَابِضُ al-Qabiḍ/ al-Qabidh



The Restrainer/ Withholder/ Straightener/ Absolute Seizer 2:245
21i ٱلْبَاسِطُ al-Basiṭ/ al-Basiṭṭ

[al-Baasiṭ/ al-Baasiṭṭ]

The Extender/ Expander/ Generous Provider 2:245
22i ٱلْخَافِضُ al-Khafiḍ/ al-Khafidh



The Abaser/ Humiliator/ Downgrader [Possessor of Giving Comfort, Free from Pain Anxiety or Troubles] 56:3; al-Kafʿamī (1992:38)
23i ٱلْرَّافِعُ Ar-Rafiʿ/ Ar-Rafee

[Ar-Raafiʿ/ Ar-Raafee]

The Exalter/ Upgrader [of Ranks] 58:11, 6:83
24i ٱلْمُعِزُّ al-Muʿizz


The Giver of Honor/ Bestower of Honor/ Empowerer 3:26
25i ٱلْمُذِلُّ al-Muzill


The Giver of Dishonor/ the Giver of Disgrace 3:26
26i ٱلْسَّمِيعُ As-Samiʿ/ As-Samie


The Hearing/ All-Hearing/ Hearer of Invocation 2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1
27i ٱلْبَصِيرُ al-Baṣir/ al-Baṣṣir/

al-Baṣwir [al-Baṣeer/ al-Baṣṣeer/ al-Baṣweer]

The All-Seeing/ All-Seer/ Ever-Clairvoyant/ Clear-Sighted/ Clear-Seeing 4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27
28i ٱلْحَكَمُ al-Ḥakam The Judge/ Arbitrator/ Arbiter/ All-Decree/ Possessor of Authority of Decisions and Judgment 22:69
29i ٱلْعَدْلُ al-ʿAdl/ al-Edl The Just/ Authorized and Straightforward Judge of Dealing Justly Not Quranic, see al-Kafʿamī (1992:40)
30i ٱلْلَّطِيفُ al-Laṭif / al-Laṭṭif/

al-Laṭwif [al-Laṭeef/ al-Laṭṭeef/ al-Laṭweef]

The Gentle/ Benignant/ Subtly Kind/ All-Subtle 22:63, 31:16, 33:34
31i ٱلْخَبِيرُ al-Khabir


The All-Aware/ Well-Acquainted/ Ever-Adept 6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18
32i ٱلْحَلِيمُ al-Ḥalim


The Forbearing/ Indulgent/ Oft Forbearing/ All-Enduring 2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41
33i ٱلْعَظِيمُ al-ʿAẓim, al-ʿAẓẓim, al-ʿAẓwim/ al-Eẓim,

al-Eẓẓim, al-Eẓwim [al-ʿAẓẓeem, al-ʿAẓweem/



The Most Great/ Ever-Magnificent/ Most Supreme/ Exalted/ Absolute Dignified 2:255, 42:4, 56:96
34i ٱلْغَفُورُ al-Ghafur

[al-Ghafour, al-Ghafoor]

The Ever-Forgiving/ Oft-Forgiving 2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32
35i ٱلْشَّكُورُ ash-Shakur

[Ash-Shakour, Ash-Shakoor]

The Grateful/ Appreciative/ Multiplier of Rewards 35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17
36i ٱلْعَلِىُّ *\ ٱلْعَلِيُّ

[* = classical written form]



The Sublime/ Ever-Exalted/ Supreme/ Most High/ Most Lofty 4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51 34:23
37i ٱلْكَبِيرُ al-Kabir


The Great/ Ever-Great/ Grand/ Most Great/ Greatly Abundant of Extent, Capacity and Importance 13:9, 22:62, 31:30, 34:23
38i ٱلْحَفِيظُ al-Hafiẓ


The Preserver/ Ever-Preserving/ All-Watching/ Protector/ Guardian/ Oft-Conservator 11:57, 34:21, 42:6
39i ٱلْمُقِيتُ al-Muqit


The Nourisher/ Feeder 4:85
40i ٱلْحَسِيبُ al-Ḥasib


The Bringer of Judgment/ Ever-Reckoner [the One Who Takes Account of All Matters] 4:6, 4:86, 33:39
41i ٱلْجَلِيلُ al-Jalil


The Majestic/ Exalted/ Oft-Important/ Splendid 55:27, 7:143
42i ٱلْكَرِيمُ al-Karim


The Noble/ Bountiful/ Generous/ Precious/ Honored/ Benefactor 27:40, 82:6
43i ٱلْرَّقِيبُ Ar-Raqib


The Watchful/ Observer/ Ever-Watchful/ Watcher 4:1, 5:117
44i ٱلْمُجِيبُ al-Mujib


The Responsive/ Answerer/ Supreme Answerer/ Accepter of Invocation 11:61
45i ٱلْوَاسِعُ

[* = classical written form]

al-Wasi‘/ al-Wasie

[al-Waasi‘/ al-Waasie]

The Vast/ All-Embracing/ Omnipresent/ Boundless/ All-Encompassing 2:268, 3:73, 5:54
46i ٱلْحَكِيمُ al-Ḥakim


The Wise/ Ever-Wise/ Endowed with Sound Judgment 31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2
47i ٱلْوَدُودُ al-Wadud

[al-Wadoud/ al-Wadood]

The Affectionate/ Ever-Affectionate/ Loving One/ Loving/ the Lover/ the One Who Tenders and Warm Hearts 11:90, 85:14
48i ٱلْمَجِيدُ al-Majid


The All-Glorious/ Majestic/ Ever-Illustrious

[Oft-Brilliant in Dignity, Achievements or Actions]

49i ٱلْبَاعِثُ al-Baʿith / al-Baʿeith

[al-Baaʿith/ al-Baaʿeith]

The Resurrector/ Awakener/ Arouser/ Dispatcher 22:7
50i ٱلْشَّهِيدُ ash-Shahid


The Witness/ Testifier/ Ever-Witnessing 4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28
51i ٱلْحَقُّ al-Ḥaqq The Truth/ Reality/ the Only One Certainly Sound and Genuine in Truth 6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25
52i ٱلْوَكِيلُ al-Wakil


The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9
53i ٱلْقَوِيُّ al-Qawi


The Strong 22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25
54i ٱلْمَتِينُ al-Matin


The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58
55i ٱلْوَلِيُّ al-Wali


The Friend, Helper 4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19
56i ٱلْحَمِيدُ al-Ḥamid


The All Praiseworthy 14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42
57i \* ٱلْمُحْصِىُ

[* = classical written form]



The Accounter, The Numberer of All 72:28, 78:29
58i ٱلْمُبْدِئُ al-Mubdiʾ


The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
59i ٱلْمُعِيدُ al-Muʿid

[al-Muʿeid/ al-Muʿeyd]

The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13
60i ٱلْمُحْيِي

[* = classical written form]



The Giver of Life 7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2
61i ٱلْمُمِيتُ al-Mumit


The Bringer of Death 3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2
62i ٱلْحَىُّ al-Ḥayy The Living 2:255, 3:2, 20:111, 25:58, 40:65
63i ٱلْقَيُّومُ al-Qayyum



The Subsisting, The Independent 2:255, 3:2, 20:111
64i ٱلْوَاجِدُ

[* = classical written form]



The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44
65i ٱلْمَاجِدُ al-Majid


The Illustrious, The Magnificent, The Glorious 85:15, 11:73; al-Kafʿamī (1992:48)
66i ٱلْوَاحِدُ

[* = classical written form]



The Unique, The Single 13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4
67i ٱلْأَحَد al-Aḥad The One, The Indivisible 112:1
68i ٱلْصَّمَدُ Aṣ-Ṣamad

[Aṣ-Ṣṣamad/ Aṣ-Ṣwamad]

The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2
69i ٱلْقَادِرُ

[* = classical written form]



The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 6:65, 46:33, 75:40
ٱلْمُقْتَدِرُ al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 18:45, 54:42, 6:65
ٱلْمُقَدِّمُ al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 16:61
ٱلْمُؤَخِّرُ al-Muʾakhkhir


The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4
ٱلأَوَّلُ al-Awwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3

[* = classical written form]

al-Akhir */


[* = classical written form]

The Last, The Endless 57:3
ٱلْظَّـٰهِرُ *\ ٱلْظَّاهِرُ

[* = classical written form]

Aẓ-Ẓahir/ Aẓ-ẒẒahir/ Aẓ-Ẓwahir




The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3
ٱلْبَاطِنُ al-Baṭin/ al-Baṭṭin/ al-Baṭwin

[al-Baaṭin/ al-Baaṭṭin/ al-Baaṭwin]

The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3
\* ٱلْوَالِى


[* = classical written form]



The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 13:11
\* ٱلْمُتَعَالِى


[* = classical written form]



The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9
ٱلْبَرُّ al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28
80i ٱلْتَّوَّابُ At-Tawwab


The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting 2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3
81i ٱلْمُنْتَقِمُ al-Muntaqim The Avenger 32:22, 43:41, 44:16
82i اَلْعَفُوُّ al-ʿAfu


The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 4:43, 4:99, 4:149, 22:60, 58:2
83i اَلْرَّؤُوفُ

[* = classical written form]


[Ar-Raʿouf/ Ar-Rawʿouf]

The Kind, The Pitying 9:117, 57:9, 59:10
84i \* مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ

مَـٰلِكَ ٱلْمُلْكِ

[* = classical written form]

Malik ul-Mulk

[Maalik ul-Mulk]

The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26
85i \* ذُو ٱلْجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَامُ

[* = classical written form]

Zul-Jalali wal-Ikram/ Dzhul-Jalali wal-Ikram
[Zul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam/ Dzhul-Jalaali wal-Ikraam]
The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour 55:27, 55:78
86i اَلْمُقْسِطُ al-Muqsiṭ


The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58f)
87i اَلْجَامِعُ al-Jamiʿ/ al-Jamie

[al-Jaamiʿ/ al-Jaamie]

The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9
88i \* اَلْغَنىُّ


[* = classical written form]



The Rich, The Independent 39:7, 47:38, 57:24
89i \* اَلْمُغْنِىُّ


[* = classical written form]

al-Mughni The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28
90i اَلْمَانِعُ al-Maniʿ/ al-Manie

[al-Maaniʿ/ al-Maanie]

The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender See al-Kafʿamī (1992:61)
91i اَلْضَّارُ Aḍ-Ḍarr


The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17; al-Kafʿamī (1992:58)
92i اَلنَّافِعُ An-Nafi‘/ An-Nafie

[An-Naafiʿ/ al-Naafie]

The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
93i اَلنُّورُ An-Nur


The Light 24:35
94i \* اَلْهَادِى


[* = classical written form]



The Guide, The Way 22:54
95i اَلْبَدِيعُ al-Badiʿ[al-Badiyʿ/ al-Badiye] The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful 2:117, 6:101
96i \* اَلْبَاقِى


[* = classical written form]



The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27; al-Kafʿamī (1992:64)
97i اَلْوَارِثُ

[* = classical written form]



The Heir, The Inheritor of All 15:23, 57:10
98i اَلرَّشِيدُ Ar-Rashid


The Guide to the Right Path 11:87 (Used Not referring to Allah)
99i اَلصَّبُورُ Aṣ-Ṣabur/ Aṣ-Ṣṣabur/ Aṣ-Ṣwabur

[Aṣ-Ṣabour/ Aṣ-Ṣṣabour/ Aṣ-Ṣwabour]

The Timeless, The Patient 2:153, 3:200, 103:3
[* = classical calligraphic short written form]
a[by whom?].      b D = Direct;[clarification needed] V = from Verb; A = from Adjective or Adjectival Phrase; I = from Indefinite noun;

P = from Plural noun; O = Other


By what they said to Sahih Bukhari Hadith:[4]

Abu Hurairah reported that God has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and God is witr (one) and loves 'the witr' (i.e., odd numbers).

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 8, Book 75, Hadith 419

There is another Sahih Muslim Hadith:[5]

Allah's Messenger () said, "God has ninety-nine Names, one-hundred less one; and he who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." To count something means to know it by heart.

— Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 489

The Quran refers to God's Most Beautiful Names (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusná) in several Surahs.[6] Gerhard Böwering refers to Surah 17 (17:110) as the locus classicus to which explicit lists of 99 names used to be attached in tafsir. A cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets which are included in such lists is found in Surah 59.[7] Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi surmised that the 99 names are "outward signs of the universe's inner mysteries".[1]

Islamic mysticism

There is a tradition in Sufism to the effect the 99 names of God point to a mystical "Most Supreme and Superior Name" (ismu l-ʾAʿẓam (الاسْمُ ٱلْأَعْظَم).[8] This "Greatest Name of God" is said to be "the one which if He is called (prayed to) by it, He will answer."[9]

According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Masud, some of the names of God have also been hidden from mankind.[10] More than 1000 names of God are listed in the Jawshan Kabir (جَوْشَنُ ٱلْكَبِير—literally "the Great Cuirass") invocations.

The influential Sunni mystic Ibn Arabi (26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240) did not interpret the names of God as mere epithets, but as actual attributes paring the universe both in created and possible forms. By these names, the divine traits disclose for humans, whose divine potential is hidden, can learn to become a reflection of such names. However, such reflections are limited; the divine traits do not equal the divine essence of the names.[11] Influenced by the metaphysical teachings of Ibn Arabi, Haydar Amuli assigned angels to the different names of God. Accordingly, the good angels as a whole are a manifestation of God's Names of Beauty. Evil angels (shayatin) on the other hand are a manifestation of God's Names of majesty, such as "The Haughty".[12]

Theophoric given names

See also: List of Arabic theophoric names

Talismanic shirt inscribed with the 99 names of God as well as Quranic verses and prayers, Turkey, 18th century, Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage

The Arabic names of God are used to form theophoric given names commonly used in Muslim cultures throughout the world, mostly in Arabic speaking societies.

Because the names of God themselves are reserved to God and their use as a person's given name is considered religiously inappropriate, theophoric names are formed by prefixing the term ˁabd (عَبْدُ: "slave/servant of") to the name in the case of male names;

This distinction is established out of respect for the sanctity of Divine names, which denote attributes (of love, kindness, mercy, compassion, justice, power, etc.) that are believed to be possessed in a full and absolute sense only by God, while human beings, being limited creatures, are viewed by Muslims as being endowed with the Divine attributes only in a limited and relative capacity. The prefixing of the definite article would indicate that the bearer possesses the corresponding attribute in an exclusive sense, a trait reserved to God.

Quranic verse 3:26 is cited as evidence against the validity of using Divine names for persons, with the example of Mālik ul-Mulk (مَـٰلِكُ ٱلْمُلْكُ: "Lord of Power" or "Owner of all Sovereignty"):

Say: "O God! Lord of Power, You give power to whom You please, and You strip off power from whom You please. You endue with honour whom You please, and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good." Verily, over all things You have power.

The two parts of the name starting with ˁabd may be written separately (as in the previous example) or combined as one in the transliterated form; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ˁabdu is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdur-Rahman, Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Jabbar, or even Abdullah (عَبْدُ ٱللّٰه: "Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative case form.)

Examples of Muslim theophoric names include:

Use in Baháʼí sources

Baháʼí sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Baháʼ" (Arabic: بهاء "glory, splendor"), which appears in the words Bahá'u'lláh and Baháʼí. They also believe that it is the greatest name of God.[13][14] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 morphological derivation of the word "Baháʼ" used in it.[13]

According to Baháʼí scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī adopted the Persian poetic pen name "Bahāʾ" after being inspired by the words of the fifth Twelver Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, and the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who stated that the greatest name of God was included in either the Duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, or the ʾAʿmal ʿam Dawūd.[13] In the first verse of the duʿāʾu l-Bahāʾ, the name "Bahāʾ" appears four times.[15]

See also


  1. ^ a b Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-36025-1.
  2. ^ Please note the written Arabic spelling of the names written in Arabic in the table are in the vowelled Classical/Quranic form (proper = in the Quran and Ahādith) with the square bracketed "[.]" variant of the written Arabic forms given in common or modern texts—usually in media, some long vowels and punctuations are omitted for the easier typing and reading.
  3. ^ "al-Quran (القرآن) :: Online Quran Project :: Translation and Tafsir". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  4. ^ "Hadith: Book of Invocations - Sahih al-Bukhari - - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  5. ^ "Hadith - Book of Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed) - Sahih al-Bukhari - - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Retrieved 2018-06-15.
  6. ^ See the Surah "al-A'raf" (7:180 ), "Al-Isra" (17:110 ), "Ta-Ha" (20:8 ) and "al-Hashr" (59:24 ).
  7. ^ (59:22–24)
  8. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1993). The Mystery of Numbers. New York, US: Oxford University Press. p. 271. ISBN 0-19-508919-7.
  9. ^ Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. George Ronald. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-85398-446-7. The endnote states: "Ibn Májah, Sunan, 34. (Kitáb ad-Du'á), ch. 9, no. 3856, vol. 2, p. 1267. See also: Ad-Dárimí, Sunan, 23 (Fada'il al-Qur'án), ch. 15, no. 3296, vol. 2, pp. 324–325. Similar statements in Shi'i tradition include: Majlisí, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 26. p. 7.
  10. ^ Taymiyyah, ibn, Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad (2003). The Goodly Word: al-Kalim al-Ṭayyib. Islamic Texts Society. p. 72. ISBN 1-903682-15-0.
  11. ^ Bruce Lawrence The Qur'an: A Biography Atlantic Books Ltd, 02.10.2014 ISBN 9781782392187 chapter 8
  12. ^ Ayman Shihadeh Sufism and Theology Edinburgh University Press, 21.11.2007 ISBN 9780748631346 pp. 54–56
  13. ^ a b c Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Baháʼ: Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Baháʼí Studies Review. 3 (1).
  14. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  15. ^ Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Baháʼí News (540): 4–5. Archived from the original on 2017-06-20.