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Krishna (/ˈkrɪʃnə/; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂ.ɳɐ] (Classical Sanskrit) and [kr̩ʂ.ɳɐ́] in Vedic Sanskrit is a Hindu deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. He is arguably one of the most enigmatic figures in prehistory and mythology. Historically, Krishna as Vasudeva Govinda Krishna Shauri of the Vrishnis was the monarch of Dwaraka, a submerged island-state off the coast of modern Gujarat. In the Hindu Pantheon, Krishna is recognized as the complete and eighth Incarnation of Lord Vishnu or as the Supreme God Svayam Bhagavan (Supreme Personality of Godhead) in His own right. Krishna is one of the most widely revered and popular of all Hindu deities. As one of the most popular of all Hindu deities, Krishna has absorbed many regionally significant deities such as Jagannatha in Odisha or Vithoba in Maharashtra. Srimad Bhagavatam names Krishna's eternal abode as Goloka. He is often described as a child, an infant eating butter, a toddler being tied to a mortar (Damodara) by his Mother, a young boy playing a flute as in the Srimad Bhagavatam (also known as the Bhagavata Purana),[1] an adolescent cowherd tending to cows, a young man along with Radha (Rādhārānī), a householder romancing any of His multiple wives, a king dispensing royal duties, a diplomat initiating both war and peace for greater good, as a middle-aged friend and charioteer to Arjuna or as an elder giving direction and guidance to Arjuna in the form of spiritual discourse as in the Bhagavad Gita.[2] In Bhagavad Gita (4.13) Krishna says, "Catur varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ" meaning that Krishna Himself created the meritocratic varna system, Varnashrama dharma (not to be confused with the more modern caste system). The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions.[3] They portray Him in various perspectives: a lovable infant, a God-child, a prankster, a cowherd, a model lover, a divine hero, a diplomat, a king, a kingmaker, a selfless friend, a philosopher, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu and the Supreme Being, Svayam Bhagavan.[4] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Srimad Bhagavatam, and the Vishnu Purana. The Vishnu Sahasranama, the list of Lord Vishnu's thousand Names, also includes many of the above-mentioned names of Sri Krishna.

108 names and titles from the Gaudiya Vaishnavism tradition Krishna yogi

According to aryabhatt.com, the 108 names of Krishna include:[5]

Names in general use

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Name Meaning Name Meaning Name Meaning
Navneet (नवनीत) One who is eternally new Achyuta (अच्युत) Infallible Avyakta (अव्यक्त) The unmanifested [6]
Banke Bihari (बाँके बिहारि) Banke is the one who is bent, Krishna is bent from all part of his body Bihari is from Bihar Bihari (बिहारी) One who plays Bhaktavatsara One who uplifts his devotees
Brajesha (ब्रजेश) Lord of Braja Chakradhara (चक्रधर) the bearer of a discus (chakra) Damodara (दामोदर) the Lord when He was tied with a cord (dama) round His waist (udara)
Dinabandhu (दीनबंधु) Friend of the afflicted Dinanatha (दीननाथ) Refuge of destitutes Dwarakadisha (द्वारकाधीश) Lord of Dwaraka
Dwarakanatha (द्वारकानाथ) Lord of Dwaraka Ghanshyam (घनश्याम) Dark rain cloud complexioned one Giridhari (गिरिधारि) he who lifted a hill (Govardhana hill)
Gopala (गोपाल) cowherd; protector of cows Navneet (नवनीत) Real Govinda (गोविंद) protector of cows; also connected with Govardhana hill; see also other meanings.
Govindaraja King of the cow protectors Guruvayurappan Lord of the Guruvayoor, the city of Guru Brihaspati and Vayu. Hari (हरि) one who takes away the sins, or who wards off samsara, the cycle of birth and death
Ishvara (ईश्वर) god Hrushikesha (हृषिकेश) "lord of the senses".[7] Jagannatha (जगन्नाथ) lord of all places (see also Juggernaut)
Janardana (जनार्दन) One Who Bestows Boons On One and All Kaladeva (कालदेव) the black deity Kalmashaheena the sinless one
Kanhaji or Kanhaiya (कान्हाजी, कन्हैया) Kanhaji(कान्हाजी) means that we are able to lean on Him, to share our burdens with Him and to be closer Keshava (केशव) long haired, beautiful haired; see also other meanings Keev the prankster
Kunj Bihari (कुंज बिहारी) enjoyer of lakes[8][9] Madana Mohana (मदन मोहन) Bewilderer of Cupid (Madana) Mahendra larger than Indra
Madhava (माधव) The one from the yadava race Madhusudanah killer of demon Madhu Manikantha (मणिकंठ) Krishna used wear Kaustubha Mani. Hence he also is called Manikantha
Murari killer of the asura named Mura Mukhilan The one with the complexion similar to the rain clouds Mukunda (मुकुंद) He who gives liberation
Nandagopala (नंदगोपाल) Beloved cowherd Nandalal (नन्दलाल) Beloved of Nanda Orrish (औरिश) A prince who leads people without title through his aura of good deeds
Panduranga The White Lord of Pandharpur Parambrahman the highest Brahman Parameshvara the highest Ishvara, the highest god
Parambrahman the highest Brahman Parameshvara the highest Ishvara, the highest god Parthasarathi (पर्थसारथि) charioteer of Partha, another name of Arjuna, a reference to his role with regard to Arjuna in the great battle
Patitapavana (पतितपवन) Purifier of the fallen Radhaavallabha (राधावल्लभ) lover of Radha Rajagopala King of Cowherds
Ranchhod Since Krishna and the yadav clan fled to Dwarka from war ground/ battlefield. Shyamasundara Black and Beautiful Santhana The sweet child
SanathanaSarathy The eternal spiritual charioteer Shauri Descendant of Shurasena Vāsudeva, Krishna Vasudeva (वासुदेव, कृष्ण वासुदेव) son of Vasudeva
Yadunandana Son of the Yadu dynasty Yogeshwara (योगेश्वर) the Lord of the Yogis Yashoda Nandana (यशोदा नंदन) child of Yashoda

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Knott 2000, p. 56
  2. ^ Knott 2000, p. 36, p. 15
  3. ^ Richard Thompson, Ph.D. (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2008. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. American Oriental Society. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381. S2CID 164194548.
  5. ^ "108 Names of Krishna". Astrology @ Aryabhatt.com. Bhavishya Darshan Janam Patrika. Archived from the original on 10 March 2005.
  6. ^ "108 Names of Lord Krishna | Ashtottara Shatanamavali of Lord Krishna".
  7. ^ Monier-Williams || "lord of the senses".
  8. ^ "Kunjbihari - Hindu Baby Names | Meanings | Most Popular Names". www.seebabynames.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2017.
  9. ^ "Why Lord Krishna is known as".

Bibliography

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