Krishna (/ˈkrɪʃnə/; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂ.ɳɐ] (Classical Sanskrit) and [kr̩ʂ.ɳɐ́] in Vedic Sanskrit is a Hindu deity worshipped across many traditions of Hinduism in a variety of different perspectives. In Hinduism, Krishna is recognized as the complete and eighth incarnation of Vishnu, or as the Supreme God (Svayam Bhagavan) in his own right.[1]

As one of the most popular of all Hindu deities, Krishna has acquired a number of epithets, and absorbed many regionally significant deities, such as Jagannatha in Odisha and Vithoba in Maharashtra. The Hindu texts portray him in various perspectives:[2] a lovable infant, a divine child, a prankster, a cowherd, a model lover, a divine hero, a diplomat, a king, a kingmaker, a selfless friend, a philosopher, charioteer to Arjuna and a dispenser of spiritual discourse, as in the Bhagavad Gita.[3] Among the principal scriptures that discuss Krishna's legend are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Srimad Bhagavatam, and the Vishnu Purana. The Vishnu Sahasranama, the list of Vishnu's thousand names, also includes many of the titles and names of Krishna.

Epithets

In popular culture, Krishna is often associated with 108 names.[4][5] The following is a list of fifty of among the most popular names, titles, and epithets associated with the deity Krishna:

Name Transliteration Translation
अच्युत Acyutā He who is infallible[6]
माधव Mādhavā He who is the lord of knowledge;[7] He who is like honey
गोविन्द Govinda He who is a cow-protector[8]
जनार्दन Janārdana He who is the original abode and protector of all living beings
केशव Keśava He who has long locks of hair;[9] slayer of Keshi; He who is himself the Trimurti
हरि Hari He who takes away (sins)[10]
द्वारकानाथ Dvārakanātha He who is the lord of Dvaraka
मुरारि Murāri He who is the slayer of the asura Mura[11]
वासुदेव Vāsudeva He who is the son of Vasudeva
मुकुंद Mukundā He who offers liberation[12]
पार्थसारथि Pārthasārathī He who is the charioteer of Partha (Arjuna)[13]
मधुसूदन Madhusūdana He who is the slayer of the asura Madhu[14]
दामोदर Dāmodara He who has a rope around his stomach
जगन्नाथ Jagannātha He who is the lord of the universe
गोपाल Gopāla He who is a cow-protector[15]
पुरुषोत्तम Puruṣottama He who is the highest being
नन्दकुमार Nandakumāra He who is the prince (son) of Nanda
मनोहर Manoharā He who is lovely
जगदिश Jagadiśa He who is the protector of the universe
सुरेश Sureśa He who is the lord of the suras (devas)
श्रीकान्त Śrīkānta He who is beloved by Shri (Lakshmi)
श्रीनाथ Śrīnātha He who is the husband of Shri (Lakshmi)
परमेश्वर Parameśvara He who is the supreme lord
मोहन Mohana He who is enchanting
गिरिधर Giridhara He who bears mountains
सर्वजन Sarvajana He who is omniscient
पुण्य Punyah He who is supremely pure
मुरलीधर Muralīdhara He who bears the flute[16]
देवकीपुत्र Devakīputra He who is the son of Devaki
नवनीत Navanīta He who eats butter
निरञ्जना Nirañjanā He who is unblemished
हृषीकेश Hṛṣīkeśaḥ He who is the master of the senses[17]
पतितपावन Patitapāvana He who is the purifier of the fallen[18]
श्यामसुन्दर Śyāmasundara He who is dark and handsome
यदुनन्दन Yadunandana He who belongs to the Yadu dynasty
ईश्वरः Iśvara He who is the lord[19] (of the universe)
ज्ञानेश्‍वर Jñeśvara He who is the lord of wisdom
चतुर्भुजा Caturbhujā He who has four arms
दयानिधि Dayānidhi He who is the treasure of mercy[20]
दयालु Dayālu He who is the repository of compassion
अनिरुद्ध Aniruddha He who cannot be obstructed
अक्षरा Akṣarā He who is indestructible
अद्भुत Adbhutā He who is astonishing
रुक्मिणीपति Rukmiṇīpati He who is the husband of Rukmini[21]
योगेश्वर Yogeśvara He who is the lord of yoga
राधावल्लभ Rādhāvallabha He who is the beloved of Radha[22]
पाण्डुरङ्ग Pāṇḍuraṅga He who is the lord of Pandharpur
ഗുരുവായൂരപ്പൻ Guruvāyūrappan He who is the father of Guruvayur
கண்ணன் Kaṇṇaṉ He who is dear[23]
कान्हा Kāṇha He who is dark-skinned

See also

References

  1. ^ Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. American Oriental Society. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381. S2CID 164194548.
  2. ^ Knott 2000, p. 56
  3. ^ Knott 2000, p. 36, p. 15
  4. ^ Rogerson, Barnaby (7 November 2013). Rogerson's Book of Numbers: The culture of numbers from 1001 Nights to the Seven Wonders of the World. Profile Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-84765-983-5.
  5. ^ Nadeau, Randall L. (13 January 2014). Asian Religions: A Cultural Perspective. John Wiley & Sons. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-118-47195-1.
  6. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (9 April 2016). "Acyuta, Acyutā: 31 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  7. ^ Knapp, Stephen (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment And Illumination. iUniverse. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-595-35075-9.
  8. ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4.
  9. ^ Knapp, Stephen (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment And Illumination. iUniverse. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-595-35075-9.
  10. ^ Hopkins, Steven P. (18 October 2007). An Ornament for Jewels: Love Poems For The Lord of Gods, by Vedantadesika. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-19-804372-0.
  11. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (13 January 2019). "Murari, Mura-ari, Murāri: 10 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  12. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (7 August 2016). "Mukunda, Mukundā, Mukumda: 20 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  13. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (20 April 2017). "Parthasarathi, Pārthasārathī, Pārthasārathi, Partha-sarathi: 4 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  14. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (29 June 2012). "Madhusudana, Madhusūdana, Madhu-sudana: 20 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  15. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (29 June 2012). "Gopala, Gopāla, Go-pala: 28 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  16. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (8 January 2019). "Muralidhara, Muralīdhara, Murali-dhara: 9 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  17. ^ Knapp, Stephen (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment And Illumination. iUniverse. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-595-35075-9.
  18. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (25 May 2018). "Patitapavana, Patitapāvana: 3 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  19. ^ Easwaran, Eknath (2004). Bhagavad Gita. Shambhala Publications. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-59030-190-6.
  20. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (19 December 2011). "Dayanidhi: 4 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  21. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (10 January 2022). "Rukminipati, Rukmini-pati, Rukmiṇīpati: 1 definition". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  22. ^ www.wisdomlib.org (6 January 2019). "Radhavallabha, Rādhāvallabha: 6 definitions". www.wisdomlib.org. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  23. ^ Hopkins, Steven P. (18 October 2007). An Ornament for Jewels: Love Poems For The Lord of Gods, by Vedantadesika. Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-19-804372-0.

Bibliography

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