Vrindavan
Vrindaban, Brindaban
Iskon Temple, Vrindawan.jpg
Madanmohan Mandir Vrindavan.JPG
Radha Damodar Temple.JPG
Radhavallabhlalj.jpg
Lovetemple.jpg
Nicknames: 
City of Widows
Vrindavan is located in Uttar Pradesh
Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Vrindavan is located in India
Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Vrindavan (India)
Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7Coordinates: 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictMathura
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyMathura Vrindavan Municipal Corporation
Elevation
170 m (560 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total63,005
Demonym(s)Vrindavan wasi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
 • NativeBraj Bhasha dialect
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
PIN
281121
Telephone code0565
Vehicle registrationUP-85

Vrindavan (pronunciation ; IAST: Vṛndāvana), also spelt Vrindaban and Brindaban,[2] is a historical city in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is one of the most sacred places in Vaishnavism.[3][4] It is located in the Braj Bhoomi region, and is where, according to Hinduism, Krishna spent most of his childhood days.[3][5] The city is about 11 km from Mathura, Krishna's birthplace on the AgraDelhi National Highway as NH-44.[6][7] Vrindavan has many temples dedicated to the worship of Radha and Krishna.[4] Vrindavan is part of the Lord Krishna circuit (Mathura,Vrindavan,Barsana, Govardhan, Kurukshetra, Dwarka and Bhalka).

Etymology

The ancient Sanskrit name of the city, वृन्दावन (Vṛndāvana), comes from its groves of vṛndā (Holy basil) and vana (a grove or forest).[2]

Geography

Vrindavan is located at 27°35′N 77°42′E / 27.58°N 77.7°E / 27.58; 77.7.[8] It has an average elevation of 170 metres (557 feet).[citation needed]

Yamuna river flows through the city. It is located 125 km away from Delhi and 15 km away from Mathura City.

Climate

Climate data for Mathura (1981–2010, extremes 1974–1995)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.6
(85.3)
34.1
(93.4)
40.1
(104.2)
45.1
(113.2)
47.1
(116.8)
47.6
(117.7)
44.6
(112.3)
42.7
(108.9)
40.6
(105.1)
42.1
(107.8)
35.1
(95.2)
30.1
(86.2)
47.6
(117.7)
Average high °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
24.4
(75.9)
30.4
(86.7)
36.6
(97.9)
41.2
(106.2)
41.2
(106.2)
36.1
(97.0)
34.6
(94.3)
34.2
(93.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.1
(84.4)
23.3
(73.9)
32.1
(89.8)
Average low °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
8.3
(46.9)
13.2
(55.8)
17.9
(64.2)
23.9
(75.0)
25.9
(78.6)
25.5
(77.9)
25.0
(77.0)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
11.6
(52.9)
7.7
(45.9)
17.3
(63.1)
Record low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
0.5
(32.9)
5.0
(41.0)
7.0
(44.6)
8.5
(47.3)
17.0
(62.6)
11.5
(52.7)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
11.5
(52.7)
4.0
(39.2)
2.0
(35.6)
0.5
(32.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 10.4
(0.41)
13.6
(0.54)
6.8
(0.27)
10.1
(0.40)
17.8
(0.70)
35.5
(1.40)
164.7
(6.48)
205.2
(8.08)
105.0
(4.13)
18.0
(0.71)
3.9
(0.15)
9.0
(0.35)
600.1
(23.63)
Average rainy days 0.9 1.3 1.0 0.9 1.5 3.0 9.0 9.1 4.9 0.9 0.3 1.1 33.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 65 59 53 48 39 43 67 72 71 63 56 60 58
Source: India Meteorological Department[9][10]

Demographics

As of 2011 Indian Census, Vrindavan had a total population of 63,005, of which 34,769 were males and 28,236 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 7,818. The total number of literates in Vrindavan was 42,917, which constituted 68.11% of the population with male literacy of 73.7% and female literacy of 61.2%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Vrindavan was 77.8%, of which male literacy rate was 83.7% and female literacy rate was 70.3%. The sex ratio is 812 females per 1000 males. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 6,294 and 18, respectively. Vrindavan had 11,637 households in 2011.[1][11]

Vrindavan lies in the cultural region of Braj.[12]

Religious heritage

Main articles: Radha, Krishna, and Radha Krishna

ISKCON devotee singing bhajan in Vrindavan
ISKCON devotee singing bhajan in Vrindavan

Vrindavan is considered to be a sacred place for Vaisnavism tradition of Hinduism. The other prominent areas surrounding Vrindavan are Govardhana, Gokul, Nandgaon, Barsana, Mathura and Bhandirvan. Along with Vrindavan, all these places are considered to be the center of Radha and Krishna worship. Millions of devotees of Radha Krishna visit Vrindavan and it's nearby areas every year to participate in number of festivals.[13] The common salutation or greetings used in Braj region by its residents is Radhe Radhe which is associated with the Goddess Radha.[14]

History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Vrindavan" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The 17th century Shri Radha Madan Mohan Temple was built by Raja Gopal Singhji of Karauli dynasty
The 17th century Shri Radha Madan Mohan Temple was built by Raja Gopal Singhji of Karauli dynasty

Vrindavan has an ancient past, associated with Hindu culture and history, and was established in the 16th and 17th centuries as a result of an explicit treaty between Muslims and Hindu Emperors,[15] and is an important Hindu pilgrimage site since long.

Of the contemporary times, Vallabhacharya, aged eleven visited Vrindavan. Later on, he performed three pilgrimages of India, barefoot giving discourses on Bhagavad Gita at 84 places. These 84 places are known as Pushtimarg Baithak and since then are the places of pilgrimage. Yet, he stayed in Vrindavan for four months each year. Vrindavan thus heavily influenced his formation of Pushtimarg.

The essence of Vrindavan was lost over time until the 16th century, when it was rediscovered by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In the year 1515, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu visited Vrindavana, with the purpose of locating the lost holy places associated with Krishna's life.[16]

In the last 250 years, the extensive forests of Vrindavan have been subjected to urbanisation, first by local Rajas and in recent decades by apartment developers. The forest cover has been whittled away to only a few remaining spots, and the local wildlife, including peacocks, cows, monkeys and a variety of bird species has been virtually eliminated.

Temples

Rangnathji Temple, Vrindavan
Rangnathji Temple, Vrindavan

Vrindavan, the land of Radharani and the city of temples (mandirs), has about 5500 temples to showcase the pastimes of Radha and Krishna.[17][18] Some of the important pilgrimage sites are[19] -

Transportation

Road

Vrindavan is well connected by roads and is connected to Delhi by National Highway (NH) 44 of the Golden Quadrilateral network. Earlier it was NH 2.[6]

129 km from New Delhi

117 km from Gurgaon

54 km from Agra

9 km from Mathura

While in Vrindavan, battery powered e-rickshaw are available for commuting within city-limits.

Rail

Flight

Nearest Airports are Agra Airport and New Delhi International Airport.

City of Widows

Vrindavan is also known as the "city of widows"[28][29][30] due to the large number of widows who move into the town and surrounding area after losing their husbands. There are an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 widows. The widows come from states of west Bengal, Assam and Odisha.[31][32] Many spend time singing bhajan hymns at bhajanashrams. An organization called Guild of Service was formed to assist these deprived women and children.[28][32] According to a survey report prepared by the government, several homes run by the government and different NGOs for widows.[33]

Spectacles snatching Monkeys

While in Vrindavan, be careful wearing your spectacles or sunglasses, the monkeys here are especially adept at stealing your eye-wear. In some cases, you may be able to get yours back if you offer them something edible (fruit juice or banana).[34]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Census of India: Vrindavan". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Brindaban". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909.
  3. ^ a b Hawley, John Stratton (2020). Krishna's Playground: Vrindavan in the 21st Century. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190123987.
  4. ^ a b Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 176.
  5. ^ "UP gets first officially designated 'teerth sthals' in Vrindavan and Barsana". Times of India. 27 October 2017.
  6. ^ a b "NHAI". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  7. ^ Keene, Henry George (1899). "Bindrabun". A Handbook for Visitors to Agra and Its Neighbourhood. Thacker, Spink & Co. pp. 98–106.
  8. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Vrindavan, India". www.fallingrain.com. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  9. ^ "Station: Mathura Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 481–482. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  10. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M220. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  11. ^ Jayant Pandurang Nayaka, Syed Nurullah (1974). A students' history of education in India (1800–1973) (6 ed.). Macmillan.((cite book)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  12. ^ Lucia Michelutti (2002). "Sons of Krishna: the politics of Yadav community formation in a North Indian town" (PDF). PhD Thesis Social Anthropology. London School of Economics and Political Science University of London. p. 49. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  13. ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-7914-7081-7. The center of Krishna-worship has been for a long time Brajbhumi, the district of Mathura that embraces also Vrindavana, Govardhana, and Gokula, associated with Krishna from the time immemorial. Many millions of Krishna bhaktas visit these places every year and participate in the numerous festivals that re-enact divine scenes from Krishna's life on Earth, of which were spent in those very places Vrinda means Tulsi (A sacred species of flora) and van as forest, therefore Vrindavan is a holy forest of Tulsi. Vijaypal Baghel, known as GreenMan is promoting, planting and farming Tulsi in mass around the Vrindavan.
  14. ^ Lynch, Owen M. (31 December 1990). "ONE. The Social Construction of Emotion in India". Divine Passions. University of California Press. pp. 3–34. doi:10.1525/9780520309753-002. ISBN 978-0-520-30975-3.
  15. ^ "Watch | John Stratton Hawley on His Latest Book on 'Krishna's Playground'". The Wire. 25 January 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  16. ^ "Discovery of Vrindavan by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu". Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  17. ^ Rājaśekhara Dāsa (2000). The Color Guide to Vṛndāvana: India's Most Holy City of Over 5,000 Temples. Vedanta Vision Publication.
  18. ^ Seven main temples of Vrindavan, Vrindavantoday.org
  19. ^ Anand, D. (1992). "Temples and Places". Krishna: The Living God of Braj. Abhinav Publications. pp. 42–86. ISBN 978-81-7017-280-2.
  20. ^ "Sri Radha Raman in Vrindavan". www.salagram.net. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Banke-Bihari Temple website". Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  22. ^ "Chapter 7. Cross-Cultural Dynamics of Mystical Emotions in Vrindaban". The Hare Krishnas in India. Princeton University Press. 14 July 2014. pp. 176–198. doi:10.1515/9781400859894.176. ISBN 978-1-4008-5989-4.
  23. ^ "Radha Damodar Mandir, Vrindavan - Info, Timings, Photos, History". TemplePurohit - Your Spiritual Destination | Bhakti, Shraddha Aur Ashirwad. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  24. ^ "ISKCON Vrindavan - Home".
  25. ^ "Famous Krishna Temples in India". Zee News. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  26. ^ Kumar, Mayank (13 February 2012). "Kripaluji Maharaj's Prem Mandir will be inaugurated on 17 February". Aaj Ki Khabar. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  27. ^ "News18.com: CNN-News18 Breaking News India, Latest News Headlines, Live News Updates". News18. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  28. ^ a b "India's widows live out sentence of shame, poverty". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  29. ^ "The Indian town with 6,000 widows". BBC News. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  30. ^ "The widows of Vrindavan". cnbctv18.com. 8 March 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  31. ^ "Catalyst Magazine: Moksha: the widows of Vrindavan". Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  32. ^ a b "Shunned from society, widows flock to city to die". CNN. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
  33. ^ "Sulabh dons mantle". Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  34. ^ "Daring marauders of Braj, not mere monkeys". Hindustan Times. 13 December 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2022.

Vrindavan travel guide from Wikivoyage