Moradabad
City
New Moradabad Skyline
Pili Kothi Chowk
Pilikothi Welcome Sign
Sai Mandir
Philips Memorial Methodist Church
Jama Masjid
Moradabad Railway Station
Moradabad Entry Gate (Zero Point)
Nickname: 
Brass City
An old map of Moradabad (1955)
An old map of Moradabad (1955)
Moradabad
Moradabad
Moradabad
Location in Uttar Pradesh
Moradabad
Moradabad
Moradabad
Moradabad (India)
Coordinates: 28°49′55″N 78°46′35″E / 28.83194°N 78.77639°E / 28.83194; 78.77639
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictMoradabad
Established1625[1]
Named forMurad Bakhsh
Government
 • MPDr. S. T. Hasan (SP)
 • MayorVinod Agarwal (BJP)
 • District MagistrateShri Manvendra Singh
 • MLARitesh Kumar Gupta (BJP)
Area
 • Total79 km2 (31 sq mi)
Elevation
198 m (650 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total889,810
 • Density11,000/km2 (29,000/sq mi)
DemonymMoradabadi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
244001
Telephone code0591
Vehicle registrationUP-21
Websitemoradabad.nic.in

Moradabad (pronunciation) is an industrial city, commissionary and municipal corporation in Moradabad district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated on the banks of the Ramganga river, at a distance of 167 km (104 mi) from the national capital, New Delhi and 344 km north-west of the state capital, Lucknow. Based on the 2011 census, it is 10th most populous city in the state[3] and 54th most populous city in the country.[4] It is one of the largest cities in the Western UP region, serving as a crucial hub for employment, education, industry, culture, and administration.

The city is popularly known as Pital Nagri ("Brass City") for its famous brass handicrafts,[5] which are exported across the world. In the last few decades it has started emerging as a hub for other metalworks also, which includes working with aluminium, steel, and iron.[6] In October 2014, leading financial daily Livemint included Moradabad in its list of "25 emerging cities to watch out for in 2025".[7]

Moradabad also holds the distinction of being among the 100 smart cities being modernized under the National Smart Cities Mission of the Union Government of India.[8]

Throughout its four centuries of existence, the city has gone through multiple regime changes. It was firstly a part of the Delhi Sultanate, then flourished under Mughal empire, then was annexed into the Kingdom of Rohilkhand in 1742, and then came under the control of Oudh State in 1774 after the fall of Rohillas in the First Rohilla War. Finally, it was ceded to the British East India Company by the Nawab of Oudh in 1801.[9] In the early 19th century, the British divided the Rohilkhand area into the Rampur State and two districts: the Bareilly and Moradabad districts. The city of Moradabad then became the headquarters of the latter.

Moradabad was connected with railway lines during the latter half of the nineteenth century. A line connecting Moradabad to Chandausi was built in 1872 and it was continued up to Bareilly in 1873. The Bareilly-Moradabad chord via Rampur was completed in 1894, which was extended to Saharanpur in 1886. A branch line to Aligarh via Chandausi was opened in 1894, while Moradabad was linked to Ghaziabad in 1900.[10][11] It's also the divisional headquarter of the Moradabad division of Northern Railway (NR).[12][13]

Etymology

Founded by Rustam Khan, the governor of Katehar under the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, Moradabad is named after prince Murad Bakhsh, the youngest son of the emperor. It was originally known as Chaupala and was a part of the Katehar region, before falling to Mughal governor Rustam Khan Dakhani in 1624, who then changed its name to "Rustamnagar", naming it upon himself.

The name Rustamnagar, however, was short-lived. Shah Jahan soon called Rustam Khan to his court and demanded an explanation for why he had exceeded his orders. In an attempt to placate the emperor, Rustam Khan named the city Muradabad in honor of the young prince, Murad Bakhsh. The emperor was satisfied and permitted Rustam Khan to remain in charge of the new city, which now came to replace Sambhal as the Mughal governors' capital of the Katehar region, and the name Muradabad (or Moradabad) has been in use ever since.[14]

History

Delhi Sultanate era (12th century–16th century)

Moradabad was originally part of the Katehr (pronounced "K-the-r") region, and it was a stronghold of the Katheria Rajputs.[14] The Katherias were known for insurrections and surprise attacks against their Muslim rulers, and due to that reason the rulers also used to attack and plunder the region as much as possible. Between 1200–1424 several attacks were done on the region by rulers of different dynasties under Delhi sultanate, each time with an intention to completely destroy it and kill every single inhabitant. However, Katheria Rajputs survived as they were very skilled at evading attacks by hiding in the jungles. The vicious cycle of violence ended only in 1424 when Khizr Khan, the leader of Khilji dynasty ruling over the region, died and Har Singh, a prominent leader of Katherias, subjected to the Delhi sultanate rule. After that nothing significant happened for at least two centuries and the region remained largely in peace.[14]

Mughal empire (1539–1742)

In 1530 the Katehr region came under control of Mughal empire. However, the Mughal emperror Humayun soon lost his grip over the empire and the region was conquested by Sher Shah Suri of Sur empire. Then it remained under Sur empire for 16 years before being reconquested by Humayun.[14]

Under the Mughal Empire, Moradabad city was known as Chaupala, and it was part of the Mugalpura pargana, which in turn was part of the sarkar of Sambhal as per Ain-i-Akbari.[15] It produced a revenue of 1,340,812 dams for the imperial treasury and it provided a force of 500 infantry and 100 cavalry to the Mughal army.

The facade of Moradabad's Jama Masjid founded by Rustam Khan

The most significant event in the history of Moradabad came in 1624. That year a Katheria leader of Rampur named Raja Ram Singh invaded the Tarai region. The raja of Kumaon complained about it to Mughal emperror Shah Jahan, who then sent his general and governor of Sambhal Rustam Khan Dakhani to deal with the disturbance. Rustam Khan captured Chaupala, put Ram Singh to death, and refounded the city as Rustamnagar. He built a new fort and great mosque (Jama Masjid) on the banks of Ramganga river, and shifted the capital from Sambhal to this new city. It was the first Jama Masjid to be founded on the banks of a river, and it stands intact to this day, with an inscription dated to 1632.[14]

Shah Jahan, however, wasn't very pleased with the actions of Rustam Khan. He summoned Rustam to his darbar and asked him why did he exceed the instructions of emperror and what was the name that he had given to the new city. Rustam Khan sensed the mood of the emperror, and with great presence of mind stated that he has named the city Muradabad in honor of prince Murad Bakhsh, a son of Shah Jahan. The emperror was satisfied and allowed Rustam Khan to remain in charge of the city.[14]

Rohilkhand state (1742–1774)

In 1730s people from a number of Afghan tribes, collectively known as Rohillas, were fleeing Afghanistan because of Nader Shah's invasion. They arrived in large numbers and settled in all parts of the Katehr region, including Moradabad. One Ali Mohammed Khan among them acquired considerable estate in the region and ultimately attained the status of Nawab under protection of Moradabad's Mughal governor Sheikh Azmatullah. He then founded the Ruhelkhand state under protection of Mughal empire in 1742, which consisted all of Moradabad district as well as Bareilly, Rampur, and Amroha. The region largely propspered under Rohillas despite the invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali and Marathas. However, in their last invasion Marathas completely plundered and ravaged the city of Sambhal and Moradabad.[14]

Oudh state (1774–1801)

The Nawab of Oudh, Shuja-ud-Daula, has promised Rohillas to drive Marathas out of the entire Rohilkhand region in exchange of a sum of 40 lakhs. He kept his part of the promise, but ultimately Rohillas reneged on it and didn't make the payment. The Nawab of Oudh then staked claim to the entire Rohilkhand region, and started occupying its cities and bringing Rohilla leaders under his influence, including the governors of Moradabad. He ultimately defeated Rohilla leader Hafiz Rahmat Khan in the battle of Miranpur Katra, putting an end to Rohilkhand state and brining all of its territory, including Moradabad, under Oudh rule in 1774. By that time Moradabad was already devastated because of Maratha invasion, and under Oudh rule its condition only deteriorated.[14]

British Empire (1801–1947)

Oudh state had incurred significant debts from the British empire by maintaining British troops in their dominion for the purpose of security from invaders. Since it was unable to pay those debts, in 1801 the Oudh state ceded entire Rohilkhand region to British empire for extinction of those debts.[14] This brought Moradabad under the control of British empire, starting another major chapter of its history. The already deteriorated economic condition of the city worsened further under British rule because of their ignorance towards the landholding class of the city. Their policies completely neglected landowners and tried to create a new landholding class by way of a bidding system. The landholders, in turn, resorted to use of force to protect their lands.[16]

On the other hand, common man was also not doing very well. Average income and wages had almost halved, which was fueling discontent among the labor class as well. This discontent erupted against the British rule in the rebellion of 1857.[16]

The Rebellion of 1857

Nawab Majju Khan's grave in Galshaheed below the Tamarind tree on which he was hanged after being killed

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Moradabad was one of those areas from where British officers had to evacuate and the rebels formed an alternative government. Unlike other places where rebellin was largely limited to sepoys and a few unsocial elements, in Moradabad the public (both landowners as well as common man) was also supporting it because of its repressed condition under the British rule.[14]

On 15th of May 1857 a fierce battle ensued between the rebel sepoys of 20th Native Infantry and the forces of 29th Native Infantry led by collector Mr. JC Wilson. One sepoy was killed, while eight were captured and taken prisoners. But three days later on 19th of May the rebellion broke out in 29th Native Infantry as well and the district jail was broken, from where 170 prisoners and rebel sepoys escaped.[14]

On 8th of May the news of Mutiny in Bareilly came to the city, and its effect was instantaneous: the sepoys of 29th Native Infantry overtook the British treasury and challenged their English officers.[14] The British officers as well as their family members had to escape to the valleys of Nainital, and those who didn't were killed in the violence of rebellion. Nawab Majju Khan, a leader of the rebels and a descendant of Sheikh Azmatullah, became the new governor of Moradabad. He reigned supreme until he was overthrown on 23rd of June by Asad Ali Khan, the uncle of Rampur's Nawab Yusef Ali Khan, who was helping the British empire.[14] But despite having appointed his uncle in charge of the city Nawab-Rampur had little control over the state of affairs in the city as there was a feeling of resentment and anger among the public against English and those who were supporting the English. So violence and anarchy continued to prevail in the city.[14]

A year later, Britishers returned to the city on April 21, 1858 with a bigger force and started capturing the freedom fighters. Those who were captured were killed in the most brutal ways to terrorize the public. They were shot dead, hanged, and many were thrown alive into lime furnaces. Nawab Majju Khan was also captured and shot dead, with his body hanged through a Tamarind tree in Galshaheed area.[17] On April 30, 1858 the British rule over Moradabad was re-established.[14]

Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement

Moradabad played a major role in the Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movements initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. Civil Disobedience Movement was planned at the 1920 convention of Oudh state Congress in Moradabad—an event which was attended by all major leaders of the Congress party, including Pt. Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, etc.[18] When the movement began in 1932, Moradabad's people also partipated in it to protest against the unlawful arrests and repression of freedom fighters.

The Quit India Movement, on the other hand, saw large scale violence in Moradabad,[19][20] including a massacre at Pan Dariba in which 6 were killed and more than 200 were injured due to indiscriminate firing of police on the protesters. There were even more protests and violence in the city after that to rise against the repressive means adopted by Britishers to quell the movement.[19][20]

Post-independence (1947–present)

India became independent in 1947, and since Moradabad was not a part of any princely state at that time, it became a part of the newly independent country immediately after that. The city was then industrialized and developed to uplift the economic condition of people, and till date it has existed largely peacefully.

Geography

Map
A map of the city

Moradabad is located in the Western part of Uttar Pradesh at 28°49′55″N 78°46′35″E. The city has an area of 79 km square, and it's situated in the upper part of Ganga's plains. It is surrounded by rural towns and villages that fall under the Moradabad district (i.e. Dalpatpur, Pakbada, Fatehpur Khas, Lodhipur, Ratanpur, Husainpur Hamir, Dilari, Bijna, Ghatuawala, etc). The city falls under the high damage risk Seismic Zone IV, which means it's an earthquake-prone area.[21]

The city is one of the richest in terms of groundwater resources. It's located at an elevation of 198 meters from sea level on the banks of the Ramganga river, which is a tributary to the Ganges. Another small river, called Gagan, flows through the city. These rivers collectively form the main water flow system of the city, with direction of the flow being north-west to south-east.[22]

The city has minimal forest cover, but green zones have been established in many parts to provide the necessary green cover. There are at least 29 trees in the city that are more than 100 years old, all of which have been preserved under the Green Heritage project of city administration.[23] [24] Most of these trees fall in the central Civil Lines area of the city, and they include Neem, Banyan, Indian Blackberry, and Ficus virens.

The type of soil in the city is loam and clay loam with high fertility.[25]

Climate

Moradabad has a subtropical humid climate[22] characterized by hot summers, bracing winters, and generally low precipitation (except in the southwest monsoon season). The city goes through four distinct seasons in a year, starting with winters followed by spring, summer, monsoon and fall in the same order, before returning back to winter towards the end of the year. Average annual maximum temperature of the city is 30.4 °C, while average annual minimum temperature is 18.7 °C.[26]

During summers the temperature usually ranges between 24 °C to 40 °C and during winters it is between 5 °C to 20 °C. Hottest month of the year is May, with average maximum temperature at 38.9 °C and average minimum temperature at 24.4 °C. Coldest month of the year, on the other hand, is January with average maximum temperature at 19.9 °C and average minimum temperature at 7.9 °C. The highest temperature ever recorded was 48.2 °C on June 22, 1985, while the lowest temperature ever for the city was 0.0 °C on January 12, 1983.[26]

Average annual rainfall in the city is 107.7 cm, with most of it (almost 87%) coming during the southwest monsoon season between July and August. Average highest rainfall is recorded in August at 34.4 cm, and average annual rainy days are 42. Conversely, average lowest rainfall is recorded in the month of November at 0.3 cm. Single day heaviest rainfall ever-recorded was on February 12, 1996 at 40 cm of rain within 24 hrs.[26]

Climate data for Moradabad (1981–2010, extremes 1967–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
33.0
(91.4)
39.4
(102.9)
45.0
(113.0)
45.5
(113.9)
48.2
(118.8)
43.0
(109.4)
39.7
(103.5)
39.0
(102.2)
37.0
(98.6)
34.7
(94.5)
30.1
(86.2)
48.2
(118.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
23.9
(75.0)
29.7
(85.5)
36.1
(97.0)
38.9
(102.0)
37.7
(99.9)
33.7
(92.7)
32.8
(91.0)
31.8
(89.2)
30.9
(87.6)
27.1
(80.8)
22.5
(72.5)
30.4
(86.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 7.9
(46.2)
10.8
(51.4)
15.7
(60.3)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
26.1
(79.0)
25.6
(78.1)
25.2
(77.4)
24.0
(75.2)
19.5
(67.1)
14.2
(57.6)
9.5
(49.1)
18.7
(65.7)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
2.0
(35.6)
5.0
(41.0)
10.0
(50.0)
16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
14.0
(57.2)
8.2
(46.8)
12.1
(53.8)
5.0
(41.0)
2.0
(35.6)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.2
(0.68)
24.5
(0.96)
9.2
(0.36)
7.0
(0.28)
25.2
(0.99)
85.3
(3.36)
277.3
(10.92)
265.1
(10.44)
168.9
(6.65)
36.4
(1.43)
3.1
(0.12)
7.3
(0.29)
926.5
(36.48)
Average rainy days 1.2 1.8 0.8 0.8 1.8 4.7 9.4 9.8 6.6 1.3 0.4 0.6 39.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 73 63 55 45 47 57 76 81 79 67 66 70 65
Source: India Meteorological Department[27][28]

Demographics

Religions in Moradabad City (2011)[29]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
51.68%
Islam
46.79%
Christianity
0.61%
Sikhism
0.43%
Other or not stated
0.49%
Distribution of religions

Population

Moradabad's estimated population in 2024 (based on growth rate data) is at least 1,259,000.[30] However, these are estimates and accurate population can be known only after a census is done.

Last time when the census was done in 2011, Moradabad City had a population of 887,871.[30] The city had 464,580 males and 423,291 females, which translates into a sex ratio of 911 females for every 1000 males.[30] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 25.25%. Scheduled Castes make up 10.45% of the population.[30]

Children aged up to 6 years made 13.08% of the city's population mix at 116,149. Coming to child sex ratio, there were 60,803 male and 55,346 female childs, which translates to a child sex ratio of 910 females per 1,000 males.[31]

Languages in Moradabad (2011)[32]

  Hindi (81.16%)
  Urdu (18.27%)
  Others (0.57%)

Religion

Moradabad is a Hindu-majority city with almost equal split of Muslim population scattered throughout its areas. 51.68% of the population in the city follows Hinduism. This is followed by Islam, which is followed by 46.79% of people. Christianity, Sikhisim, Buddhism, and Jainism are practiced by 0.61%, 0.43%, 0.03% and 0.05%, respectively.[33]

Language

Moradabad is largely a Hindi/Urdu speaking city. Hindi is the predominant language here, with more than 81% of people speaking and understanding it. Urdu is second with more than 18% of speakers. The dialect spoken is Khari Boli.[32]

Literacy

With 530,584 literates in the city, Moradabad had an overall literacy rate of 58.67% according to 2011 census. Among them 291,605 were males and 238,979 were females. This translates into a male literacy rate of 72.21% and a female literacy rate of 64.95%.

Economy

Aaftab, one of the main handicraft items of Moradabad

Moradabad is a major industrial city of Uttar Pradesh and one of India's biggest export hubs. The city exports metal handicrafts to North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia. Its metalcrafts industry alone accounts for more than 40% of total handicraft exports from India.

In 2007, Moradabad's export turnover was ₹3,200 crores which had increased to ₹4,000 crores in 2012.[34] By 2018, it had a metalcraft business turnover of ₹9,700 crores out of which ₹5,400 crores was export revenue and the same year Moradabad was counted amongst India's manufacturing hubs by The Economic Times.[35] By the year 2020, it had increased further to reach ₹15000 crores, out of which ₹10,000 crores was export revenue.[36]

Export

Moradabad is popularly known as the Brass City of the country. Countries like Britain, the US, Middle East, Germany and Canada import brassware from Moradabad. There are about 600 export units and 9,000 industries in the district. Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 4,500 crore every year. Products such as iron sheet, metal wares, aluminum, artworks and glassware are exported. The export of mint is done in several crores from Moradabad. Due to surge of exports and popularity in foreign particularly in America, Europe, Italy and other countries, a large number of exporters are launching their units and started their export. Moradabad is one of the seven industrial corridors declared by the State Government in Industrial Policy 1999–2002.[37]

Mohammed Yar Khan is known as the founder of Moradabad's brass industry; he migrated from Afghanistan in the 1800s and started the export industry. He was awarded various medals from British Empire exhibitions in United Kingdom.

Special Economic Zone

Moradabad Special Economic Zone (SEZ) is the only Uttar Pradesh Government developed SEZ[38] in northern India. It's headed by the Development Commissioner of the Noida SEZ and locally governed by the Assistant Development Commissioner. It was set up in 2003 at Pakbara–Dingarpur Road in Moradabad on a 421.565-acre plot of land. It was operationalized in April 2007, and according to data published by the Noida SEZ on behalf of NSDL, it had the merchandise exports of ₹272 crores in FY 22-23.[39] More than 42% of the export from this SEZ went to the United States, with Germany and UAE being second and third at 14% and 8%, respectively.[40]

UP Government has so far invested a sum of ₹1,100 million on its development through UPSIDC. The SEZ provides excellent infrastructure, supportive services and sector specific facilities for the Handicraft Trade. Proximity to Delhi-NCR and availability of skilled and dedicated manpower makes it ideal for setting up various industries in handicrafts and its allied fields. In spite of the global slowdown in the handicraft trade, the Moradabad SEZ has grown from just one unit in 2007 to 58 operational units in 2021.[38] It has 465 developed plots of varying sizes. Future expansion of this has been strategically planned and soon it will be available for few more export sectors.

Infrastructure, supportive services and trade related facilities have been substantially upgraded during the last few years. Moradabad SEZ offers access to the global telecommunication network, uninterrupted power supply and efficient local transport system. An ultra-modern RSU Telephone Exchange has been installed in the Zone, besides the availability of all the mobile frequencies in and around the zone through various mobile communication towers. An independent feeder line has since been provided for uninterrupted power supply, the reliability and quality of power supply has improved with the pre-commissioned 32 / 11 KVA / 5.0 MVA [38] Power Sub-station within Moradabad SEZ. Proximity to Delhi-NCR provides easy access to the financial and commercial infrastructure of the capital. Customs wing ensures prompt and on the spot clearances of export/import consignments through web based system called "sezonline".[38]

Cityscape

Unlike major cities that rely on apartments, skyscrapers and vertical growth, Moradabad's cityscape consists mostly of double-storey and tripple-storey buildings developed by individual residents. Higher buildings (up to 10 storeys or more) are generally found in private townships of the city or in commercial establishments, such as hospitals or colleges. Many of these high-rise buildings have been built in the last decade (i.e. post-2010) as city's population swelled because of people arriving from neighboring states and cities in search of education or employment opportunities. The state government's Avas Vikas department has also built apartment complexes of up to four-storeys in the city.[41] The trend is expected to continue with more private townships lined up towards the outer areas of the city.[42][43]

Parks and recreation spaces

A view of the Company Baag at night

Moradabad has a robust ecosystem of parks and recreational spaces in all of its neighborhoods and localities. Some popular ones among them include the Eco Herbal Park, Gautam Budh Park, Ambedkar Park and Company Baag. The Civil Lines located Company Baag is quite special among them all as it exists since the days of the British East India Company. Legend says that it used to serve as a residential centre for the English officers before being burned down in the rebellion of 1857.[44] After that Britishers rebuilt it into a garden for recreational purposes. Today it has been upgraded by the city administration with lots of greenery and lighting so people can use it as a place to play, wind down, and relax.

The city is also home to Prem Wonderland and Water Kingdom—an amusement park with swimming pool, water slides, wave pool, bar, restaurant, and plenty of fun features for people of all age groups.

Shopping centres

View of a local market in Moradabad
A view of the Wave Mall, one of the first and largest shopping malls in Moradabad

Moradabad offers plenty of options for shopping enthusiasts of all kinds. From general purpose markets, product specific markets to brand outlets and modern shopping malls—there's everything. General purpose markets like Budh Bazaar, Town hall, and the markets on Tadikhana chauraha or Gurhatti chauraha provide residents with all sorts of their shopping needs. On the other hand, dedicated markets also exist where one can find all the varieties of a particular product at value for money prices. Weekly markets are also organized in some of the city's areas on Sunday and Tuesday where people can go to do some value-for-money shopping.

In the last few years modern shopping malls and brand outlets have also sprung across the city where people can go to buy the premium products and have a good time while shopping.

Entertainment

There are many movie theaters and multiplexes in Moradabad equipped with latest technologies and amenities where people can go for entertainment. The most popular ones among them include PVR, Wave Cinemas, and Miglani Cinemas. Playgrounds for kids also exist in almost all localities.

Sports

Sonakpur stadium pavillion
Pavillion of Sonakpur Stadium
Basketball Court
Basketball Court at the Stadium
View of stadium from the stands
Stadium view from the Stands

Moradabad is a hub of sports activities not only for its own players but also for the aspiring players of neighboring towns like Sambhal, Amroha, Gajraula, and Rampur. The most popular sport in this city is Cricket, and there have been at least two international cricketers from the city who have made India proud: Piyush Chawla and Arun Lal. Prestigious Arjuna Award winner Mohammed Shami also used to practice in the city during his initial cricketing days.[45] Another cricketer from the city, Mohsin Khan, plays in the IPL for Lucknow Super Giants and is famous or his lethal fast bowling.[46]

These cricketers did their initial practice in the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Sports Stadium, popularly known as Sonakpur Stadium of Moradabad, which serves as the centre of all major sports events and activities in the city. The city is also home to the Moradabad zone Under-19 cricket team[47] that draws players not only from the city but also from the neighboring towns and villages. In 2021 a bulk of 20 players were selected from Moradabad for the zonal final of Uttar Pradesh Under 25 Ranji team.[48] The following year, in 2022, two of the city's players were selected to play for the Uttar Pradesh Men's Cricket Team in the Ranji Trophy.[49] The excellence of Muradabadi cricketers is not limited to men's cricket alone—in 2023, 11 female cricketers were selected from Moradabad for the Under-23 trials of Uttar Pradesh Women's Cricket Team.[50]

Besides cricket, football, basketball, volleyball, and kabaddi are other popular games in the city. In March 2024, three players from the city were selected for National Football Camp that was organized to select the players for first ever Under-20 Mens Football Championship to be organized in India.[51] Similarly, two players were selected for the regional Kabaddi team from Moradabad in 2022 for state-level Kabaddi championship in Jhansi.[52] A year before in 2021 Moradabad's Kabaddi team was the winner in state-level Kabaddi championship organized by the Youth Games Assocaition.[53]

Culture

Moradabad is among the cities of India that have a rich cultural heritage and legacy of peaceful Hindu-Muslim coexistence. This culture, termed as Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb, has been shaped by a fuision of ideas and values from both religions for centuries. Residents of modern Moradabad, known as Muradabadis, carry this legacy forward by living, studying, working, and enjoying festivals together. There are many places of worship in the city that are more than 100 years old, including the Old Central Methodist Church,[54][55] Jama Masjid, and several temples.

Arts and literature

Being the Brass City, Moradabad has produced some of the best artisans and craftsmen who are masters at decorating brass items with complex textures and designs. This includes Padma Shri awardee Ustad Dilshad Hussain and Padma Shri Babu Ram Yadav,[58] whose brass products have been exhibted at major exhibitions across the country and gifted even to the heads of other states. For instance, in 2022 Prime Minister Narendra Modi gifted a "kalash" decorated with the artwork of Ustad Dilshad Hussain to German Chancellor Olaf Scholz at the G7 Summit in Italy. Later, Ustad Dilshad was also invited to display his decorated brassware items at the G20 summit held in New Delhi.[59]

The city has also been home to many prominent poets, singers, and artists who have done amazing work in the fields of arts, poetry, and literature. This includes Hindi poet and humorist Hullad Moradabadi, who was known for his humorous plays, movies, and books,[60]Jigar Moradabadi, an Urdu poet who was known across the country for his Sufi poems par excellence, and Jwala Prasad Mishra, author and editor of many classical Sanskrit texts.

To this day, mushairas, qawwalis, and different types of Hindi stage plays and acts are a part of the city's vibrant culture and they are organized many times throughout the year. The likes of people who have performed in these events include Munawwar Rana,[61] Mehshar Afridi,[62] Juhi Babbar,[63] Sonu Nigam[64], Sunidhi Chauhan,[65] Guru Randhawa,[66] and many others.

Moradabad's legacy is quite rich in terms of literature as well. The 86 years old library maintained by city's Municipal Corporation still has many books that are more than 100 years old. Among them are Urdu translations of Hindu scriptures Bhagavad Gita and Gitanjali, which many Muslims also go to read and learn from.[67] Urdu translators of the city like Hakim Muhsin Faruqi also translated popular foreign literature such as The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes in Urdu during the early 20th century, introducing Muslims to the literature of other countries and languages.[68]

Cuisine

Moradabadi Daal and Jalebis

Moradabad's cuisine is inspired from a fusion of its Rajput and Mughlai roots as well as its brass industry. Mughal Prince Murad Bakhsh is known for harmoniously blending the two cultures, which included blending their foods as well.[69] The result was a diverse cousine that includes both vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian dishes in equal parts. Two of the most popular dishes among them are Moradabadi Moong dal[70][71] and Moradabadi biryani.[72][73] There's a tale that Prince Muradh Bakhsh was so fond of the Muradabadi dal that he used to have it multiple times throughout the day, each time spiced differently.[74] That tradition of garnishing and serving the Moradabadi dal with different kind of spices like lemon juice, chaat powder, coriander leaves, and green chillies continues to this day.

Other popular dishes in the city include Seekh Kebabs, Jalebis, Samosas, Mutton Korma, Moradabadi Gosht, Moradabadi Paneer Makhni, etc. All these dishes can be found easily on street food stalls as well as major restaurants across the city.

The dishes in Muradabadi cuisine also derive their distinct taste and flavor from use of brass vessels and whole spices (i.e. "khada garam masala") and raw onions to cook the food. While brass vessels preserve the natural taste of dishes by distributing heat evenly and preventing burning, whole spices add to the unique aroma and layered taste. Moradabad is also credited for introducing the first iteration of chaat masala to the country. [74]

Education

Higher education

Moradabad is a major education hub in the western UP region with numerous public as well as private higher education institutions. For technical education, it's home to a Government Polytechnic and private institutions like Moradabad Institute of Technology (MIT) and RSD Academy College of Management and Technology (both affiliated to Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University). For arts, sciences, and professional courses it has many colleges affiliated to the MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, which include:

A view of the RSD Academy, Moradabad, where one can study all the way from 1st standard to graduation and post-graduation under one campus

The city is also home to two private universities: Teerthanker Mahaveer University and the IFTM University, both of which provide higher education in management and technology-related fields.

For medical studies there's RSD Academy Institute of Medical Sciences, RSD Academy College of Pharmacy, KGK Homeopathic Medical College. There are two private dental colleges-cum-research centers as well, namely Kothiwal Dental College & Research Centre and the Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre.

A government university named Guru Jambheshwar State University is also under construction in the city. Its first academic session is expected to commence in 2024.[75]

Schools

Moradabad is also home to a number of prominent schools. The list includes the likes of GD Goenka Toddler House pre-school from GD Goenka Group, Bachpan play school, CL Gupta World School, Delhi Public Global School, St. Mary's School, PMS Public School, KCM School, RRK School, and RSD Academy. Most of these schools are affiliated either with Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) board. There's also a Kendriya Vidyalaya in the city.

Moradabad has many noteworthy Hindi medium schools as well, which include Chitragupt Inter College, Methodist Girls Inter College, Parker Inter College, Maharaja Agrasen Inter College, and RN Inter College. The Hindi medium schools are all affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh State Board of High School and Intermediate Education.

Police training academy

Police Academy in Moradabad

Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar Police Academy, Moradabad, is situated in the heart of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Police Services Officer and State Police Service officers of UP cadre and Uttrakhand Cadre are trained here before the appointment.

The Police Training College was earlier known as Police Training School (PTS), established in Allahabad in 1878 under an Assistant Superintendent of Police. It was shifted to Moradabad in 1901.[76] The academy has two other police colleges under its administration: Police Training College and Police Training School. The former is used to train police officers of the rank of inspector and sub-inspector, and the latter is used to train head constables and constables.

Provincial Armed Constabulary

Besides the above Inspector-General of Police, western zone, Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC) also sits in Moradabad.

Moradabad has the battalion headquarters of 9/23/24 Bn. of U.P. Provincial Armed Constabulary, also have their offices here. Moradabad is the largest police establishment of U.P. Police after Lucknow.[77]

Transport

Public transport

An electric bus at a charging station in Moradabad

Moradabad's public transport system largely relies on auto rickshaws, e-rickshaws, and electric city buses. While the first two mediums have been taking people around the city for decades, electric city buses are a recent addition to the city's public transport mix as they were launched in January 2022.[78] Besides being eco-friendly, these buses are air conditioned and highly economical as one can travel in them for a distance of 3 kms for 10 INR only. [79] At the moment, however, the routes for e-buses are very limited so people primarily use auto rickshaws or e-rickshaws to move around. Bike taxi aggregator service Rapido also operates in the city.[80]

Road

A section of NH24 in Moradabad (Delhi road)

The following National Highways and State Highways pass through or are connected with Moradabad:

It is essentially from Delhi via Ghaziabad and Moradabad to Rampur. Part of this highway is also a part of the AH2 (Asian Highway 2), which connects Denpasar, Indonesia to Merak and Singapore to Khosravi, Iran.
Sonakpur Railway Overbridge (ROB) connecting Kanth Road to Delhi Road on NH 24

Rail

Moradabad railway station
Inside Moradabad junction railway station

Moradabad railway station is one of the major railway stations of Indian Railways. Built in 1873 and electrified in 2012, it is one of the oldest railway stations of India. It has 7 platforms, and it lies on Lucknow-Moradabad line, Delhi-Moradabad line, and Moradabad-Ambala line. It's called an inter-change station due to a five-line junction.[81]

The station has double railway line for Delhi, Lucknow, Punjab, and Dehradun directions. More than 250 trains pass through and stop at the station every day. It is directly connected with Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Agra, Aligarh, Ghaziabad, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Haridwar, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ambala, Guwahati, Dibrugarh, Kolkata, Jamshedpur, Varanasi, Ahmedabad, and Patna. 13 trains originate and terminate at the station. All trains passing through the station stop here for 5-10 mins on average, including Shatabdi Express, Rajdhani Express, Vande Bharat, Garib-Rath, and Double-Decker.[82]

Moradabad railway station was the main station built by Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway.

Amenities: Moradabad railway station is category 'A' railway station.[81] It offers access to free Wi-Fi, escalators, an IRCTC canteen, a tourist information centre, post office, telegraph office, General Railway Police Office, computerized reservation counters, retiring room, vegetarian and non vegetarian refreshment rooms, tea stall and bookstall. It also has dedicated Tatkal reservation counters.

Electrification: Moradabad railway station has a quadruple electric line with four parallel tracks, which allows faster trains to overtake the slower ones. 100% of railway track is electrified.

Air

The city has a domestic airport named Moradabad Airport, which was inaugurated on March 10, 2024. However, commercial flights are yet to begin from it. Until it becomes operational, Bareilly Airport is the nearest operational (domestic) airport. Located around 85 km from Moradabad, it is connected to major cities like Mumbai, New Delhi and Bengaluru with direct flights.

The nearest international airport is Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi (around 178 km away).

Media

Newspapers published in Moradabad include Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Patrika,[83] Hindustan Moradabad Pages [84] and more.

Issues

Floods

Moradabad has a history of floods due to the overflow of Ramganga river.[85] The water discharged from the Ramganga Dam in Kalagarh led to severe flooding in 2010,[86] with flood water entering people's homes even in some of its most posh localities. There has not been a severe flood in the city since then, but the risk remains every year whenever it rains more than usual and rural areas on the banks of Ramganga river get submerged.

Pollution

Being an industrial city undergoing rapid transformation, Moradabad also faces the challenge of pollution. With a maximum of 114 decibels (db), the city is 2nd most noise polluted city in the world according to a United Nations Environment Program report published in 2022.[87] In 2021, it was also the most air polluted city in the country outside the National Capital Region (NCR).[88]

However, the city has been consistently making strides to fix these challenges. In 2022, it won the first prize among 44 cities with a population of 0.3–1 million for reducing the PM10 concentration by 36% in the Swachh Vayu Survekshan (SVS) of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).[89] The following year, in 2023, it was on the second place in the same survey.[90]

Notable people

See also

References

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