Royal State of Rampur
|Motto: "الحكم لله والملك لله" "Al Hukumu Lillah Wāl Mulk Lillah" |
.Lā Fata ʾIllā ʿAlī; Lā Sayf ʾIllā Ḏū l-Fiqār.
|Anthem: God Save The King|
|Status||15 gun-salute princely state|
|Faizullah Khan (First)|
|Muhammad Ali Khan|
|Ghulam Muhammad Khan|
|Ahmad Ali Khan|
|Raza Ali Khan (Last)|
|7 October, 1774|
|15 August, 1947|
|2,447.54 km2 (945.00 sq mi) (1st; princely state)|
• Water (%)
|Driving side||left lane|
|Today part of||Uttar Pradesh, India|
Rampur State was a 15 gun-salute princely state of British India. It came into existence on 7 October 1774 as a result of a treaty with Oudh. Following independence in 1947, Rampur State and other princely states of the area, such as Benares and Tehri Garhwal were merged into the United Provinces. Rampur state had its capital in Rampur city and its total area was 945 sq miles. Rampur state was founded by Ali Mohammad Khan's younger son Faizullah Khan.
The Jama Masjid is one of the finest piece of architecture to be found in Rampur. It resembles the Jama Masjid in Delhi to some extent.[original research?] It was built by Nawab Faizullah Khan. It has a unique Mughal touch to it. There are several entry-exit gates to the masjid. It has three big domes and four tall minarets with gold pinnacles boasting of a royal touch. It has a main lofty entrance gate that has an inbuilt clock tower occupied by a big clock that was imported from Britain.
There are several entry-exit gates built by the Nawab. These gates are major entry-exit routes from the city. Examples are Shahabad Gate, Nawab Gate, Bilaspur Gate etc.
The Rohilla State of Rampur was established by Nawab Faizullah Khan on 7 October 1774 in the presence of British Commander Colonel Champion, and remained a pliant state under British protection thereafter. Faizullah Khan was a leader among the Rohillas and a member of the Rohilla dynasty. He was the son of Ali Mohammed Khan, who was a Jat boy of age eight when he was adopted by the chief of the Pashtun Barech tribe, Sardar Daud Khan Rohilla. For Rohillas, Rampur State was one of the important princely states in Hindustan.
In the 19th century, the Nawabs of Rampur claimed that Ali Mohammed Khan was a Barha Sayyid and started using the title of Sayyid. However, they could not present any pedigree in the support of this claim.
The Rohilla War of 1774–75 began when the Rohillas reneged on a debt they owed to the Nawab of Oudh for military assistance against the Maratha Empire in 1772. The Rohillas were defeated and driven from their former capital of Bareilly by the Nawab of Oudh with the assistance of the East India Company's troops lent by Warren Hastings.
The first stone of the new Fort at Rampur was laid and the city of Rampur founded in 1775 by Nawab Faizullah Khan. Originally it was a group of four villages named Kather, the name of Raja Ram Singh. The first Nawab proposed to rename the city 'Faizabad'. But many other places were known by the name Faizabad so its name was changed to Mustafabad alias Rampur. Nawab Faizullah Khan ruled for 20 years. He was a great patron of scholarship, and began the collection of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Urdu manuscripts which now make up the bulk of the Rampur Raza Library. After his death, his son Muhammad Ali Khan took over. He was killed by the Rohilla leaders after 24 days, and Ghulam Muhammad Khan – the brother of the deceased, was proclaimed Nawab. The East India Company took exception to this, and after a reign of just 3 months and 22 days Ghulam Muhammad Khan was defeated by its forces, and the Governor-General made Ahmad Ali Khan, son of the late Muhammad Ali Khan, the new Nawab. He ruled for 44 years. He did not have any sons, so Muhammad Sa'id Khan, son of Ghulam Muhammad Khan, took over as the new Nawab. He raised a regular Army, established Courts and carried out many works to improve the economic conditions of farmers. His son Muhammad Yusuf Ali Khan took over after his death. His son Kalb Ali Khan became the new Nawab after his death in 1865.
Nawab Kalb Ali Khan was literate in Arabic and Persian. Under his rule the state did much work to uplift standards of education. He was also a Member of Council during the Viceroyalty of Lord John Lawrence. He built the Jama Masjid in Rampur at a cost of Rs. 300,000. He was also knighted in Agra by the Prince of Wales. He ruled for 22 years and 7 months. After his death his son Mushtaq Ali Khan took over. He appointed W. C. Wright as the Chief Engineer of the estate. He built many new buildings and canals. Nawab Hamid Ali became the new ruler in 1889 at the age of 14. Many new schools were opened during his reign, and many donations were provided to nearby colleges. He donated Rs. 50,000 to Lucknow Medical College. In 1905 he built the magnificent Darbar Hall within the Fort which now houses the great collection of Oriental manuscripts held by the Rampur Raza Library. His son Raza Ali Khan became the last ruling Nawab in 1930. Nawab Raza Ali Khan was a very progressive ruler who believed in the Inclusion of Hindus and so appointed Lt. Col. Horilal Varma – Bar At Law as his Prime Minister. On 1 July 1949 the State of Rampur was merged into the Republic of India. Rampur today presents a slightly decayed appearance: the palaces of the Nawabs are crumbling, as are the gates and walls of the fort. However, the Library remains a flourishing institution of immense value to scholars from all over the world.
The Nawabs of Rampur sided with the British during Indian Rebellion of 1857 and this enabled them to continue to play a role in the social, political and cultural life of Northern India in general and the Muslims of United Provinces in particular. They gave refuge to some of the literary figures from the Court of Bahadur Shah Zafar.
See also: Rampur-Sahaswan gharana
The Rampur-Sahaswan gharana of Hindustani classical music also has its origins in court musicians. Ustad Mehboob Khan, was a khayal singer and Veena player of the Rampur court; his son Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan (1849–1919), who trained and lived in the city, founded the gharana.
The Nawabs of Rampur gave patronage to traditional music in their court. Mehboob Khan was the chief khyal singer of the royal court of Rampur State, his tradition was followed by his son Inayat Hussain Khan (1849–1919) and in turn by Inyat's brothers-in-law, Haider Khan (1857–1927), and Mushtaq Hussein Khan (d. 1964), which gave rise to the Rampur-Sahaswan gharana of Hindustani classical music, the latter being their ancestral place, Sahaswan, in present-day Badaun district.
|Name||Reign Began||Reign Ended|
|1||Faizullah Khan||15 September 1774||24 July 1793|
|Hafiz Rahmat Khan – Regent||15 September 1748||23 April 1774|
|2||Muhammad Ali Khan Bahadur||24 July 1793||11 August 1793|
|3||Ghulam Muhammad Khan Bahadur||11 August 1793||24 October 1794|
|4||Ahmad Ali Khan Bahadur||24 October 1794||5 July 1840|
|Nasrullah Khan – Regent||24 October 1794||1811|
|5||Muhammad Said Khan Bahadur||5 July 1840||1 April 1855|
|6||Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur||1 April 1855||21 April 1865|
|7||Kalb Ali Khan Bahadur||21 April 1865||23 March 1887|
|8||Muhammad Mushtaq Ali Khan Bahadur||23 March 1887||25 February 1889|
|9||Hamid Ali Khan Bahadur||25 February 1889||20 June 1930|
|Regency||25 February 1889||4 April 1894|
|10||Raza Ali Khan Bahadur||20 June 1930||6 March 1966|
|11||Murtaza Ali Khan Bahadur – Titular||6 March 1966||8 February 1982|
Main article: Rampur Hound
His Royal Highness Nawab Ahmad Ali Khan of Rampur is credited with developing the dog breed known as Rampur Hound. The Rampur Hound far exceeded his expectations. He endeavoured to breed these dogs by combining the Tazi ferocious Afghan dogs with the English Greyhound, more obedient but less resistant to the harsher local weather. He gave the name 'Rampur Hound' to the dogs he bred.
The cuisine of the royal courts over the years gave rise to the Rampuri cuisine, developed by the chefs of the Nawabs. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the khansamas (chefs) from erstwhile Mughal imperial courts shifted to Rampur, bringing along with them the Mughal cuisine tradition. Gradually people from other places also found a haven here, adding influences of Awadhi, Hyderabad and Kashmiri cuisine. It is also known for its distinct flavours and dishes with recipes passed on from the royal kitchen, like Rampuri fish, Rampuri Korma, Rampuri mutton kebabs, Doodhiya Biryani and adrak ka halwa.
Mehboob Khan was the chief khyal singer of the royal court of Rampur State, his tradition was followed by his son Inayat Hussain Khan (1849–1919) and in turn by Inyat's brothers-in-law, Haider Khan (1857–1927), and Mushtaq Hussein Khan (d. 1964), which gave rise to the Rampur-Sahaswan gharana of Hindustani classical music, the latter being their ancestral place, Sahaswan, in present Badaun district.
Once Daud was sent against the village of Bankauli, in pargana Chaumahla, with which his employer was at feud. Along with the plunder taken on this occasion Daud obtained possession of a Jat boy seven or eight years of age, whom he caused to be circumcised and then adopted under the name of Ali Muhammad Khan.
Amongst other prisoners he obtained a young Jat boy of eight years . Daud took a fancy to him and adopted him as his son and named him ' Ali Muhammad Khan.
Most of the contemporary sources, however, call him a Jat or an Ahir.
...this remarkable chief was not an Afghan by birth, but a Hindu, a Jat by caste.