Karauli State
करौली रियासत
Princely State of British India
Flag of Karauli
Coat of arms of Karauli
Coat of arms

Karauli State (orange) within Rajputana (yellow), in the Imperial Gazetteer of India (1909)
• 1931
3,216 km2 (1,242 sq mi)
• 1931
• Established
Succeeded by
Matsya Union
Today part ofIndia
 · Rajasthan
View of Timan Garh Fort in former Karauli State. Its foundations are said to have been built in the 2 century AD.

Karauli State[1] was a princely state in India from 1348 to 1949. It is located in the Braj region. Karauli city was the capital while Mandrayal or Mandrail was another important town.


The state had an area of 3,178 km2 (1,227 sq mi). In 1901, the population of the state was 156,786, and that of the town was 23,482. Millets, the staple food of the people,[2] was the main agricultural produce. As of the early 20th century, there were no major industries; a little weaving, dyeing, wood-turning, and stone cutting constituted the notable cottage industries.[2] Most goods, as also salt, sugar, cotton, buffaloes, and bullocks, were imported; rice and goats comprised the main exports.[2]


Historically, Karauli was ruled by a maharaja, who was also the head of the Jadaun clan.[3] Around 1058, Tahan Pāl built a fort at Tahangarh, and was known to possess almost the entirety of what would later be called Karauli State as well as surrounding territory.[3]

In 1196, his descendant Kunwar Pāl lost all of his territory to the invading Ghurid Dynasty.[4] The territory was not recovered until approximately 1327, when Arjun Pāl re-conquered much of this land and founded the town of Karauli.[3] The Jadons remained independent for a century until their lands were once again captured, this time by Mahmud I of Malwa.[3] The Jadons remained insignificant until Gopāl Dās gained the favor of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor. Sometime during his reign from 1556 to 1605, Akbar named Dās the Maharaja of Karauli.[3][5]

Alliance with the British

On 9 November 1817, Karauli became the first state to conclude the treaty with the British Empire. Through an agent in Delhi, its maharaja Harbaksh Pal Deo assented to becoming a protectorate state.[6][7]

In 1857, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Maharaja Madan Pal supported the British Raj. He concealed English troops from Indian rebels within Karauli or spirited them out of state. He also sent approximately 2300 of his own troops to fight against the rebels, securing the Karauli palace until British reinforcements arrived.[8] For his loyalty to the British Empire, Madan Pal was made a Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India.[9] The salute of honour, to which the Chiefs of Karauli were entitled, was also enhanced from 15 to 17 in appreciation of the loyal services of Raja Madan Pal, who was also decorated with a rich dress of honour.[10][11]

The state under Maharaja Ganesh Pal Deo acceded to the Dominion of India on 4 August 1947.[12] Karauli later merged with the Union of India and became part of the state of Rajasthan.

List of Maharajas

Coinage of Maharaja Manak Pal (1772-1804), Princely State of Karauli. Karauli mint. Struck in the name of the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II. Dated 1784-5 CE
Karauli. Coinage of Maharaja Arjun Pal (1876-1886), Princely State of Karauli. In the name of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Empress of India. Dated 1878 CE.

See also


  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 26.
  2. ^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Karauli" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 677.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 15, page 26 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library".
  4. ^ Cunningham, Alexander (2000). "Tahangarh". Report of a tour in Eastern Rajputana in 1882-83. Vol. 20. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. p. 89. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  5. ^ An ethnographical hand-book for the N.-W. provinces and Oudh By William Crooke
  6. ^ Gaur, Meena (1989). Sati and Social Reforms in India. Publication Scheme. p. 23. ISBN 9788185263571.
  7. ^ Aitchison, Charles Umpherston (1909). "Eastern States Agency". A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads relating to India and Neighbouring Countries. Vol. 3. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing. pp. 284–285. OCLC 21657742. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  8. ^ The Hind Rajasthani : an annual of the native states of India. Times, Ahmedabad. 1896.
  9. ^ Gaur, D. D. (1978). Constitutional Development of Eastern Rajputana States. Usha Publishing House, 1978. p. 18.
  10. ^ Mehta, Markand Nandshankar (1985). The Hind Rajasthan, Or, The Annals of the Native States of India, Volume 1. Usha, 1985. pp. 332–334.
  11. ^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers].: Sawai Madhopur. Printed at Government Central Press, 1981. 1981. pp. 40–42.
  12. ^ "Instrument of Accession of Karauli State (Rajputana)". Karauli State- Instrument of Accession and Standstill Agreement signed between H.H. Maharaja Ganesh Pal Deo Bahadur Yadukul Chandra Bhal, Ruler of Karauli State and the Dominion of India. New Delhi: States Department, Government of India. 1947. pp. 2–3, 5. Retrieved 31 January 2023-- via National Archives of India.
  13. ^ Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 39, 147. ISBN 0226742210.

26°18′N 77°14′E / 26.3°N 77.23°E / 26.3; 77.23