Mayurbhanj State
ମୟୁରଭଞ୍ଜ ରାଜ୍ୟ
Princely State of British India
12th century–1949
Flag of Mayurbhanj
Flag
Coat of arms of Mayurbhanj
Coat of arms
Orissa Tributary States-IGI.jpg

Mayurbhanj State in a 1901 map of the Imperial Gazetteer of India.
Area 
• 1901
10,982 km2 (4,240 sq mi)
Population 
• 1901
610,383
History
History 
• Established
12th century
1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Eastern Ganga dynasty
India
Today part ofOdisha, India
Shri Hari Baladev Jiu Temple in Baripada, built under royal patronage.
Shri Hari Baladev Jiu Temple in Baripada, built under royal patronage.
Dance of the Santal people in the Mayurbhanj area.
Dance of the Santal people in the Mayurbhanj area.

Mayurbhanj State (or Morbhanj) (Odia: ମୟୁରଭଞ୍ଜ ରାଜ୍ୟ) was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj.[1] It was one of the largest states of the Eastern States Agency and one of the three states of the Bengal States Agency.[1] The emblem of the state were two peacocks for according to legend the ancestors of the ancient rulers originated from a peafowl's eyes.[2][1]

The state included a vast mountainous area inhabited by many different people groups such as the Santal, Munda, Ho and Kisan people.[3] Its former territory lies in the present-day state of Odisha, bordering West Bengal. The capital of the state was the town of Baripada[1] since the 15th century and Daspur was another important town. Large tracts of Mayurbhanj State were covered with forest.

History

See also: Bhanj dynasty, Mayurbhanj Palace, and Mayurbhanj State Railway

The rulers of Mayurbhanj state were descendants of the Bhanj dynasty of the Khijjinga mandala of the ancient local Kshatriya lineage.[4] According to the early inscriptions of Ranabhanja and Rajabhanja, the dynasty has its origins from the mythical peahen likely pointing out to the early peafowl related traditions of the Ancient Bhanja clans which is observed on their emblems which is also shared by the successive branches.[5][6]

Their influence likely declined with the dominance of the Somavamshis in the Utkal region but centuries later came back to prominence in the region with the rise of the Eastern Ganga dynasty after uniting the three realms of Trikalinga with the Bhanjas as their feudatories. Traditions point to numerous origins of the dynasty but lack of records renders them unlikely although it is generally accepted that the founder, Adi Bhanja of the 12th century established the current dynasty of the Mayurbhanj state with his brother Jyoti Bhanja founding the Keonjhar State succeeding from the Khijjinga Adi Bhanja dyansty.[7]

Mayurbhanj State had been under Maratha rule during the 18th century and became a British protectorate in 1829, many years after the Third Anglo-Maratha War. During the British Raj the kings of Mayurbhanj pioneered the upliftment of the region. Under their enlightened rule Mayurbhanj became one of the most progressive areas. The Bhanj kings established the first medical college of the state in Cuttack, donating funds and land for the establishment of higher education institutions such as Ravenshaw College and welfare schemes, such as the one undertaken by the Evangelical Missionary Society of Mayurbhanj (EMSM), established in 1895 at the instance of Maharaja Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo.[8] Mayurbhanj Palace was built by Maharani Sumitra Devi Bhanj Deo in 1804.[9][10]

The Mayurbhanj State Railway was started by the erstwhile ruler of Mayurbhanj Maharaja Shri Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo. The first section of 52 km from Rupsa to Baripada railway station being opened for traffic on 20 January 1905.[11]

After the independence of India, Mayurbhanj state under Maharaja Pratap Chandra Bhanjdeo acceded to the Indian Union on 1 January 1949 and was merged with Orissa Province, which became later the state of Odisha.

Rulers

The rulers of Mayurbhanj State of the Bhanj dynasty.[12] They were entitled to a 9 gun salute.[13] The rulers of Mayurbhanj are;[14]

  1. Jay Singh (598–618)
  2. Adi Bhanja Deo (618–656)
  3. Nilamnar Bhanja Deo (656–689)
  4. Lakshmanagraj Bhanja Deo (689–726)
  5. Viseswar Bhanja Deo (726–764)
  6. Bharat Bhanja Deo (764–804)
  7. Dilipeswar Bhanja Deo (804–839)
  8. Vamadev Bhanja Deo (839–878)
  9. Basudev Bhanja Deo (878–916)
  10. Keshari Bhanja Deo (916–960)
  11. Narayan Bhanja Deo (960–996)
  12. Nilakantha Bhanja Deo (996–1028)
  13. Virakeshwari Bhanja Deo (1028–1064)
  14. Kapileswar Bhanja Deo (1064–1100)
  15. Trilochan Bhanja Deo (1100–1138)
  16. Dasarathi Bhanja Deo (1138–1164)
  17. Srikrishna Bhanja Deo (1164–1195)
  18. Gadadhar Bhanja Deo (1195–1238)
  19. Araneswar Bhanja Deo (1236–1264)
  20. Gopinath Bhanja Deo (1264–1279)
  21. Radhakrishna Bhanja Deo (1279–1301)
  22. Prithvinath Bhanja Deo (1301–1334)
  23. Baikuntha Bhanja Deo (1334–1360)
  24. Bireswara Bhanja Deo (1360–1390)
  25. Rama Chandra Bhanja Deo (1390–1423)
  26. Balabhadra Bhanja Deo (1423–1464)
  27. Harikrishna Bhanja Deo (1464–1491)
  28. Nilakantha Bhanja Deo (1491–1520)
  29. Santhei Bhanja Deo (1520–1556)
  30. Baidyanath Bhanja Deo (1556–1600)
  31. Jagannath Bhanja Deo (1600-1643)
  32. Harihara Bhanja Deo (1643–1668)
  33. Savesvara Bhanj Deo (1688–1711)
  34. Viravikramaditya Bhanj Deo (1711–1728)
  35. Raghunath Bhanj Deo (1728–1750)
  36. Chakradhar Bhanj Deo (1750–1761)
  37. Damodar Bhanj Deo (1761–1796)
  38. Rani Sumitra Devi (f) - Regent of Mayurbhanj (1796–1810)
  39. Rani Jamuna Devi (f) - Regent of Mayurbhanj (1810-1813)
  40. Tribikram Bhanj Deo (1813–1822)
  41. Jadunath Bhanj Deo (1822–1863)
  42. Shrinath Bhanj Deo (1863–1868)
  43. Krishna Chandra Bhanj Deo (1868–29 May 1882)
  44. Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo (29 May 1882– 22 February 1912)
  45. Purna Chandra Bhanj Deo (22 February 1912–21 April 1928)
  46. Pratap Chandra Bhanj Deo (21 Apr 1928–1 January 1949)

Titular

See also

External Link

References

  1. ^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Morbhanj" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 820.
  2. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 17, p. 242.
  3. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India
  4. ^ Hermann Kulke (1976), Kshatriyaization and social change: A Study in Orissa setting (PDF), Popular Prakashan, p. 404
  5. ^ Chanda, Ramapradas (1929), Bhanja Dyansty of Mayurbhanja and their ancient capital at Khiching, AD, Mayurbhanj
  6. ^ Sahu, NK (1956), THE BHANJA KINGS OF ORISSA, Indian History Congress
  7. ^ ODISHA DISTRICT GAZETTEERS MAYURBHANJ (PDF), GAD, Govt of Odisha, 1990, pp. 61–66
  8. ^ Special Report Archived 9 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine at Hindu Vivek Kendra website
  9. ^ "Mayurbhanj palace in shambles". Web India 123. 15 October 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  10. ^ "Mayurbhanj palace wallows in royal neglect". The Times of India. 29 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  11. ^ Malleson, G. B.: An historical sketch of the native states of India, London 1875, Reprint Delhi 1984
  12. ^ Princely States of India
  13. ^ Mayurbhanj Princely State (9 gun salute)
  14. ^ "Orissa District Gazetteers: Mayurbhanj". INDIAN CULTURE. p. 88. Retrieved 2 March 2022.

Coordinates: 21°56′N 86°43′E / 21.94°N 86.72°E / 21.94; 86.72