Bharatpur State
1722–1947
Flag
Coat of arms
Bharatpur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
CapitalBharatpur
Common languagesBraj
Hindi
Government
Maharaja 
• 1722–1756 (first)
Badan Singh
• 1929–1947 (last)
Brijendra Singh
Historical eraMedieval India
• Established
1722
• End of British seizuranity;
Accession to
Dominion of India
15 August 1947
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mughal Empire
Dominion of India
Today part ofRajasthan,
Republic of India
Deeg Palace, built in 1772 as a palace for the rulers of Bharatpur State
Deeg Palace, built in 1772 as a palace for the rulers of Bharatpur State
Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur (1755–1763)
Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur (1755–1763)
Durbar at Bharatpur c. 1862
Durbar at Bharatpur c. 1862
Maharaja Jashwant Singh of Bharatpur (1853–1893)
Maharaja Jashwant Singh of Bharatpur (1853–1893)
View of the Deeg Fort taken in the 1890s. Deeg was the first capital of the Sinsini Jats established by Badan Singh. Later the capital was moved to Bharatpur.
View of the Deeg Fort taken in the 1890s. Deeg was the first capital of the Sinsini Jats established by Badan Singh. Later the capital was moved to Bharatpur.
Kishan Singh of Bharatpur (1918–1929)

Bharatpur State, that is also known as the Jat State of Bharatpur, historically known as the Kingdom of Bharatpur, was a Hindu Kingdom in the northern Indian subcontinent. It was ruled by the Sinsinwar clan of the Hindu Jats. At the time of reign of king Suraj Mal (1755–1763) revenue of the state was 17,500,000 rupees per annual.[1]

History

The formation of the state of Bharatpur was a result of revolts by the Jats living in the region around Delhi, Agra, and Mathura against the imperial Mughals.[2] Gokula, a local Jat zamindar of Mathura, lead the first of such revolts in 1669. Even though the Jats were defeated and Gokula was executed, the movement was not completely crushed and discontent continued to simmer.[2] In 1685, there was a second uprising of the Jats under Raja Ram Jat, that was better organized this time and used guerrilla warfare, combining it with loot and plunder.[2] Now Aurangzeb approached the Kachhwaha ruler Bishan Singh to crush the uprising and appointed him as the faujdar of Mathura, granting him the entire area in zamindari. Conflict between Jats and Rajputs for zamindari rights also complicated the issue, with Jats primarily being landowners, whereas the Rajputs were primarily revenue collectors.[2] The Jats put up a stiff resistance but by 1691, Raja Ram Jat and his successor Churaman were compelled to submit to the Imperial Mughals. However unrest among Jats continued and later on in the beginning of the 18th century, Churaman, taking advantage of the Mughal civil wars, was able to oust the Rajputs from the area and establish an independent state where Jat chiefs formed the ruling class.[2] Raja Ram Jat who also exhumed and burned the remains of Akbar is known for setting up a small fort at Sinsini. It was the key foundation of this kingdom.[3][4][5]

The most prominent ruler of Bharatpur was Maharaja Suraj Mal. He captured the important Mughal city of Agra on 12 June 1761.[6] He also melted the two silver doors of the famous Mughal monument Taj Mahal.[7] Agra remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774.[8] After Maharaja Suraj Mal's death, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort.[citation needed]

The Jats were later deafeated by the Mughal army under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan in 1774. Mirza Najaf Khan re-captured most of the Jat lands including Agra and Aligarh.[9]

In 1805, war between the British and the Holkars broke out. Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur agreed to help the Holkar and the two Maharajas fell back to the Bharatpur fort. The British surrounded the fort and after three months, Ranjit Singh agreed to peace and signed a treaty with the British, thus becoming a princely state.[10] Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Bharatpur provided great support for the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and this aid was greatly acknowledged by the British. The young Maharaja was made a G.C.S.I and his personal gun salute was increased.[11]

In August 1947, the state of Bharatpur acceded to the newly independent Dominion of India. In 1948, it became part of the Matsya Union and in 1949, it was absorbed into the state of Rajasthan. Members of the ruling family continue to be active in national and regional affairs. Several members of the family have served as members of parliament and in the state legislature.[12]

Expansion and decline

In the 1760s the Kingdom of Bharatpur reached its zenith and covered present day capital Delhi and district of Agra, Aligarh, Alwar, Bharatpur, Bulandshahr, Dholpur, Etah, Etawa, Faridabad, Firozabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Hathras, Jhajjar, Kanpur, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mewat, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Palwal, Rewari, and Rohtak.[13] The areas under the control of Jats broadly included parts of modern eastern Rajasthan, southern Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and Delhi.

The Jats were later defeated by the Mughal army under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan in 1774. Mirza Najaf Khan re-captured most of the Jat lands including Agra and Aligarh.[14]

Military power

The Kingdom had a large army of 25,000 Infantry and 15,000 Cavalry with addition to the Troops stationed at his forts.[15]

Rulers

The chronology of Sinsinwar dynasty rulers is as follows:

The line is nominally continued

Symbols

Last flag of Bharatpur
Last flag of Bharatpur

The former flag of the princely state was a rectangular tricolor with three horizontal stripes of saffron, white and blue. Its design and colour scheme happened to be very similar to the official flag that would be adopted for the future independent Dominion of India.

In the last three years before joining the Indian Union a new flag was adopted for Bharatpur that had a broad Chartreuse coloured band and the coat of arms in the middle.[17] During that brief period (c.1943 – 1947) Bharatpur became the only political entity ever to have a chartreuse coloured flag. Bharatpur State also had an elaborate coat of arms.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (2010). An Advanced History of Modern India. Macmillan. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-230-32885-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e Chandra, Satish (1990). Medieval India. India: National Council for Educational Research and Training. pp. Chapter 18 p. 295, 296.
  3. ^ Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana, Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, 1894, 1903 and 1916.
  4. ^ Kunj Bihari Lal Gupta. The Evolution of the Administration of the former Bharatpur State. Vidya Bhawan Publishers, Jaipur, 1959.
  5. ^ Tony McClenaghan. Indian Princely Medals: A record of the Orders, Decorations and Medals of the Indian Princely States. Lancer Publications, Spantech & Lancer, New Delhi, 1996.
  6. ^ Bhatia, O. P. Singh (1968). History of India, from 1707 to 1856. Surjeet Book Depot. p. 536.
  7. ^ "Taj Mahal". MANAS. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  8. ^ Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197–200
  9. ^ "Najafgarh: A Kingmaker in the Capital". Live History India. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  10. ^ Nandakumar, Sanish (2020). Rise and Fall of The Maratha Empire 1750-1818. Notion Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-647-83961-1.
  11. ^ "Princely States of British India - Card Game". www.Heritageshaala.com.
  12. ^ "Vishvendra Singh Bharatpur".
  13. ^ Chaudhuri, J. N. (1977). "Disruption of the Mughal Empire: The Jats". In Majumdar, R. C. (ed.). The History and Culture of the Indian People. Vol. 8: The Maratha Supremacy. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 157. OCLC 1067771105. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Najafgarh: A Kingmaker in the Capital". Live History India. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  15. ^ "How Maharaja Surajmal Stadium Metro Station got its name?". lifeandmore.in. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  16. ^ "Genealogy of Bharatpur". Archived from the original on 1 April 2009.
  17. ^ Flags of Bharatpur – Roberto Veschi
  18. ^ "Bharatpur Rajasthan Travel Guide", www.indyabiz.com, retrieved 28 June 2021

Notes

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bharatpur". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Coordinates: 27°13′N 77°29′E / 27.22°N 77.48°E / 27.22; 77.48