Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu
1846–1952
  • Flag of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir (1836-1936).svg
  • Flag of Jammu and Kashmir (1936-1953).svg
Top: 1846-1936
Bottom: 1936-1953
Map of Kashmir and Jammu State
Map of Kashmir and Jammu State
StatusPrincely state
CapitalSrinagar
Common languagesKashmiri (Koshur), Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, Shina, and others
Religion
Hinduism (state religion), Islam (majority), Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism
GovernmentPrincely state
Maharaja 
• 16 March 1846 – 30 June 1857
Gulab Singh (first)
• 23 September 1925 – 17 November 1952
Hari Singh (last)
History 
• Princely state established
1846
22 October 1947
• Accession to the Indian Union
26–27 October 1947
• Ceasefire (cession of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan)
1 January 1949
• Constitutional state of India
17 November 1952
• Disestablished
1952
Area
• Total
85,885[1] sq mi (222,440 km2)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sikh Empire
Maqpon dynasty
Republic of India
• Jammu and Kashmir
Dominion of Pakistan
• Azad Kashmir
• Northern Areas
Today part ofIndia (Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh)
Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan)
China (Aksai Chin, Trans-Karakoram Tract)

Jammu and Kashmir, officially known as the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu,[3] was a princely state during the Company rule from 1846 to 1858 as well as the British Raj in India from 1858 to 1952. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, from the territories that had earlier been in the Sikh Empire.

At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India, Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the state followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October 1947, Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir to engage the Pakistan-supported forces, starting the Kashmir conflict.[4] The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory remained under Indian control as the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.[5]

Administration

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)

According to the census reports of 1911, 1921 and 1931, the administration was organised as follows:[6][7]

In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given:[6]

Prime Ministers (Jammu & Kashmir)

# Name Took Office Left Office
1 Raja Sir Daljit Singh 1917 1921
2 Raja Hari Singh 1925 1927
3 Sir Albion Banerjee January 1927 March 1929
4 G. E. C. Wakefield 1929 1931
5 Hari Krishan Kaul[8] 1931 1932
6 Elliot James Dowell Colvin[8] 1932 1936
7 Sir Barjor J. Dalal 1936 1936
8 Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar 1937 July 1943
9 Kailash Narain Haksar July 1943 February 1944
10 Sir B. N. Rau February 1944 28 June 1945
11 Ram Chandra Kak 28 June 1945 11 August 1947
12 Janak Singh 11 August 1947 15 October 1947
13 Mehr Chand Mahajan 15 October 1947 5 March 1948
14 Sheikh Abdullah 5 March 1948 8 August 1953

See also

References

  1. ^ David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers. Orchid Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-974-524-049-0.
  2. ^ Rahman, Tariq (2011). From Hindi to Urdu : a social and political history. Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. p. 201. ISBN 978-81-250-4248-8. OCLC 757810159.
  3. ^ "Kashmir and Jammu", Imperial Gazetteer of India, Secretary of State for India in Council: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 15: 71–, 1908
  4. ^ "Q&A: Kashmir dispute – BBC News". BBC News. 8 August 2019.
  5. ^ Bose, Sumantra (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Harvard University Press. pp. 32–37. ISBN 0-674-01173-2.
  6. ^ a b Karim, Maj Gen Afsir (2013), Kashmir The Troubled Frontiers, Lancer Publishers LLC, pp. 29–32, ISBN 978-1-935501-76-3
  7. ^ Behera, Demystifying Kashmir 2007, p. 15.
  8. ^ a b Copland, Ian (1981), "Islam and Political Mobilization in Kashmir, 1931–34", Pacific Affairs, 54 (2): 228–259, doi:10.2307/2757363, JSTOR 2757363

Bibliography

This article incorporates text from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, a publication now in the public domain.