Malerkotla State
1657–1948
Coat of arms
Motto: Heaven's Light Our Guide[1]
1909 Malerkotla State Located in the Punjab Agency bordered by Patiala and Ludhiana
CapitalMalerkotla City
Common languagesUrdu, English, Punjabi, Hindi
GovernmentAbsolute Monarchy
Nawab of Malerkotla 
• 1672 - 1712
'Sher Muhammad Khan Bahadur (First)
• 1712 - 1717
Ghulam Husain Khan
• 1717 - 1762
Jamal Khan
• 1762 - 1763/64
Bhikan Khan
• 23 August 1908 – 15 August 1947
Ahmad Ali Khan (Last)
History 
• Established
1657
15 August 1948
Population
• 
77,506
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mughal Empire
India

The State of Malerkotla or Maler Kotla was a princely state in the Punjab region during the era of British India. The last ruler of Maler Kotla signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 20 August 1948. Its rulers belonged to a Pathan dynasty, and its capital was in Malerkotla. The state belonged to the Punjab States Agency.

History

The predecessor state was founded in 1454 A.D. by Sheikh Sadruddin-i-Jahan, a pious man of the Sherwani tribe of Afghanistan area, and was ruled by his descendants.[2]

Local tradition says that Behlol Lodhi (1451–1517), the Afghan king who had most of western India under his control, desired to rule Delhi and on his way, he was caught in a sand drift.[3] In the darkness the King spotted a dim light of a lamp still burning in the wind. It was the hut of Sheikh Sadruddin and when the king found out he came to the hut to show his respect and asked the holy man to pray for him to bear a son and have victory.[3] During 1451 and 1452, the king married off his daughter Taj Murassa to Shaikh Sadruddin after being enthroned in Delhi, and also gave him the area of Malerkotla as a jagir.[3]

The descendants of Shaikh Sadruddin branched into two groups. One started ruling the state and were given the title of Nawab when the Mughal Empire arose.[3] The other branch lived around the Shrine of Shaikh Sadruddin, controlling its revenue from pilgrims.[3]

The State of Malerkotla was established in 1657 by Bayazid Khan. After saving the life of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in a tiger attack, Bayazid Khan was granted the privilege to build a fort, which he named Malerkotla and eventually gave its name to the state. On 3 May 1809 Maler Kotla became a British protectorate and was made part of the Cis-Sutlej states until 1862. Malerkotla ranked 12th in the Punjab Darbar in 1890. During the 1947 riots when Punjab was in flames, the State of Malerkotla did not witness a single incident of violence; through it all, it remained a lone island of peace.[2][4]

The roots of communal harmony in the area date back to 1705, when Sahibzada Fateh Singh and Sahibzada Zorawar Singh, 9- and 7-year-old sons of 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, were ordered to be bricked alive by the governor of Sirhind, Wazir Khan. His close relative, Sher Mohammed Khan, Nawab of Malerkotla, who was present in the court, lodged a vehement protest against this inhuman act and said it was against Islam. Wazir Khan nevertheless had the Sahibzadas tortured and bricked into a section of wall while still alive. At this, the Nawab of Malerkotla walked out of the court in protest. Guru Gobind Singh on learning this kind and humanitarian approach profusely thanked the Nawab of Malerkotla and blessed him with his Hukamnama, Kirpan, etc. In recognition of this act, the State of Malerkotla did not witness a single incident of violence during partition.[2] Many local people attribute this peaceful strain to the presence of the shrine of 'Baba Haidar Sheikh', the Sufi saint, who founded the town of Malerkotla more than 500 years ago.[5][6]

Following Indian independence and the signing of the instrument of accession to the Indian Union in 1948, Maler Kotla joined the newly established state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) until its merger with Punjab in 1956.

Rulers

The rulers were titled 'Nawab'. They had the right to an 11 gun salute.[citation needed]

Name Reign Began Reign Ended
1 Sher Muhammad Khan Bahadur (b. 1640 - d. 1712) 1672 1712
2 Ghulam Husain Khan (d. 1734) 1712 1717
3 Jamal Khan (d. 1762) 1717 1762
4 Bhikan Khan (d. 1763/64) 1762 1763/64
Khan Sahib Khan Bahadur Khan (d. 1766) - Regent 1764 1766
5 Khan Sahib Umar Khan (d. 1780) 1766 1 November 1780
6 Khan Sahib Asadullah Khan (d. 1784) 1 November 1780 Apr 1784
7 Khan Ataullah Khan (d. 1809) Apr 1784 14 August 1809
8 Muhammad Wazir `Ali Khan (b. 17.. - d. 1821) 14 August 1809 4 September 1821
9 Amir `Ali Khan Bahadur (d. 1846) 4 September 1821 8 April 1846
10 Mahbub `Ali Khan Bahadur (d. 1857) "Sube Khan" 8 April 1846 25 November 1857
11 Eskandar `Ali Khan Bahadur (d. 1871) 25 November 1857 16 July 1871
12 Mohammad Ebrahim `Ali Khan (b. 1857 - d. 1908) 16 July 1871 23 August 1908
Sir Ahmad `Ali Khan Regent 1 February 1905 23 August 1908
13 Ahmad Ali Khan(b. 1881 - d. 1947) – Acceded to India 23 August 1908 15 August 1947

Titular Rulers

Name Reign Began Reign Ended
Iftikhar Ali Khan 15 August 1947 16 October 1947

See also

References

  1. ^ The motto of the Order of the Star of India
  2. ^ a b c Goyal, Sushil (19 August 2006). "'Malerkotla has Guru's blessings'". The Tribune. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Study of the Pathan Communities in four States of India". Khyber. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  4. ^ A people's gratitude Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Sikh Review, Issue No. 14, November 2003
  5. ^ The Legend of Malerkotla: A Tale from the Punjab (2004) Archived 19 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine 48 min, DVD, ISBN 978-0-8026-0761-4.
  6. ^ Bigelow, Anna B (2 December 2000). "Malerkotla: A heritage going to seed". The Tribune. Retrieved 24 March 2013.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Maler Kotla". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 487.

Coordinates: 30°32′N 75°59′E / 30.533°N 75.983°E / 30.533; 75.983