Guru Gobind Singh
ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ
Guru Gobind Singh
Contemporary painting of Guru Gobind Singh (seated) found within a Dasam Granth manuscript of Anandpur Sahib
Personal
Born
Gobind Rai

22 December 1666[1]
Died7 October 1708(1708-10-07) (aged 41)
Cause of deathAssassination[6][7]
ReligionSikhism
SpouseMata Sundari and Mata Sahib Devan[2]
Children
Parents
Known for

Fought the following Battles :

Other namesTenth Nanak[8]
Signature
Autograph (neeshan) of Guru Gobind Singh.png
Religious career
PredecessorGuru Tegh Bahadur
SuccessorGuru Granth Sahib

Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi pronunciation: [gʊɾuː goːbɪn̪d̪ᵊ sɪ́ŋgᵊ]; 22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708),[1][9] born Gobind Das or Gobind Rai[12][13][14] was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was executed by Aurangzeb,[a] Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at the age of nine, becoming the tenth and final human Sikh Guru.[19] His four biological sons died during his lifetime – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal governor Wazir Khan.[20][21][22]

Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699[4][23][24] and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh is credited with the Dasam Granth whose hymns are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals.[25][26] He is also credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's primary scripture and eternal Guru.[27][28]

Family and early life

Guru Gobind Singh's birthplace in Patna, Bihar.
Guru Gobind Singh's birthplace in Patna, Bihar.

Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri.[29] He was born in Patna, Bihar on 22 December 1666 while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam.[1] His birth name was Gobind Das/Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.[1] In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, and in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled.[1][23]

His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits[30] in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, the Mughal governor of Kashmir under Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.[1][better source needed] Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk. The young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699[9] – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him.[1] His father made the attempt, but was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire.[31][32] Before dying Guru Tegh Bahadur wrote a letter to Guru Gobind Rai (the letter was called Mahalla Dasven and it is part of the Guru Granth Sahib) as one last test to find the next Guru, after his father's martyrdom he was made the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676.[33]

The education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery. The Guru learned Farsi in a year and at the age of 6 started training in martial arts.[34] In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana.[1] He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685.[1]

From Bhai Rupa showing the Guru at the age of 23 (contemporary painting from circa 1701)
From Bhai Rupa showing the Guru at the age of 23 (contemporary painting from circa 1701)

Guru Gobind Singh had three wives:[2][35]

The life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa (literally, Pure Ones), who played the key role in protecting the Sikhs long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and the holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769.[9]

Founding the Khalsa

A Fresco of Guru Gobind Singh and The Panj Piare in Gurdwara Bhai Than Singh built in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
A Fresco of Guru Gobind Singh and The Panj Piare in Gurdwara Bhai Than Singh built in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi (the annual spring harvest festival).[40] According to the Sikh tradition, he asked for a volunteer. One came forward, whom he took inside a tent. The Guru returned to the crowd alone, with a bloody sword.[40] He asked for another volunteer, and repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe. He called them the Panj Pyare and the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition.[41]

Guru Gobind Singh then mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit ("nectar"). He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptization ceremony) of a Khalsa – a warrior community.[40][42] The Guru also gave them a new surname "Singh" (lion). After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa. This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, and his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh.[40] This initiation ceremony replaced the charan pahul ritual practiced by the previous gurus, in which an initiate would drink the water either the Guru or a masand of the guru had dipped their right toe in.[43][44]

Kanga, Kara and Kirpan – three of the five Ks
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan – three of the five Ks

Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Khalsa,[45]

He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating 'halal' meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal's throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden.[45][46] The Khalsas also agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors.[45] The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa also institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender.[46] Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been very important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, and continued the defence of dharma, by which he meant True Religion, against the assault of Aurangzeb.[47]

Anandpur Sahib gurdwara, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa
Anandpur Sahib gurdwara, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa

He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by the Mughal authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, the jizya (poll tax on non-Muslims), pilgrim tax, and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation.[4] Guru Gobind Singh declared that Khalsa does not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam (illusion).[4][48] Not shaving the head also meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire.[4] However, the new code of conduct also led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century, particularly between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa.[4]

Guru Gobind Singh had a deep respect for the Khalsa and stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat (panth).[49] Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya (literally, disciple or student), but the favored term thereafter became Khalsa.[50] Additionally, prior to the Khalsa, the Sikh congregations across India had a system of Masands appointed by the Sikh Gurus. The Masands led the local Sikh communities, local temples, and collected wealth and donations for the Sikh cause.[50] Guru Gobind Singh concluded that the Masands system had become corrupt, he abolished them and introduced a more centralized system with the help of Khalsa that was under his direct supervision.[50] These developments created two groups of Sikhs, those who initiated as Khalsa, and others who remained Sikhs but did not undertake the initiation.[50] The Khalsa Sikhs saw themselves as a separate religious entity, while the Nanak-panthi Sikhs retained their different perspective.[51][52]

The Khalsa warrior community tradition started by Guru Gobind Singh has contributed to modern scholarly debate on pluralism within Sikhism. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh referred to as Khalsa Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs.[53][54][55]

Sikh scriptures

The Dasam Granth is attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It incorporates among other things the warrior-saint mythologies of ancient India.[56][57]
The Dasam Granth is attributed to Guru Gobind Singh. It incorporates among other things the warrior-saint mythologies of ancient India.[56][57]

Guru Gobind Singh is credited in the Sikh tradition with finalizing the Kartarpur Pothi (manuscript) of the Guru Granth Sahib – the primary scripture of Sikhism.[27] The final version did not accept the extraneous hymns in other versions, and included the compositions of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur.[27] Guru Gobind Singh also declared this text to be the eternal Guru for Sikhs.[28][58]

Guru Gobind Singh is also credited with the Dasam Granth.[25] It is a controversial religious text considered to be the second scripture by some Sikhs, and of disputed authority to other Sikhs.[59][26] The standard edition of the text contains 1,428 pages with 17,293 verses in 18 sections.[59][60] The Dasam Granth includes hymns, mythological tales from Hindu texts,[25] a celebration of the feminine in the form of goddess Durga,[61] erotic fables,[25] an autobiography, secular stories from the Puranas and the Mahabharata, letters to others such as the Mughal emperor, as well as reverential discussion of warriors and theology.[59][62][63]

The Dasam Granth has a significant role in the initiation and the daily life of devout Khalsa Sikhs.[64][65] Parts of its compositions such as the Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are the daily prayers (Nitnem) and sacred liturgical verses used in the initiation of Khalsa Sikhs.[26][66][67]

Wars

When all other means have failed,
It is but lawful to take to the sword.

– Guru Gobind Singh, Zafarnamah[68][69]

The period following the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur – the father of Guru Gobind Singh, was a period where the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb was an increasingly hostile enemy of the Sikh people.[70] The Sikh resisted, led by Gobind Singh, and the Muslim-Sikh conflicts peaked during this period.[70] Both Mughal administration and Aurangzeb's army had an active interest in Guru Gobind Singh. Aurangzeb issued an order to exterminate Guru Gobind Singh and his family.[71]

Guru Gobind Singh believed in a Dharam Yudh (war in defence of righteousness), something that is fought as a last resort, neither out of a wish for revenge nor for greed nor for any destructive goals.[72] To Guru Gobind Singh, one must be prepared to die to stop tyranny, end persecution, and to defend one's own religious values.[72] He led fourteen wars with these objectives, but never took captives nor damaged anyone's place of worship.[72]

Significant battles

Guru Gobind Singh with his horse
Guru Gobind Singh with his horse

Guru Gobind Singh fought 13 battles against the Mughal Empire and the kings of Siwalik Hills.

In 1693, Aurangzeb was fighting the Hindu Marathas in the Deccan region of India, and he issued orders that Guru Gobind Singh and Sikhs should be prevented from gathering in Anandpur in large numbers.[73][76]

Mughal accounts

The Muslim historians of the Mughal court wrote about Guru Gobind Singh as well as the geopolitics of the times he lived in, and these official Persian accounts were readily available and the basis of colonial era English-language description of Sikh history.[92][93]

According to Dhavan, the Persian texts that were composed by Mughal court historians during the lifetime of Guru Gobind Singh were hostile to him but presented the Mughal perspective.[92] They believed that the religious Guru tradition of Sikhs had been corrupted by him, through the creation of a military order willing to resist the Imperial army.[92] Dhavan writes that some Persian writers who wrote decades or a century after the death of Guru Gobind Singh evolved from relying entirely on court histories of the Mughals which disparage the Guru, to including stories from the Sikh gurbilas text that praise the Guru.[92][94]

The Mughal accounts suggest that the Muslim commanders viewed the Sikh panth as one divided into sects with different loyalties.[95]

Relationship with other religious groups

Main article: Sikh Rehat Maryada

As a result of the violent hostility between the Sikhs and the Mughal armies, Guru Gobind Singh ordered the social segregation of the Khalsa from the Muslims, the sentiments of which are reiterated in the contemporary and posthumous rahit-namas. To a lesser extent, injunctions were also made prohibiting the partake in certain Hindu rituals and beliefs as well as against schismatic Sikh factions opposed to the orthodox Khalsa community.[100][106]

Post-War years

GGS Marg Map
GGS Marg Map

After the Second Battle of Anandpur in 1704, the Guru and his remaining soldiers moved and stayed in different spots including hidden in places such as the Machhiwara jungle of southern Panjab.[85]

Some of the various spots in north, west, and central India where the Guru lived after 1705, include Hehar with Kirpal Das (maternal uncle), Manuke, Mehdiana, Chakkar, Takhtupura, and Madhe and Dina (Malwa (Punjab) region). He stayed with relatives or trusted Sikhs such as the three grandsons of Rai Jodh, a devotee of Guru Har Gobind.[107]

Zafarnama

Main article: Zafarnama (letter)

Guru Gobind Singh saw the war conduct of Aurangzeb and his army against his family and his people as a betrayal of a promise, unethical, unjust, and impious.[85] After all of Guru Gobind Singh's children had been killed by the Mughal army and the battle of Muktsar, the Guru wrote a defiant letter in Persian to Aurangzeb, titled Zafarnama (literally, "epistle of victory"), a letter which the Sikh tradition considers important towards the end of the 19th century.[85][108][109]

The Guru's letter was stern yet conciliatory to Aurangzeb. He indicted the Mughal Emperor and his commanders in spiritual terms, and accused them of a lack of morality both in governance and in the conduct of war.[110] The letter predicted that the Mughal Empire would soon end, because it persecutes, and is full of abuse, falsehood, and immorality. The letter is spiritually rooted in Guru Gobind Singh's beliefs about justice and dignity without fear.[110]

There are two narratives of why the Guru went to Nanded, one is that he was further helping Bahadur Shah suppress the Mahrathas and Bhoi Dynasty leaders or he went there just to preach Sikhism as he had just surprised the rebellion of Kam Bakhsh and the soldiers were tired and decided to camp. The second is the more popular narrative.[citation needed]

Death of family members

Gurudwara Parivar Vichora Sahib, Majri, Punjab where Guru's younger sahibzaade got separated from him.[111]
Gurudwara Parivar Vichora Sahib, Majri, Punjab where Guru's younger sahibzaade got separated from him.[111]

Guru Gobind Singh's four sons, also referred to as Chaar Sahibzaade (the four princes), were killed during his lifetime – the elder two in a battle with Mughals, and the younger two executed by the Mughal governor of Sirhind.[20]

Guru and his two elder sons had escaped the siege of Anandpur in December 1704 and reached Chamkaur, but they were pursued by a large Mughal army.[112] In the ensuing battle, Guru's elder sons, also called the 'Vaade Sahibzaade' fought bravely, but the Mughal army was much larger and well equipped.[113] While Guru was taken to a safe place, Guru's elder sons, Sahibzada Ajit Singh aged 17, and Jujhar Singh aged 13 were killed in the Battle of Chamkaur in December 1704 against the Mughal army.[6]

Guru's mother Mata Gujri and his two younger sons got separated from the Guru after escaping the Mughal siege of Anandpur in December 1704; and were later arrested by the forces of Wazir Khan, the Mughal governor of Sirhind.[112] The younger pair, called the 'Chotte Sahibzaade', along with their grandmother were imprisoned in an Open Tower (Thanda Burj), in chilling winter days.[113] Around 26 and 27 December 1704, the younger sons, Sahibzada Fateh Singh aged 6 and Zorawar Singh aged 9, were offered a safe passage if they converted to Islam, which they refused; and subsequently, Wazir Khan ordered them to be bricked alive in the wall.[114][115] Mata Gujri fainted on hearing about her grandsons' death and died shortly thereafter.[112]

His adopted son Zorawar Singh Paut whose real name is unknown died in 1708 near Chittorgarh Fort in a skirmish with local soldiers.[3] According to Sainapati Zorawar Singh Paut had managed to escape in the Battle of Chamkaur and later met the Guru in Rajputana after which he got in a minor scuffle at Chittorgarh and died.[116]

According to Sikh historians, Guru Gobind Singh took the harsh news about the execution of his sons with stoic calm, and wrote 'What use is it to put out a few sparks when you raise a mighty flame instead?’.[117]

Final days

Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded, built over the place where Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in 1708, the inner chamber is still called Angitha Sahib.
Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded, built over the place where Guru Gobind Singh was cremated in 1708, the inner chamber is still called Angitha Sahib.

Aurangzeb died in 1707, and immediately a succession struggle began between his sons who attacked each other.[118] The official successor was Bahadur Shah, who invited Guru Gobind Singh with his army to meet him in person in the Deccan region of India for reconciliation. Guru Gobind Singh hoped to get Anandpur, his former stronghold back, and remained close to the imperial camp for nearly a year. His appeals for the restoration of his lands turned out to be ineffectual however as Bahadur Shah went on postponing any restoration to the status quo ante as he was not willing to offend either the Guru or the hill rajas.[6][118][119][120]

Wazir Khan, a Muslim army commander and the Nawab of Sirhind, against whose army the Guru had fought several wars,[7] commissioned two Afghans, Jamshed Khan, and Wasil Beg, to follow the Guru's army as it moved for the meeting with Bahadur Shah, and then assassinate the Guru. The two secretly pursued the Guru whose troops were in the Deccan area of India, and entered the camp when the Sikhs had been stationed near river Godavari for months.[121] They gained access to the Guru and Jamshed Khan stabbed him with a fatal wound at Nanded.[6][122] Some scholars state that the assassin who killed Guru Gobind Singh may not have been sent by Wazir Khan, but was instead sent by the Mughal army that was staying nearby.[7]

According to Senapati's Sri Gur Sobha, an early 18th-century writer, the fatal wounds of the Guru was one below his heart. The Guru fought back and killed the assassin, while the assassin's companion was killed by the Sikh guards as he tried to escape.[121]

The Guru died of his wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708[123] His death fuelled a long and bitter war of the Sikhs with the Mughals.[121]

According to the Bansavalinama by Kesar Singh Chibber written in 1768, the Guru's last words were, "The Granth is the Guru and it will bring you to Akal. The Guru is the Khalsa and the Khalsa is the Guru. The seat has been given to Sri Sahib Mata Devi. Love each other and expand the community. Follow the words of the Granth. The Sikh that follows Sikhi shall be with the Guru. Follow the conduct of the Guru. Always remain with Waheguru."[124]

In popular culture

While Sikh Gurus are generally not portrayed on screen due to certain beliefs in Sikhism, a number of Indian films surrounding Guru Gobind Singh's life have been made. These include:[125]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jenkins, Grewal, and Olson state Tegh Bahadur was executed for refusing to convert to Islam.[15][16][17] Whereas, Truschke states Tegh Bahadur was executed for causing unrest in the Punjab.[18]

References

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  2. ^ a b Dhillon, Dr Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism – Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 144. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b "ZORAWAR SINGH PAUT". The Sikh Encyclopedia. 19 December 2000. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
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  5. ^ "Bole So Nihal | Asian Ethnic Religion | Religious Comparison". Retrieved 7 December 2017 – via Scribd.
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  9. ^ a b c Owen Cole, William; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practice. Sussex Academic Press. p. 36.
  10. ^ Grewal 1998, p. 70: "Though historians generally refer to the young Gobind as Gobind Rai, in the hukamnamas of Guru Tegh Bahadur he is referred to as Gobind Das."
  11. ^ Grewal, J. S. (25 July 2019). Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708): Master of the White Hawk. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-19-099038-1.
  12. ^ [10][11]
  13. ^ Cole, W. Owen (26 August 2004). Understanding Sikhism. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-906716-91-2. Guru Gobind Singh's name was Gobind Das or sometimes said to be Gobind Rai, but from the founding of the Khalsa he is known to be Guru Gobind Singh.
  14. ^ McLeod, W. H. (1997). Sikhism. Penguin Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-14-025260-6. Gobind Das was the original name of the Tenth Guru, at least so it seems. Muslim sources generally refer to him as Gobind Rai, but documents issued by his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, give his name as Gobind Das.
  15. ^ Jenkins 2000, p. 200.
  16. ^ Grewal 1998, p. 72.
  17. ^ Olson 2007, p. 23.
  18. ^ Truschke 2017, p. 54-55.
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  93. ^ Murphy, Anne (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 110–113. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.
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  97. ^ Morgan, Peggy (16 February 2007). Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. Edinburgh University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7486-3002-8. Ever since the time of Guru Gobind Singh (d. CE 1708), codes of conduct (rahitnamas), for example Rahitnama Bhai Chaupa and Prem Sumarg, have been in circulation. These laid down the behaviour required of Sikhs. The eighteenth and nineteenth-century rahitnamas reflected their period, and one clear purpose was the social segregation of Sikhs and Muslims.
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  109. ^ Murphy, Anne (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.
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  115. ^ Dahiya, Amardeep (2014). Founder of the Khalsa: The Life and Times of Guru Gobind Singh. Hay House, Inc. p. 186. ISBN 9789381398616.
  116. ^ Kulwant Singh summarizing a chapter of Gur Sobha in his English translation of Gur Sobha said, "Zorawar Singh had escaped from the battle of Chamkaur and had met the Guru in Rajputana. It was this Zorawar Singh who was killed at Chittor in a minor scuffle."
  117. ^ Singh, Khushwant (1977). A History of the Sikhs, Volume 1: 1469-1839. Oxford India Collection. p. 81. ISBN 9780195606003.
  118. ^ a b Dhavan, P (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.
  119. ^ Grewal 1998, p. 79.
  120. ^ Metcalf, Barbara D.; Metcalf, Thomas R. (24 September 2012). A Concise History of Modern India. Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-139-53705-6.
  121. ^ a b c d Hardip Singh Syan (2013). Sikh Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1-78076-250-0.
  122. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (15 September 2007). The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  123. ^ However Hardip Singh Syan gives the date as 18 October 1708.[121]
  124. ^ Singh, Kesar. Bansavalinama (in Punjabi). Singh Brothers. pp. 189–190.
  125. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. OUP Oxford. p. 478. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.

Sources

Further reading

Preceded byGuru Tegh Bahadur Sikh Guru 11 November 1675 – 7 October 1708 Succeeded byGuru Granth Sahib