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Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".[1]
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".[1]
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Serdar Janko Vukotić of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro.

Sardar (Persian: سردار, Persian pronunciation: [særˈdɑr], 'commander', literally 'headmaster'), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of royal and nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, kings and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the title Emir of Arabic origin.

The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār (سردار) and have been historically used across Persia (Iran), the Ottoman Empire and Turkey (as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia (now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt (as "Sirdar").[2]

The term sardar was also used by Sikh leaders and generals who held important positions in various Sikh Misls, and later the Sikh Empire. The term is still widely used by Sikhs. In India and its neighbouring countries, respected Sikh males are called sardars. Sardar was also used to refer to generals of the Maratha Empire. After the decline of feudalism, sardar later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an army military rank. As a military rank, a sardar typically marked the Commander-in-Chief or the highest-ranking military officer in an army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy.

In Himalayan mountaineering, a sirdar is a local leader of the Sherpas.[3] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by each Sherpa, which factors into their compensation.

Princes

Noblemen

Aristocrats

Head of state

Military title

A Maratha Durbar showing the Chief (Raja) and the nobles (Sardars, Jagirdars, Istamuradars & Mankaris) of the state.
A Maratha Durbar showing the Chief (Raja) and the nobles (Sardars, Jagirdars, Istamuradars & Mankaris) of the state.
A Sikh sardar
A Sikh sardar
Bhakti Thapa, a Gorkhali Sardar

Modern usage

See also

References

  1. ^ "Jackie Kennedy receives horse from governor of Pakistan - Mar 23, 1962 - HISTORY.com". history.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17.
  2. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sirdar" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 154.
  3. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208 223.
  4. ^ "Royal Kapurthala Dynasty History".
  5. ^ Cummings, Sally N. (2010). Symbolism and Power in Central Asia: Politics of the Spectacular. Milton, United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0415575676.
  6. ^ Hassan, Syed Siraj ul (1989). The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions. New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services. pp. 332: The Koli country was then known as Bávan Mávals, or fifty - two valleys, each under a naik . These naiks held a good position, both in the Bahamani and in the Ahmednagar kingdoms, ranking among the nobles called ' Sardars ' and Mansabsar. ISBN 978-81-206-0488-9.((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  7. ^ Behera, Maguni Charan (2019-11-09). Tribal Studies in India: Perspectives of History, Archaeology and Culture. New Delhi, India: Springer Nature. pp. Bahamani Sultans conferred the title of Sardar to the Koli chiefs who held the charge of hilly tracts. ISBN 978-981-329-026-6.((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  8. ^ Heredia, Rudolf C.; Ratnagar, Shereen (2003). Mobile, and Marginalized Peoples: Perspectives from the Past. New Delhi, India: Manohar Publications. pp. 160: Raja Vikramajit, Shahjahan's governor of Gujarat, had to conduct an expedition in 1622 against some Kolis north of Ahmedabad who had ... The Bahmanis conferred the rank of Sardar on Koli chiefs who held charge of hill tracts. ISBN 978-81-7304-497-7.((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  9. ^ Robinson, Frederick Bruce (1978). Adaptation to Colonial Rule by the "wild Tribes" of the Bombay Deccan, 1818-1880: From Political Competition to Social Banditry. New Delhi, India: University of Minnesota. pp. 158 - 360: The men to be appointed over these jurisdictions were to be selected from among the existing Koli Sardars ( men of influence ), whom this official characterized both as having " acquired rank and substance.((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  10. ^ www.thesardarco.com. "What is a Sardar?". The Sardar Co. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  11. ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.