Principality of Serbia
|Anthem: "Востани Сербије" / "Vostani Serbije"|
(English: "Arise, Serbia")
Gornja Crnuća (1815–18)
|Religion||Serbian Orthodoxy (official)|
|Government||Absolute monarchy (1815–1838)|
Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy (1838–1882)
• 1817–1839 (first)
|Miloš Obrenović I|
• 1868–1882 (last)
|Milan Obrenović IV|
• 1815–1816 (first)
• 1880–1882 (last)
|Legislature||None (rule by decree)|
• Recognition by the Sublime Porte
|15 February 1835|
• de facto independence
• de jure internationally recognized
|13 July 1878|
|1815||24,440 km2 (9,440 sq mi)|
|1834||37,511 km2 (14,483 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||RS|
|Today part of||Serbia|
The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Књажество Србија, romanized: Knjažestvo Srbija) was an autonomous state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising, and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Sublime Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830—the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the evacuation of the remaining Ottoman troops from the Belgrade Fortress and the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.
Main article: History of modern Serbia
The Serbian revolutionary leaders—first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović—succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state by the 1830 Hatt-i Sharif, and Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince (knjaz) of the Serbian Principality. Serbia was de jure an autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire, its autonomy was constrained by the presence of the Turkish army on its soil and by being forced to pay to Istanbul a yearly tribute of 2.3 million groschen, which represented about 10% of the country's budget.
At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1866 Serbia began the campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in the period 1866–68. On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which since 1826 had been the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade fortress. The only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event. A new constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the southeast in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.
The principality was divided into seventeen districts known as Okrug which were then divided into a number of cantons, known as Sres, according to the size of the district. The Principality had a total of sixty-six Sres.
Main article: Armed Forces of the Principality of Serbia
The Armed Forces of the Principality of Serbia was the armed forces of the Principality of Serbia. Founded in 1830, it became a standing army to take part to the First and Second Serbo Turkish Wars of 1876-1878, the first conflict in the nation modern history, after which the country gained its full independence. It was succeeded by the Royal Serbian Army.
See also: Demographic history of Serbia
In the first decades of the principality, the population was about 85% Serb and 15% non-Serb. Of those, most were Vlachs, and there were some Muslim Albanians, which were the overwhelming majority of the Muslims that lived in Smederevo, Kladovo and Ćuprija. The new state aimed to homogenize of its population. As a result, from 1830 to the wars of the 1870s in which Albanians were expelled from the environs of Niš, it has been estimated that up to 150,000 Albanians that lived in the territories of the Principality of Serbia had been expelled.
|Name||1866 Census||% population|
The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović each reigned twice.
|Miloš Obrenović I||March 17, 1780||September 26, 1860||November 6, 1817||June 25, 1839|
|Milan Obrenović II||October 21, 1819||July 8, 1839||June 25, 1839||July 8, 1839||son of Miloš Obrenović I|
|Mihailo Obrenović III||September 16, 1823||June 10, 1868||July 8, 1839||September 14, 1842||son of Miloš Obrenović I|
|Aleksandar Karađorđević||October 11. 1806||May 3. 1885||September 14, 1842||December 23, 1858|
|Miloš Obrenović I||March 17, 1780||September 1860||December 23, 1858||September 26, 1860|
|Mihailo Obrenović III||September 16, 1823||June 10, 1868||September 26, 1860||June 10, 1868|
|Milan Obrenović IV||August 22, 1854||February 11, 1901||June 10, 1868||March 6, 1882|