Adherents of Sikhism follow a number of prohibitions. As with any followers of any faith or group, adherence varies by each individual.

Prohibitions

These prohibitions are strictly followed by initiated Khalsa Sikhs who have undergone baptism. While the Sikh gurus did not enforce religion and did not believe in forcing people to follow any particular religion in general, the Sikh community does encourage all people to become better individuals by following the Guru's Way (Gur-mat), as opposed to living life without the Guru's code of disciple (Man-mat):

4 major transgressions:[1]

Other mentioned practices to be avoided, as per the Sikh Rehat Maryada:

Violation of prohibitions

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Not all Sikh-identified people subscribe to these prohibitions. The Sahajdhari Sikhs reject most of the prohibitions, including trimming of hair (kesh). Some young Sikhs are now cutting their hair to the dismay of spiritual leaders.[36] According to the Sikh clergy[who?], "the fad among youth to shed the pagri" is being observed more commonly among the Sikh youth in Punjab than Sikhs in other Indian states.[37]

Nihang Sikhs of Punjab, who are defenders of historic Sikh shrines, are an exception and consume an intoxicant called bhang (cannabis sativa), opium and other narcotics to help in meditation,[38][39][40] saying that it is 'old tradition' (Punjabi: puratan maryada). Bhang is common in India. [41] In 2001, Baba Santa Singh, the Jathedar of Budha Dal, along with 20 Nihang chiefs, refused to accept the ban on the consumption of bhang by the highest Sikh clergy.[42] Baba Santa Singh was excommunicated and replaced with Baba Balbir Singh, who agreed to shun the consumption of bhang.[43]

The Udasis, who consider themselves as a denomination of Sikhism, lay emphasis on being ascetic, thus violating the "Non-family-oriented living" principle. Sri Chand, the ascetic son of Guru Nanak, was the founder of the Udasi.

Article XXV of the Sikh Code of Conduct (Sikh Rehat Maryada) clearly states that any Amritdhari Khalsa Sikh who has defaulted in the Sikh discipline should approach any nearby Sikh congregation and confess the transgression in public in front of the local congregation. The congregation should then, in the holy presence of Guru Granth Sahib, elect from among themselves five beloved ones who should deliberate over the individual's fault and propose an appropriate chastisement (punishment) for it. The congregation should not take stubborn stance and should be forgiving in essence and attempt to grant the individual pardon. The defaulter should not argue about the chastisement or punishment and accept it all whole heartedly as the will of the collective Sikh body, the Guru Khalsa Panth. The punishment imposed should be some kind of service, especially some service that can be performed with hands. Finally an Ardas for correction should be performed.[44]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, i.; Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, p. 1.-4.
  2. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, i.; Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, p. 1. & q. 3.
  3. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, p. 2.
  4. ^ "The Multifarious Faces of Sikhism throughout Sikh History". sarbloh.info. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2010-08-18. A Nihang carries out 'Chatka' on a 'Chatanga' (a specially selected goat for sacrifice)
  5. ^ "The most special occasion of the Chhauni is the festival of Diwali which is celebrated for ten days. This is the only Sikh shrine at Amritsar where Maha Prasad (meat) is served on special occasions in Langar", The Sikh review, Volume 35, Issue 409 – Volume 36, Issue 420, Sikh Cultural Centre., 1988
  6. ^ "The tradition traces back to the time of Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji who started the tradition of hunting for Sikhs ... The tradition of ritually sacrificing goats and consuming Mahaparshad remains alive not only with the Nihang Singh Dals, but also at Sachkhand Sri Hazoor Sahib and Sachkhand Sri Patna Sahib (two of the Sikhs holiest shrines)." Panth Akali Budha Dal Archived 2010-05-23 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Another noteworthy practice performed here is that a goat is sacrificed on Dussehra night every year. This ceremony was performed on Diwali day this year (Oct 28, 2008). The fresh blood of the sacrificed goat is used for tilak on the Guru’s weapons.", SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE SIKH COMMUNITY, Dr Madanjit Kaur, Institute of Sikh Studies Institute of Sikh Studies, Madan Kaur Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Sikhism, A Complete Introduction" by Dr. H.S. Singha & Satwant Kaur Hemkunt, Hemkunt Press, New Delhi, 1994, ISBN 81-7010-245-6
  9. ^ "Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs" by Opinderjit Kaur Takhar, pg. 51, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, 2005, ISBN 0-7546-5202-5
  10. ^ Singh, Dharam (2001). Perspectives on Sikhism: Papers Presented at the International Seminar on Sikhism: a Religion for the Third Millennium Held at Punjabi University, Patiala on 27-29 March 2000. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. p. 89. ISBN 9788173807367.
  11. ^ McLeod, W. H. (2009-07-24). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6. The sexual intercourse item, however is evidently a modern development from the 18th century prohibition of intercourse with Muslim women.
  12. ^ Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014-06-11). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1. Sources from the 18th century indicate that sexual contact with Muslim women was polluting, and Guru Gobind Singh is said to have commanded that during warfare they should not be seized for this purpose.
  13. ^ Grewal, J. S. (2019-07-25). Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708): Master of the White Hawk. Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-19-099038-1.
  14. ^ Beckerlegge, Gwilym (2001). World Religions Reader. Routledge. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-415-24748-1.
  15. ^ Jakobsh, Doris R. 2003. Relocating Gender In Sikh History: Transformation, Meaning and Identity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 39–40
  16. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, p. 3.
  17. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, j.
  18. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, p. 4. & q. 1., q. 5.
  19. ^ Macauliffe 1909, p. xxi.
  20. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  21. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Hawley, Michael (7 December 2012). Re-imagining South Asian Religions: Essays in Honour of Professors Harold G. Coward and Ronald W. Neufeldt. Brill Academic. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-90-04-24236-4.
  22. ^ Richard Beck, David Worden (2002). Gcse Religious Studies for Aqa. p. 64. ISBN 0-435-30692-8.
  23. ^ Hola Mohalla: United colours of celebrations,
  24. ^ "Mad About Words". Telegraphindia.com. 2004-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  25. ^ "UCSM.ac.uk". Philtar.ucsm.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-10-16. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  26. ^ Nihangs ‘not to accept’ ban on shaheedi degh. The Tribune. March 26, 2001.
  27. ^ Hegarty, Stephanie (2011-10-29). "BBC News - The only living master of a dying martial art". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-04.
  28. ^ No ‘bhang’ at Hola Mohalla. The Tribune. March 10, 2001.
  29. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, k.
  30. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, l.
  31. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, o.
  32. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, s.
  33. ^ Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four, Chapter X, Article XVI, i.; Section Six, Chapter XIII, Article XXIV, d.
  34. ^ a b "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". sikhs.org.
  35. ^ "Sri Granth: Sri Guru Granth Sahib". srigranth.org.
  36. ^ Young Sikh Men Get Haircuts, Annoying Their Elders. New York Times. March 29, 2007.
  37. ^ "'Pagri not very attractive, out of tune with times'". The Times of India.
  38. ^ Richard Beck, David Worden (2002). Gcse Religious Studies for Aqa. p. 64. ISBN 0-435-30692-8.
  39. ^ "Hola Mohalla: United colours of celebrations". The Times of India.
  40. ^ "The Telegraph – Calcutta : Opinion". telegraphindia.com.
  41. ^ Richard Beck, David Worden (2002). Gcse Religious Studies for Aqa. p. 63. ISBN 0-435-30692-8.
  42. ^ Nihangs ‘not to accept’ ban on bhang. The Tribune. March 26, 2001.
  43. ^ No ‘bhang’ at Hola Mohalla. The Tribune. March 10, 2001.
  44. ^ "Sikh Reht Maryada, the Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India".