Battle of Chappar Chiri
Part of Mughal-Sikh Wars
Photo depicting battle of Chapparchiri.jpg
Date12 May 1710 [1]
Location
A village named Chappar Chiri near Sahibzada Ajit Nagar (Mohali)
Result

Sikh victory[2]

  • Establishment of Sikh rule from Lahore to the sanctum sanctorum of Delhi.[3]
Belligerents
Punjab flag.svg
Khalsa
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg
Mughal Empire
Commanders and leaders

Banda Singh Bahadur

Wazir Khan (Sirhind) 

  • Sher Muhammad Khan 
  • Sucha Nand
Casualties and losses
unknown

The battle of Chappar Chiri, also called Battle of Sirhind,[6] was fought between Mughal Empire and the Sikhs on 12 May 1710 at Chappar Chiri, located 20 kilometers from Sirhind[3][7]

Background

The Sikhs were planning to crusade against the city of Sirhind, its governor Wazir Khan and dewan Sucha Nand, to avenge Mughal oppression and the execution of the two young children of Guru Gobind Singh.[8][9] Some prominent towns on the way to Sirhind were captured and plundered including Sonepat, Kaithal, Samana, Shahabad, Mustafabad and Sadhaura by Banda's troops as they could provide military assistance to the Mughal government of Sirhind.[10][11] The number of plunderers also amassed, who were looking forward to prey upon the riches within the walls of Sirhind and followed Banda Singh and his troops on the march to Sirhind.[12] Both the troops of Banda Singh and Wazir Khan faced each other at a village called Chappar Chiri.[13]

Pre-Battle maneuvers

Before the battle began, Wazir Khan and Sucha Nand sent Sucha Nand's nephew with 1000 men to Banda Singh in a plot to deceive the Sikhs, by falsely claiming to have deserted the Mughals and have come joined the Sikhs for their cause.[13][12] Wazir Khan had a large well armed army, which included the Ghazis, along with a number of artillery, muskets and elephants.[13] On the other hand, Banda Singh's army was ill-equipped with long spears, arrows, swords, without artillery and elephants and insufficient amount of horses.[14][13] According to Ganda Singh, Banda's army consisted of three classes of men where the first class were the devoted Sikhs imbued to crusade against the enemies of their country and religion, the second being the paid recruited soldiers sent by the chieftains of the Phul family, who sympathized with Banda Singh's cause, and the third were the irregulars who were professional robbers and dacoits, eager to seize opportunity to plunder the city, who were also the most unreliable allies as they would desert when fearing a sign of defeat.[13][15] Hari Ram Gupta writes that Banda's army consisted of three groups, the first being Sikhs fighting purely to punish Wazir Khan, the second being Sikhs intent on plundering and punishing enemies of their faith, and the third being Hindu Jats, Gujars and Rajputs intent on plunder alone.[16]

The Battle

Upon the firing of artillery by Mughal army, the third class of Banda's army, consisting of robbers and irregulars fled, and soon after Sucha Nand's nephew along with his 1000 men took to flight as well.[13] To encourage his army, Banda Singh himself rushed into the battle, severely attacking the imperial army, leading to many Mughal soldiers being killed, including Sher Muhammad Khan and Khwaja Ali of Malerkotla.[13][17] Wazir Khan was also killed which led to the defeat and retreat of his army to Sirhind, where many were killed during Banda's pursuit of them.[13][17][7]

Aftermath

After the defeat of the Mughal army at the battle of Chappar Chiri, the siege of Sirhind took place where the Sikhs besieged, stormed, plundered and razed the city of Sirhind.[2][18][19]

Popular culture

References

  1. ^ Fenech, E. Louis; Mcleod, H. W. (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  2. ^ a b Jacques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Press. p. 948. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
  3. ^ a b Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 32.
  4. ^ Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 31.
  5. ^ Irvine, William (1904). Later Mughals. Atlantic Publishers & Distri.
  6. ^ Singh, Raj Pal (2004). The Sikhs : Their Journey Of Five Hundred Years. Pentagon Press. pp. 46–48. ISBN 9788186505465.
  7. ^ a b Gupta, Hari Ram (1999) [1937]. History of the Sikhs: Evolution of Sikh Confederacies (1708-69) (PDF). Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. pp. 12, 13. ISBN 9788121502481.
  8. ^ Singh, Khushwant (2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469-1838. Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN 9780195673081.
  9. ^ Gupta, Hari Ram (1944). Studies in Later Mughal History of the Panjab. The Minerva Book Shop. p. 47.
  10. ^ Sagoo, Harbans Kaur (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovreignty. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 124, 128. ISBN 9788176293006.
  11. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (1999). Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 28.
  12. ^ a b Sagoo 2001, p. 129.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Singh, Ganda (1990) [1935]. Life of Banda Singh Bahadur. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. pp. 55–66.
  14. ^ Sagoo 2001, p. 126.
  15. ^ Sagoo 2001, p. 139.
  16. ^ Gupta, Hari Ram (1978) [1937]. History of the Sikhs: Evolution of Sikh Confederacies (1707-1769) (3rd ed.). Munshiram Motilal Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-8121502481.
  17. ^ a b Sagoo 2001, p. 131.
  18. ^ Dhavan, Purnima (3 November 2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.
  19. ^ McLeod, W.H. (1997). Sikhism. Penguin Books. p. 64. ISBN 9780140252606.
  20. ^ "Featured Movie News | Featured Bollywood News". Bollywood Hungama. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  21. ^ "Poster launch:Chaar Sahibzaade 2 – Rise of Banda Bahadur". Thehansindia.com. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  22. ^ "Chaar Sahibzade - Rise of Banda Singh Bahadur". PunjabiPollywood.com. 2 January 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  23. ^ "Badal inaugurates tallest victory tower". MSN. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  24. ^ Bajwa, Harpreet (1 December 2011). "Fateh Burj, India's tallest victory tower, thrown open". Indian Express. Retrieved 18 November 2012.

See also