Battle of Chappar Chiri
Part of Mughal-Sikh Wars

Illustrated folio of ‘Tawarikh-i Jahandar Shah’, Awadh or Lucknow, ca.1770, showing the climax of the Battle of Sirhind fought in 1710
Date12 May 1710 [1]
A village named Chappar Chiri near Sahibzada Ajit Nagar (Mohali)
Result Sikh victory[2]

First Sikh State

Mughal Empire
Commanders and leaders

Banda Singh Bahadur

Wazir Khan (Sirhind) 

  • Sher Muhammad Khan 
  • Khwaja Ali Khan 
  • Sucha Nand
Units involved
70,000[3][a] 5-6,000 cavalry
7-8,000 musketeers and archers
100 elephants
24 cannons
5,000-8,000 Ghazis
Total 20,000-25,000[5][6]
Casualties and losses
Unknown 12,000 cavalry killed[citation needed]

The Battle of Chappar Chiri, also called Battle of Sirhind,[7] was fought between Mughal Empire and the Sikhs on 12 May 1710 at Chappar Chiri, located 20 kilometers from Sirhind.[citation needed]


The Sikhs were planning to wage dharamyudh against the city of Sirhind, its governor Wazir Khan and dewan Sucha Nand, to avenge Mughal oppression and the execution of the two young children of Guru Gobind Singh.[8] Some prominent towns on the way to Sirhind were captured and plundered including Sonepat, Kaithal, Samana, Shahabad, Mustafabad and Sadhaura by Baba Banda Singh Bahadur's troops as they could provide military assistance to the Mughal government of Sirhind.[9][10] The number of plunderers also amassed, who were looking forward to prey upon the riches within the walls of Sirhind and followed Baba Banda Singh and his troops on the march to Sirhind.[11] Both the troops of Baba Banda Singh and Wazir Khan faced each other at a village called Chappar Chiri.[citation needed]

Pre-Battle maneuvers

Sikh cavalry charge during the battle, ca.1770 illustrated manuscript

Before the battle began, Wazir Khan and Sucha Nand sent Sucha Nand's nephew with 1000 men to Baba Banda Singh Bahadur in a plot to deceive the Sikhs, by falsely claiming to have deserted the Mughals and to join the Sikhs for their cause.[11] Wazir Khan had a large well-armed army, which included the Ghazis, along with a number of artillery, musketeers, and war elephants.[citation needed] Khan's army was larger than 20,000.[citation needed] On the other hand, Banda Singh's army was ill-equipped with long spears, arrows, swords, without artillery and elephants and insufficient amount of horses.[12] According to Ganda Singh, Banda's army consisted of three classes of men where the first class were the devoted Sikhs imbued to wage just war against the enemies of their country and religion, the second being the paid recruited soldiers sent by the chieftains of the Phul family, who sympathized with Banda Singh's cause. The third were the irregulars who were professional robbers and bandits, eager to seize the opportunity to plunder the city. They were also the most unreliable allies as they would desert when fearing a sign of defeat.[13] Hari Ram Gupta writes that Banda's army consisted of three groups, the first being Sikhs fighting purely to punish Wazir Khan, the second being Sikhs intent on plundering and punishing enemies of their faith. The third being Hindu Jats, Gujars and Rajputs intent on plunder alone.[citation needed]

The Battle

20th century painting of the battle

Upon the firing of artillery by the Mughal army, the third class of Banda's army, consisting of bandits and irregulars fled, and soon after Sucha Nand's nephew along with his 1000 men took to flight as well.[citation needed] Banda Singh Bahadur was waiting for the right time with 1/3 of his army. When the information came that the bandits had fled. To encourage his army, Banda Singh himself rushed into the battle, severely attacking the imperial army, leading to many Mughal soldiers being killed, including Sher Muhammad Khan and Khwaja Ali of Malerkotla.[14] Wazir Khan was also killed which led to the defeat and retreat of his army to Sirhind, where many were killed during Banda's pursuit of them.[14]


After the defeat of the Mughal army at the battle of Chappar Chiri, the Siege of Sirhind took place where the Sikhs besieged, stormed, plundered and razed the city of Sirhind.[2][15][16]

Popular culture

See also


  1. ^ Ganda Singh claims that the 70,000 figure to be an exaggeration.[4]


  1. ^ Fenech, E. Louis; Mcleod, H. W. (11 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  2. ^ a b Jacques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Press. p. 948. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
  3. ^ Singh, Surinder (2022). Medieval Panjab in Transition Authority, Resistance and Spirituality C.1500 – C.1700. Routledge. p. 471. ISBN 9781000609448. After destroying a number of neighbouring towns and villages, he rushed to Sirhind. By this time, his position had become formidable, as 70,000 people gathered under him.
  4. ^ Singh 1990, p. 62.
  5. ^ Sikh Digital Library (17 April 1935). Life Of Banda Singh Bahadur Based On Contemporary And Original Records - Dr. Ganda Singh. Sikh Digital Library. Sikh Digital Library. pp. 59–60.
  6. ^ VSM, D. S. Saggu (7 June 2018). Battle Tactics And War Manoeuvres of the Sikhs. Notion Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-1-64249-006-0.
  7. ^ Singh, Raj Pal (2004). The Sikhs : Their Journey Of Five Hundred Years. Pentagon Press. pp. 46–48. ISBN 9788186505465.
  8. ^ Singh, Khushwant (2004). A History of the Sikhs: 1469–1838. Oxford University Press. p. 105. ISBN 9780195673081.
  9. ^ Sagoo, Harbans Kaur (2001). Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh Sovreignty. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 124, 128. ISBN 9788176293006.
  10. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (1999). Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 28.
  11. ^ a b Sagoo 2001, p. 129.
  12. ^ Sagoo 2001, p. 126.
  13. ^ Sagoo 2001, p. 139.
  14. ^ a b Sagoo 2001, p. 131.
  15. ^ Dhavan, Purnima (3 November 2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.
  16. ^ McLeod, W.H. (1997). Sikhism. Penguin Books. p. 64. ISBN 9780140252606.
  17. ^ "Featured Movie News | Featured Bollywood News". Bollywood Hungama. 10 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  18. ^ "Poster launch:Chaar Sahibzaade 2 – Rise of Banda Bahadur". 2 June 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Badal inaugurates tallest victory tower". MSN. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  20. ^ Bajwa, Harpreet (1 December 2011). "Fateh Burj, India's tallest victory tower, thrown open". Indian Express. Retrieved 18 November 2012.


  • Singh, Ganda (1990) [1935]. Life of Banda Singh Bahadur. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University.