Battle of Delhi 1783
Part of Mughal-Sikh Wars

Baghel Singh, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, and Jassa Singh Ramgharia marching through Delhi next to the Red fort.
Date11 March 1783[1][2]
Location
Result

Sikh victory [2][3][4][5][6]

Belligerents
Dal Khalsa (Sikhs) Mughal Empire
Commanders and leaders
Baghel Singh
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Jassa Singh Ramgarhia
Shah Alam II Surrendered
Prince Mirza Shikoh
Strength
30,000[8] Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The Battle of Delhi was fought between Khalsa Sikhs and the Mughal Empire in 1783.[9]

Background and battle

The Sikhs under Baghel Singh, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia began raiding and plundering the outskirts of Delhi in 1764. In April 1782, Najaf Khan hitherto the highest commander of the Mughal army died, after which a power struggle ensued allowing the Sikhs to capture Delhi. The Sikhs reappeared in Delhi and plundered its environs and laid waste the country up to Khujra. Some of the Sikhs having ravaged the Gangetic Doab contemplated approaching Ruhilkhand, though they were deterred by the arrival of the Nawab of Oudh's forces as well as some English battalions to the area, forcing them to concentrate solely on the Doab. Some of the rajas reigning over areas dominated by the Sikhs agreed to pay tribute to them. The main body of the Sikhs having plundered Aligarh and Buland Shahar proceeded towards Delhi where they further set Malka Ganj and Sabzi Mandi on fire. They managed to capture the Red Fort on 11 March after defeating a defence by Prince Mirza Shikoh.[10] Thereafter, a settlement was agreed upon between the Sikhs and the Delhi court which entailed a cash present of three lakh rupees and Baghel Singh staying behind at the head of 4,000 Sikh troops to oversee the construction of gurdwaras in the city. The main body of Sikhs left Delhi on 12 March 1783 following the settlement.[10]

Dispute over throne

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was placed on the throne of Delhi as Badshah Singh of Delhi but Ramgarhia objected that no one can sit on the throne without the approval of Sarbat Khalsa.[9][2][11][12][13][14]

Aftermath

Slab of Mughal throne placed in Ramgarhia Bunga[15][16]

Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgarhia captured the Red Fort of Delhi in conjunction with Sardar Baghel Singh. He detached the throne of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (on which he ordered the death of 9th guru Guru Teg Bahadur) and brought it on elephants and kept it at Golden Temple, Amritsar. Even today it is present at the Golden Temple, in a structure known as Ramgarhia Bunga.[17][15][18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 560.
  2. ^ a b c Sethi, Jasbir Singh. Views and Reviews. Sanbun Publishers. ISBN 9788190825986.
  3. ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  4. ^ Singha 2000.
  5. ^ Bhagata, Siṅgha (1993). A History of the Sikh Misals. Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. pp. 271–282. Baghel Singh, Baghel Singh took the leadership of karorisingha misl.
  6. ^ Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. p. 560.
  7. ^ Randhir, G.S (1990). Sikh Shrines in India. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 9788123022604.
  8. ^ Hari Ram Gupta (1944). History Of The Sikhs 1769 1799 Vol Ii. p. 141.
  9. ^ a b Singha 2000, p. 26-27.
  10. ^ a b Sikhs In The Eighteenth Century. pp. 559, 560.
  11. ^ Hari Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs: Sikh Domination of the Mughal Empire, 1764–1803, second ed., Munshiram Manoharlal (2000) ISBN 978-8-12150-213-9
  12. ^ Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs: The Sikh Commonwealth or Rise and Fall of the Misls, rev. ed., Munshiram Manoharlal (2001) ISBN 978-8-12150-165-1
  13. ^ Randhir, G.S (1990). Sikh Shrines in India. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 9788123022604.
  14. ^ Baba Baghel Singh Museum's paintings and their brief history - Page 53
  15. ^ a b "Restoration of The Bunga Ramgharia". Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  16. ^ "Untitled Document".
  17. ^ Singh, Pashaura; Barrier, Norman Gerald (1999). Sikh Identity: Continuity and Change. Manohar. p. 264. ISBN 978-81-7304-236-2.
  18. ^ "Untitled Document".

Sources