Hinduism and Sikhism are Indian religions. Hinduism has pre-historic origins,[1] while Sikhism was founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak.[2][3] Both religions share many philosophical concepts such as karma, dharma, mukti, and maya[4][5] although both religions have different interpretation of some of these concepts.[6][7]

Historical links

The roots of the Sikh tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant-tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Sikh religion. Fenech states, "Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors".[8] Some historians do not see evidence of Sikhism as simply an extension of the Bhakti movement.[9][10]

During the Mughal Empire period, the Sikh and Hindu traditions believe that Sikhs helped protect Hindus from Islamic persecution, and this caused martyrdom of their Guru.[11] The Sikh historians, for example, record that the Sikh movement was rapidly growing in northwest India, and Guru Tegh Bahadur was openly encouraging Sikhs to, "be fearless in their pursuit of just society: he who holds none in fear, nor is afraid of anyone, is acknowledged as a man of true wisdom", a statement recorded in Adi Granth 1427.[12][13][14] While Guru Tegh Bahadur influence was rising, Aurangzeb had imposed Islamic laws, demolished Hindu schools and temples, and enforced new taxes on non-Muslims.[13][15][16]

Painting of Kashmiri Pandits petitioning Guru Tegh Bahadur for help against persecution of Hindus in Kashmir by the Mughal Empire, circa 19th century

According to records written by his son Guru Gobind Singh, the Guru had resisted persecution, adopted and promised to protect Kashmiri Hindus.[12][14] The Guru was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb on a pretext, but when he arrived with his companions, he was offered, "to abandon his faith, and convert to Islam",[12][14] but after refusing the demand of the Mughal emperor, Guru Tegh Bahadur and his companions were arrested and tortured for many weeks.[14][17][18] The Guru himself was beheaded in public.[13][19][20]


Sikh depiction of Nanak being greeted by various Indic deities

The Sikh scriptures use Hindu terminology, with references to the Vedas, and the names of gods and goddesses in Hindu bhakti movement traditions, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Rama, Krishna, but not to worship.[21][22][23][24] It also refers to the spiritual concepts in Hinduism (Ishvara, Bhagavan, Brahman) and the concept of God in Islam (Allah) to assert that these are just "alternate names for the Almighty One".[25]

While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges the Vedas, Puranas and Qur'an,[26] it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam,[27] but emphasises focusing on Nitnem banis like Japji, instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying by prostrating on the ground to God, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread.[28]

Concept of God

The oneness of God is at the core of Hinduism but it has some panentheistic and henotheistic tendencies.[29] Scholars state all deities are typically viewed in Hinduism as "emanations or manifestation of genderless principle called Brahman, representing the many facets of Ultimate Reality".[30]

The description of God in Sikhism is monotheistic and rejects the concept of divine incarnation as present in Hinduism.[29][31]

Views on cattle

Guru Amar Das condemned atrocities against Brahmins and cattle. According to W. Owen Cole and P. S. Sambhi, an aggregate of evidence tentatively suggests that the Guru refrained from censuring Hindu traditions in order to induct Hindu followers.[32] Under Sikh rule, cow slaughter was punishable by death; the prohibiton was maintained by even the British after the annexation of Punjab to placate Hindu-Sikh sentiments.[33] Sikhs and Hindus traditionally held the cow as sacred due to their role in providing sustenance and haulage.[34]

Idol worship

Main article: Idolatry in Sikhism

Maharaja Ranjit Singh pays homage to Durga

Hindus accept the worship facilitated with images or murtis (idols),[35] particularly in Agamic traditions, such as Vaishnavism and Shaivism.[36] Some scholars state it is incorrect to state that all Hindus worship idols and more correct to state that for some, the idol is a means to focus their thoughts, for some idols are a manifestation of spirituality that is everywhere, and for some, even a linga, a sunrise or a river or a flower serves the same purpose.[37][38]

Sikhism prohibits idol worship,[39][35] in accordance with mainstream Khalsa norms and the teachings of the Sikh Gurus,[40] a position that has been accepted as orthodox.[41][42][43] The prohibition on idol worship is traceable in Sikhism since the early 20th century, a change led by the Tat Khalsa of the Singh Sabha Movement of late 19th-century.[42]

Heaven and Hell

According to Hinduism, the soul is immortal.[44] The souls are reborn into another being as per their karma.[45]

Sikhs believe that heaven and hell are also both in this world where everyone reaps the fruit of karma.[44] They refer to good and evil stages of life respectively and can be lived now and here during our life on Earth.[46]


Photograph of Sikh pilgrims at the Golden Temple in Amritsar, circa January 1906

Hinduism considers pilgrimage as helpful for one's spiritual development.[47] According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "most Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods. Almost any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers, lakes, and mountains."[48]

Sikhism does not overtly promote pilgrimage as a religious practice.[47][49]

According to a study pubslihed by Madanjit Kaur, there exists documentary proof in the form of vahis (ledgers maintained by genealogists and priests at various places of pilgrimage) that Guru Tegh Bahadur, Guru Gobind Singh and his widows visited various Hindu tirthas, appointed their family purohits to those sites, and directed their followers to honor the appointed purohits.[50]


Hindus offer Śrāddha every year in memory of their ancestors. On the corresponding day, the descendants invite the Brahmin and feed them in memory of their parents and grandparents, in the belief that this will give some benefit to the soul of their dead ancestors.[51]

According to Sikhism, such food can provide benefit to the Brahmins, but the benefit can't reach the ancestors. All that can provide benefit to the deceased is his own good actions and service to humanity. As per Sikh belief, it is much better to respect one's parents while alive than offering food to Brahmins after their death.[51]

Auspicious days

According to certain shastras of Hinduism, some moments, days and lunar dates are regarded as auspicious. On all these days special rituals are observed.[52] It is a common practice in Hinduism to perform or avoid activities like important religious ceremonies on the basis of the quality of a particular muhurta. One or more Muhūrtas are recommended by the Vedic scriptures when performing rituals and other ceremonies.[53][54]

The Sikh Scripture, Guru Granth Sahib denounces belief in auspicious days.[52] Sikh Gurus rejected the idea that certain days are auspicious while some others are not.[55]


Fasting is an important part of Hinduism and fasts are observed on many occasions.[56] Fasts are an important aspect of Hindu ritual life, and there are many different types. In some cases, fasting simply means abstaining from certain types of foods, such as grains. Devotees fast for a variety of reasons. Some fast to honor a particular deity, and others fast to obtain a specific end.[57]

Sikhism does not regard fasting as a spiritual act. Fasting as an austerity or as a mortification of the body by means of willful hunger is discouraged in Sikhism. Sikhism encourages temperance and moderation in food i.e. neither starve nor over-eat.[56]

Caste system

There are four varnas within Hindu society.[58] Within these varnas, there are also many jati. The first is the Brahmin (teacher or priest), the second is the Kshatriya (ruler or warrior), the third is the Vaishya (merchant or farmer) and the fourth is the Shudra (servant or labourer). People who are excluded from the four-fold varna system are considered untouchables and are called Dalit.[59]

Guru Nanak preached against the caste system.[59] Guru Gobind Singh introduced Singh for Sikh males to abolish caste-based prejudice.[60] Although Sikh Gurus criticised the hierarchy of the caste system, one does exist in Sikh community. Some Sikh families continue to check the caste of any prospective marriage partner for their children.[59] In addition, Sikhs of some castes tend to establish gurdwaras intended for their caste only. Members of the Ramgarhia caste, for example, identify their gurdwaras in this way (particularly those established in the United Kingdom), as do members of the Dalit caste.[61]


Hinduism has exalted asceticism because of the belief that ascetics live the pure life of spiritual attainment.[62] Sannyasa as a form of asceticism, is marked by renunciation of material desires and prejudices, represented by a state of disinterest and detachment from material life, and has the purpose of spending one's life in peaceful, love-inspired, simple spiritual life.[63][64]

While Sikhism treats lust as a sin, it at the same time points out that man must share the moral responsibility by leading the life of a householder. According to Sikhism, being God-centred while being a householder is better than being an ascetic. According to Sikhism, ascetics are not on the right path.[62]


Hindu traditions present varying opinions regarding menstruation. Tantric sects consider menstrual blood to be sacred and even incorporated it into certain rituals and practices. Several texts, including Agama literature as well as the Yogashikha Upanishad, believe that menstruation is a physical reflection of the divine feminine, the shakti (creative/cosmic energy) that allows the creation of life.[65]

On the contrary, many strict Menstruation laws are expressed in the Manusmriti. Any touch of the menstruating woman was deemed polluted, and if she touches any food item, that was also considered forbidden. To lie down in the same bed as a menstruating woman was also not allowed.[66][67] However, Manusmriti is only one among several other, approximated to be around 100,[a] Dharmaśāstra. These Hindu theological texts have differing views on the subject of Menstruation with some recognizing menstruation as a natural process.[68] The Vedas, the primary and most sacred Hindu texts do not put any such restrictions around menstruation. Menstruation is a natural process and is seen as sacred as it gives life. Menstruating women in the Vedic period were relieved from their regular duties to rest and be served by their family members. They would use their free time to pray, meditate and pursue any pastimes of their choice.[69]

Sikh scriptures acknowledge menstrual bleeding as an essential and natural process. Sikh Gurus criticized those who stigmatize a blood-stained garment as polluted. Guru Nanak questioned the legitimacy and purpose of devaluing women on the basis of their reproductive energy.[66]

Animal sacrifice

The rituals of animal sacrifices are mentioned in some of the Hindu scriptures[70] such as Vedas.[71] Hindu texts dated to 1st millennium BC, initially mention meat as food, then evolve to suggestions that only meat obtained through ritual sacrifice can be eaten, thereafter evolving to the stance that one should eat no meat because it hurts animals, with verses describing the noble life as one that lives on flowers, roots and fruits alone.[72][73] The late Vedic era literature (pre-500 BCE) condemns all killings of men, cattle, birds and horses, and prays to god Agni to punish those who kill.[74]

Sikhism rejects the concept of sacrificing animals to appease God.[70] Guru Gobind Singh prohibited consumption of any meat obtained through religious sacrifice of animals (Kutha meat).[75] Some Nihangs and Hazoori Sikhs still do animal sacrifice.[76][77]

Beliefs regarding eclipse

Guru Nanak and the eclipse, a Janamsakhi painting

According to Hinduism, Rahu is responsible for causing an eclipse. During an eclipse, cooked food should not be consumed.[78][79] Hindus wash off in the Ganges river (which is believed to be spiritually cleansing) directly following an eclipse to clean themselves.[80]

Guru Nanak, when he went to Kurukshetra, asserted that Solar Eclipse is just a natural phenomenon and that bathing in the holy tank, giving alms, and so on to mitigate the effects of solar eclipse is nothing but blind faith.[78]


Yajna refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.[81][70] Yajna has been a Vedic tradition, described in a layer of Vedic literature called Brahmanas, as well as Yajurveda.[82]

There is no concept of havana and yajna in the Sikh religion.[70][83]


Painting of Indic deities, Sikh gurus, and Bhagats all praying to Akal

In the Hindu and Sikh traditions, there is a distinction between religion and culture, and ethical decisions are grounded in both religious beliefs and cultural values. Both Hindu and Sikh ethics are primarily duty based. Traditional teachings deal with the duties of individuals and families to maintain a lifestyle conducive to physical, mental and spiritual health. These traditions share a culture and world view that includes ideas of karma and rebirth, collective versus individual identity, and a strong emphasis on spiritual purity.[88]

The notion of dharma, karma, moksha are very important for both Hindus and Sikhs. Unlike the linear view of life, death, heaven or hell taken in Abrahamic religions, for Hindus and Sikhs believe in the concept of Saṃsāra, that is life, birth and death are repeated, for each soul, in a cycle until one reaches mukti or moksha.[89][90]

Culture and intermarriage

Image of the personified sword, Kalika, found on the reputed Tegha (sword) of Guru Hargobind

While organically related to Hinduism, with the religious philosophy of the Gurus showing both continuity with and reaction against earlier Hindu thought, the Sikh faith is a religion in its own right, with a strong sense of its own identity throughout its existence.[91][92] Some groups view Sikhism as a tradition within Hinduism along with other Dharmic faiths,[93] even though the Sikh faith is a distinct religion.[94] Historically, Sikhs were seen as the protectors of Hindus, among others, and were even considered by some right-wing Hindu political organizations like the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as the "sword arm" of Hinduism.[95][96] This status as protectors of Hindus was strong enough that Punjabi Hindus would sometimes raise their eldest son as a Sikh.[95]

Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris,[91] are frequent.[91] Dogra states that there has always been inter-marriage between the Hindu Khatri and Sikh Khatri communities.[97][98] William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi state that for Khatri Sikhs, intermarriage between Hindus and Sikhs of same community was preferable than other communities.[99]

Sikh scriptures are venerated by certain Hindu communities,[95] often by syncretic sects.

See also


  1. ^ Pandurang Vaman Kane mentions over 100 different Dharmasastra texts which were known by the Middle Ages in India, but most of these are lost to history and their existence is inferred from quotes and citations in bhasya and digests that have survived. Currently, 18 major Dharmasastra texts are in existence.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Survey of Hinduism, A: Third Edition, Suny Press, Klaus K. Klostermaier, pages 1, 544
  2. ^ McLeod, William H. (2014). "Sikhism: History and Doctrine". britannica.com. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Sikhs claim that their tradition has always been separate from Hinduism. But Sikhism too believed in Ram and other avatars of Vishnu and Lord Shiva as recited by the tenth Guru Gobind Singh in the granth. Nevertheless, many Western scholars argue that in its earliest stage Sikhism was a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak, they point out, was raised a Hindu and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India, a movement associated with the great poet and mystic Kabir (1440–1518). The Sants, most of whom were poor, dispossessed, and illiterate, composed hymns of great beauty expressing their experience of the divine, which they saw in all things. Their tradition drew heavily on the Vaishnava bhakti (the devotional movement within the Hindu tradition that worships the god Vishnu), though there were important differences between the two. Like the followers of bhakti, the Sants believed that devotion to God is essential to liberation from the cycle of rebirth in which all human beings are trapped; unlike the followers of bhakti, however, the Sants maintained that God is nirgun ("without form") and not sagun ("with form"). For the Sants, God can be neither incarnated nor represented in concrete terms.
  3. ^ "Sikh world history". BBC. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Sikhism was born in the Punjab area of South Asia, which now falls into the present day states of India and Pakistan. The main religions of the area at the time were Hinduism and Islam. The Sikh faith began around 1500 CE, when Guru Nanak began teaching a faith that was quite distinct from Hinduism and Islam. Nine Gurus followed Nanak and developed the Sikh faith and community over the next centuries.
  4. ^ Sikhism and death BBC
  5. ^ Reincarnation and Sikhism (religion), Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ a b Chahal, Amarjit Singh (December 2011). "Concept of Reincarnation in Guru Nanak's Philosophy" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism – the Research Journal. 13 (1–2): 52–59. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  7. ^ a b Wilkinson, Philip (2008). Religions. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 209, 214–215. ISBN 978-0-7566-3348-6.
  8. ^ Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 36, Quote: "Few Sikhs would mention these Indic texts and ideologies in the same breadth as the Sikh tradition, let alone trace elements of their tradition to this chronological and ideological point, despite the fact that the Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth (Rinehart 2011), and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors."
  9. ^ Grewal, JS (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780521637640.
  10. ^ Pruthi, Raj (2004). Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. p. 202. ISBN 9788171418794.
  11. ^ Mir, Farina (2010). The social space of language vernacular culture in British colonial Punjab. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 207–237. ISBN 978-0-520-26269-0.
  12. ^ a b c Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
  13. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  14. ^ a b c d Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 653–691. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  15. ^ Guru Tegh Bahadur BBC Religions (2009)
  16. ^ Gobind Singh (Translated by Navtej Sarna) (2011). Zafarnama. Penguin Books. p. xviii-xix. ISBN 978-0-670-08556-9.
  17. ^ William Irvine (2012). Later Mughals. Harvard Press. ISBN 9781290917766.
  18. ^ Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5.
  19. ^ SS Kapoor. The Sloaks of Guru Tegh Bahadur & The Facts About the Text of Ragamala. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-81-7010-371-4.
  20. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. p. 690. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  21. ^ for example, Hari name is used ~8300 times, Ram name is used ~2500 times, Gobind & Gopal names are used ~500 times>
  22. ^ Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45038-6, pp. 673, 675, 672–686
  23. ^ Sinha, A. K. (2013), Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin, Xlibris, ISBN 978-1-4836-6308-1, pp. 204–216[self-published source]
  24. ^ Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. pp. xxxiv–xli. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
  25. ^ Singh, Nirbhai (1990); Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers; pp. 115–122
  26. ^ Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 157
  27. ^ Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 40
  28. ^ Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
  29. ^ a b Wani, Abid Mushtaq (2018). Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism: A Comparative Study. Educreation Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 9781545718186.
  30. ^ Lynn Foulston, Stuart Abbott (2009). Hindu goddesses: beliefs and practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 1–3, 40–41. ISBN 9781902210438.
  31. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  32. ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, P. S. (1993), Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, P. S. (eds.), "Ethics", Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study, Themes in Comparative Religion, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 180–190, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-23049-5_11, ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5, retrieved 2023-07-15
  33. ^ Oberoi, Harjot (2012-02-21). "Brotherhood of the Pure: The Poetics and Politics of Cultural Transgression". In Anshu, Malhotra (ed.). Punjab Reconsidered: History, Culture, and Practice. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-908877-5.
  34. ^ Bigelow, Anna (2010-01-28). Sharing the Sacred: Practicing Pluralism in Muslim North India. Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-19-970961-8.
  35. ^ a b Singh, Jagraj (2009). A Complete Guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books. p. 109. ISBN 978-8-1714-2754-3.
  36. ^ V Bharne and K Krusche (2012), Rediscovering the Hindu Temple: The Sacred Architecture and Urbanism of India, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 978-1443841375, pages 37–42
  37. ^ Jeaneane Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723608, pages 41–43
  38. ^ Swarup Chandra (1998), Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Swarup & Sons, ISBN 978-8176250399, page 149
  39. ^ D.G. Singh (2002), Idolatry is impermissible in Sikhism, Sikh Review, Volume 50, Issue 5, pages 35-37
  40. ^ TN Madan (1994). Martin Marty and R Scott Appleby (ed.). Fundamentalisms Observed. University of Chicago Press. pp. 604–610. ISBN 978-0-226-50878-8. “Both institutions [SGPC and Akali Dal] were envisaged as instruments of the Sikh community for the furtherance of a purified way of religious and social life, without idolatrous priests and in repudiation of ritualism and caste distinctions. Such indeed had been the fundamental teaching of the Gurus.”
  41. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
  42. ^ a b Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  43. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 542–543. ISBN 978-0-19-100412-4.
  44. ^ a b Garces-Foley, Kathleen (2006). Death and Religion in a Changing World. M.E. Sharpe. p. 188. ISBN 9780765612212.
  45. ^ Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2002). "Naraka". Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51088-9. (subscription required)
  46. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A Complete Guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books. p. 271. ISBN 978-8-1714-2754-3.
  47. ^ a b Mansukhani, Gobind Singh (1968). Introduction to Sikhism: 100 Basic Questions and Answers on Sikh Religion and History. India Book House. p. 60.
  48. ^ Werner, Karel (1994). A popular dictionary of Hinduism. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0700702792. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  49. ^ Myrvold, Kristina (2012). Sikhs Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. A&C Black. p. 178. ISBN 9781441103581.
  51. ^ a b Dogra, R.C. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Sikh religion and culture. Vikas Publishing House. p. 433. ISBN 9780706983685.
  52. ^ a b Singh, Jagraj (2009). A Complete Guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books. p. 120. ISBN 9788171427543.
  53. ^ Shri, Satya (2017). Demystifying Brahminism and Re-Inventing Hinduism: Volume 1 - Demystifying Brahminism. Chennai: Notion Press. ISBN 9781946515544.
  54. ^ "Tamil Muhurtham dates". Dheivegam. 9 June 2019.
  55. ^ Dogra, R.C. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Sikh Religion and Culture. Vikas Publishing House. p. 412. ISBN 9780706994995.
  56. ^ a b Singha, H.S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 71. ISBN 9788170103011.
  57. ^ Rinehart, Robin (2004). Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 130. ISBN 9781576079058.
  58. ^ Dumont, Louis (1980). Homo Hierarchicus: The Varna System and Its Implications. p. 437. ISBN 9780226169637.
  59. ^ a b c Mayled, Jon (2002). Sikhism. Heinemann. p. 56. ISBN 9780435336271.
  60. ^ Cole, Owen (2010). Sikhism - An Introduction: Teach Yourself. John Murray Press. p. 51. ISBN 9781444131017.
  61. ^ "Sikhism - Sikh practice | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-02-05.
  62. ^ a b Singha, H.S (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 22. ISBN 9788170103011.
  63. ^ S. Radhakrishnan (1922), The Hindu Dharma, International Journal of Ethics, 33(1): 1-22
  64. ^ DP Bhawuk (2011), The Paths of Bondage and Liberation, in Spirituality and Indian Psychology, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, pages 93-110
  65. ^ Sridhar, Nithin (January 1, 2019). Menstruation Across Cultures: the Sabarimala Confusion, a Historical perspective. Global Collective Publishers. ISBN 978-9386473462.
  66. ^ a b Law, Jane Marie (2009). Imagining the Fetus: The Unborn in Myth, Religion, and Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780195380040.
  67. ^ Bobel, Chris (2020). The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies. Springer Nature. p. 120. ISBN 9789811506147.
  68. ^ John Bowker (2012), The Message and the Book: Sacred Texts of the World's Religions, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0300179293, pages 179–180
  69. ^ "Vedas venerate women: Why Hindu community should completely open Sabarimala to women". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. December 1, 2015.
  70. ^ a b c d Wani, Abid Mushtaq (2018). Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism: A Comparative Study. Educreation Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 9781545718186.
  71. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 41. ISBN 9780823931798.
  72. ^ Christopher Chapple (1993), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1498-1, pages 16–17
  73. ^ Baudhayana Dharmasutra 2.4.7; 2.6.2; 2.11.15; 2.12.8; 3.1.13; 3.3.6; Apastamba Dharmasutra 1.17.15; 1.17.19; 2.17.26–2.18.3; Vasistha Dharmasutra 14.12.
  74. ^ Krishna, Nanditha (2014), Sacred Animals of India, Penguin Books, pp. 15, 33, ISBN 978-81-8475-182-6
  75. ^ Singha, Dr. H.S. (30 May 2009). "7 Sikh Traditions and Customs". Sikhism: A Complete Introduction. Sikh Studies. Vol. Book 7 (Paperback ed.). New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-81-7010-245-8. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
  76. ^ The Sikh review, Volume 46, Issues 535-540, pp 45, Sikh Cultural Centre., 1998
  77. ^ "Sacrifice of a goat within precints of Gurudwara on a number of occasions, apply its blood to arms/armaments kept inside the shrine, distribute its meat as Prasad among devotees at their home." The Sikh Bulletin, July–August 2009, Volume 11, Number 7 & 8, pp 26, Khalsa Tricentenneal Foundation of N.A. Inc
  78. ^ a b Singh, Mandeep (2020). Guru Nanak Dev Life & Teachings. Virsa Publications. p. 62. ISBN 9789387152731.
  79. ^ Dwivedi, Bhojraj (2016). Scientific Bases of Hindu Beliefs. Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9789352610471.
  80. ^ Musharraf, Muhammad Nabeel; Dars, Dr Basheer Ahmed (2021-09-15). "Eclipses, Mythology, and Islam". Al-Duhaa. 2 (02): 01–16. doi:10.51665/al-duhaa.002.02.0077. ISSN 2710-0812.
  81. ^ SG Nigal (1986), Axiological Approach to the Vedas, Northern Book, ISBN 978-8185119182, pages 80–81
  82. ^ Laurie Patton (2005), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal, Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772273, pages 38-39
  83. ^ Dogra, R.C. (1995). Encyclopaedia of Sikh religion and culture. Vikas Publishing House. p. 220. ISBN 9780706983685.
  84. ^ Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
  85. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
  86. ^ Joel Mlecko (1982), The Guru in Hindu Tradition, Numen, Volume 29, Fasc. 1, pages 33-61
  87. ^ Singh, Kharak (1996). Sikh History & Its Concepts. Institute of Sikh Studies. p. 5.
  88. ^ Coward, Harold (2000). "Bioethics for clinicians: 19. Hinduism and Sikhism". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 163 (9): 1167–70. PMC 80253. PMID 11079065. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  89. ^ W.O. Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5.
  90. ^ Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-4411-5366-1.
  91. ^ a b c Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0760707128, page 409
  92. ^ "SIKHS AND THEIR HISTORY | Facts and Details".
  93. ^ Mukul Kesavan (14 September 2015). "Their better selves – Vegetarianism and virtue". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on September 18, 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  94. ^ Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0760707128, page 409
  95. ^ a b c Ved Mehta (1996). Rajiv Gandhi and Rama's Kingdom (illustrated, revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780300068580.
  96. ^ Ratan Sharda: RSS 360 °: Demystifying Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh|date=2018|publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing|9789386950406|page=290|
  97. ^ R. C. Dogra & Urmila Dogra: Hindu and Sikh wedding ceremonies pub. 2000. Star Publications. ISBN 9788176500289.
  98. ^ Douglas Charing and William Owen Cole: Six world faiths pub. 2004, page 309. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826476838.
  99. ^ William Owen Cole, Piara Singh Sambhi: Sikhism and Christianity: a comparative study, Volume 1993, Part 2, pub. 1993. Macmillan. Page 22. ISBN 9780333541067.

Further reading