Krishna Janmashtami
Also called
  • Krishnashtami
  • Krishna Jayanti
  • Gokulashtami
  • Yadukulashtami
  • Srikrishna Jayanti
Observed byHindus
TypeReligious (1–2 days), cultural
CelebrationsDahi Handi (next day in the north), kite-flying, drawing footprints of infant Krishna,
fasting, traditional sweet dishes, etc.
ObservancesDance-drama, puja, night vigil, fasting
DateShraavana Krishna Ashtami, Bhadra Krishna Ashtami
2023 date6–7 September[1]
2024 date26–27 August[2]
Explanatory note
Hindu festival dates

The Hindu calendar is lunisolar but most festival dates are specified using the lunar portion of the calendar. A lunar day is uniquely identified by three calendar elements: māsa (lunar month), pakṣa (lunar fortnight) and tithi (lunar day).

Furthermore, when specifying the masa, one of two traditions are applicable, viz. amānta / pūrṇimānta. If a festival falls in the waning phase of the moon, these two traditions identify the same lunar day as falling in two different (but successive) masa.

A lunar year is shorter than a solar year by about eleven days. As a result, most Hindu festivals occur on different days in successive years on the Gregorian calendar.

Krishna Janmashtami (Sanskrit: कृष्णजन्माष्टमी, romanizedKṛṣṇajanmāṣṭamī), also known simply as Krishnashtami, Janmashtami, or Gokulashtami, is an annual Hindu festival that celebrates the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar of Vishnu. In certain Hindu texts, such as the Gita Govinda, Krishna has been identified as supreme God and the source of all avatars.[5] Krishna's birth is celebrated and observed on the eighth day (Ashtami) of the dark fortnight (Krishna Paksha) in Shravana Masa (according to the amanta tradition) or Bhadrapada Masa (according to the purnimanta tradition). This overlaps with August or September of the Gregorian calendar.[5]

It is an important festival, particularly in the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism.[6] The celebratory customs associated with Janmashtami include a celebration festival, reading and recitation of religious texts, dance and enactments of the life of Krishna according to the Bhagavata Purana, devotional singing till midnight (the time of Krishna's birth), and fasting (upavasa), amongst other things.[7] It is widely celebrated across India and abroad.[5][8][9]

Etymology

The meaning of the Sanskrit word Janmashtami can be understood by splitting it into the two words, "Janma" and "Ashtami." The word "Janma" means birth[10] and the word "Ashtami" means eight; thus, Krishna Janmashtami is the celebration of Krishna's birth on the eighth day of the dark fortnight (Krishna Paksha) in the month of Bhadrapada (August–September).[11][12]

History

Main article: Birth of Krishna

Information about Krishna's life is noted in the Mahabharata, the Puranas, and Bhagavata Purana. Krishna is the eighth son of Devaki (mother) and Vasudeva (father).[5] Surrounding the time of his birth, persecution was rampant, freedoms were being denied, and King Kamsa's life was threatened.[13] Krishna was born within a prison in Mathura, India where his parents were constrained by his uncle, Kamsa.[5] During Devaki's wedding, Kamsa was warned by a celestial voice that Devaki's eighth son would be the cause of his death.[5] In an effort to defy this prophesy, Kamsa imprisoned his sister Devaki and her husband and promptly killed the first six of her newborns after their birth.[5] The guards responsible for keeping watch over Devaki's cell fell asleep and the cell doors were miraculously opened at the time of Krishna's birth.[5] These events allowed Vasudeva to send Krishna across the Yamuna River to his foster parents, Yashoda (mother) and Nanda (father).[5] This legend is celebrated on Janmashtami by people keeping fasts, singing devotional songs of love for Krishna, and keeping a vigil into the night.[14]

Throughout Krishna's childhood and young adult life, Balarama, Krishna's half-brother, was a "constant companion" for him. Balarama joined Krishna in the major events that are celebrated in Vraja, Brindavan, Dravarka, and Mathura such as stealing butter, chasing calves, playing in the cow pens, and participating in wrestling matches.[15]

Observance and celebrations

Some communities celebrate Krishna's legends such as him as a Makkan chor (butter thief).

Krishna Janmashtami holds significant importance to Hindus around the world, and it is celebrated in diverse forms depending on their regional and cultural customs.[16][6] Hindus celebrate Janmashtami by fasting, singing, praying together, preparing and sharing special food, night vigils, and visiting Krishna or Vishnu temples. The places of Mathura and Vrindavan are visited by pilgrims.[8] Some mandirs organize recitation of Bhagavad Gita in the days leading up to Janmashtami.[17] Many northern Indian communities organize dance-drama events called Rasa Lila or Krishna Lila.[14] The tradition of Rasa Lila is particularly popular in the Mathura region, in northeastern states of India such as Manipur and Assam, and in parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat. It is acted out by numerous teams of amateur artists, cheered on by their local communities, and these drama-dance plays begin a few days before each Janmashtami.[18][19] People decorate their houses with flowers and light.[20] On this day, people chant "Hare Krishna hare Krishna, Krishna- Krishna Hare Hare". The Janmashtami celebration is followed by Dahi Handi, which is celebrated the next day.[21][22]

After Krishna's midnight hour birth, forms of baby Krishna are bathed and clothed, then placed in a cradle. The devotees then break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw tiny footprints outside their house doors and kitchen, walking towards their house, a symbolism for Krishna's journey into their homes.[14]

Dahi Handi, a Janmashtami tradition, in progress in Mumbai India.

Northern India

Janmashtami at ISKCON temple, Delhi

Janmashtami is the largest festival in the Braj region of north India, in cities such as Mathura where Hindu tradition states Krishna was born, and in Vrindavan where he grew up.[14] Vaishnava communities in these cities in Uttar Pradesh, as well as others in the state, as well as locations in Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Himalayan north celebrate Janmashtami. Krishna temples are decorated and lighted up, they attract numerous visitors on the day, while Krishna devotees hold bhakti events and keep night vigil.[23]

The festival typically falls as the monsoons in north India have begun retreating, fields laden with crops and rural communities have time to play. In the northern states, Janmashtami is celebrated with the Raslila tradition, which literally means "play (Lila) of delight, essence (Rasa)". This is expressed as solo or group dance and drama events at Janmashtami, wherein Krishna related compositions are sung, music accompanies the performance, while actors and audience share and celebrate the performance by clapping hands to mark the beat.[24] The childhood pranks of Krishna and the love affairs of Radha-Krishna are particularly popular. According to Christian Roy and other scholars, these Radha-Krishna love stories are Hindu symbolism for the longing and love of the human soul for the divine or Brahman.[25][24]

Poetry describing the feats of Krishna became popular in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries within the Braj region, and is written according to a vernacular called "Braj basha" (present-day "Hindi").[26] The Braj basha poems of Surdas (collectively known as the Sursagar) are popularly recalled, some of which describe the birth and childhood of Krishna.[7]

Jammu Region

In Jammu region, Janmashtami is popularly known by the name "Thogre/Thakure da Vrat"[27] (meaning Vrat dedicated to Thakur i.e. Shri Krishna). Observing a Phalaahari Vrat for complete one day is the major ritual in the festival. The day is marked by numerous Phalaahari Dhaams or Bhandaras in the streets of Jammu region's prominent towns.

Janmashtami marks the beginning of the kite-flying season in the Jammu region whereby locals gather and fly decorated kites from their rooftops.[28] While on the other hand, girls and women decorate their palms by applying Teera, dye of an indigenous plant.[27]

Another ceremony associated with Janmashtami in Jammu region is "Deyaa Parna" in which Dogras donate cereal grains in the name of their ancestors & Kuldevtas. A holy tree called jand is worshipped by women on this day. Special rotis called draupads are prepared and offered to cows and deities.[27]

Kashmir

Janmashtami is celebrated as Zaram Satam (Janam Saptami) by the native Kashmiri Pandits of Kashmir. The festival is associated with observing a vrat the whole day and visiting the Thokur Kuth (Krishna Mandir) at midnight. At night, puja is performed in the temples which includes performing abhishek (ritual bath) to the murti of Krishna, and singing bhajans (devotional songs). Food items appropriate for fasting, such as gaer or singhada lapsi (made from waterchestnut flour), fruits, and dried fruits are consumed on this day.[29]

Maharashtra

Main article: Dahi Handi

Janmashtami (popularly known as "Dahi Handii" in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities such as Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur and Pune.[6] It is a celebration of joy and facilitator of social oneness.[6] Dahi Handi is an enactment of how Krishna, during his childhood, would steal butter.[30] This story is the theme of numerous reliefs on Hindu temples across India, as well as literature and dance-drama repertoire, symbolizing the joyful innocence of children, that love and life's play is the manifestation of god.[31][32]

It is common practice for youth groups to celebrate the festival by participating in Dahi Handi, which involves hanging a clay pot, filled with buttermilk, at a significant height.[6] Once hung, several youth groups compete to reach the pot by creating a human pyramid and breaking it open.[6][30][33][34] The spilled contents are considered as prasada (celebratory offering). It is a public spectacle, cheered and welcomed as a community event.[24][35]

Gujarat and Rajasthan

In Dwarka, Gujarat – where Krishna is believed to have established his kingdom – people celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to Dahi Handi, called Makhan Handi (pot with freshly churned butter). Others perform folk dances such and garba and raas, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as at the Dwarkadhish Temple or Nathdwara. In the Kutch district region, farmers decorate their bullock carts and take out Krishna processions, with group singing and dancing.[36] The day is of special importance to followers of the Pushtimarg and the Swaminarayan movement.[37]

The works of Gujarati poets, Narsinh Mehta (1414–1480 c.e.), Dayaram (1777–1852) and Rajasthani poet Mirabai (c.1500), are popularly revisited and sung during Janmashtami. Their works are categorized as part of the bhakti tradition, or devotional poetry dedicated to Krishna.[38][7]

South India

In Kerala, people celebrate in September, according to the Malayalam calendar.

In Tamil Nadu, people decorate the floor with kolams (decorative pattern drawn with rice batter). Geetha Govindam and other such devotional songs are sung in praise of Krishna. Little footprints, representing Krishna as an infant, are drawn from the threshold of the house till the pooja (prayer) room, which depicts the arrival of Krishna into the house.[39] Reciting from the Bhagavad Gita is also a popular practice. The offerings made to Krishna include fruits, betel and butter. Milk-based items, such as sweet seedai and verkadalai urundai, are prepared.[40] The festival is celebrated in the evening as Krishna was born at midnight. Most people observe a strict fast on this day.[40]

A toddler dressed like Krishna

In Andhra Pradesh and Telengana, recitation of shlokas and devotional songs are the characteristics of this festival. Another unique feature of this festival is that young boys are dressed up as Krishna and they visit neighbours and friends. The people of Andhra Pradesh observe a fast too. Various kinds of sweets such as chakodi, murukku, and seedai are offered to Krishna on this day.[40] Joyful chanting of Krishna's name takes place in quite a few temples of the state. The number of temples dedicated to Krishna are few. The reason being that people have taken to worship him through paintings and not idols.[citation needed]

Popular south Indian temples dedicated to Krishna are Rajagopalaswamy Temple in Mannargudi in the Tiruvarur district, Pandavadhoothar temple in Kanchipuram, Sri Krishna temple at Udupi, and the Krishna temple at Guruvayur are dedicated to the memory of Vishnu's incarnation as Krishna. It is believed that the murti (idol) of Krishna installed in Guruvayur is originally from his kingdom in Dwarka – which is believed to be submerged in the sea.[41]

Eastern and Northeastern India

Janmashtami is widely celebrated by Hindu Vaishnava communities of eastern and northeastern India. The widespread tradition of celebrating Krishna in these regions is credited to the efforts and teachings of 15th and 16th century Sankardeva and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Sankardeva introduced the musical composition, Borgeet, and dance-drama styles – Ankia Naat[42] and Sattriya - that is now popular in West Bengal and Assam. In Manipur state, a traditional dance - Raas Leela - inspired by the theme of love and devotion between Krishna, Radha and the gopis, is enacted using the Manipuri dance style.[43][44][45][46] The contextual roots of these dance drama arts are found in the ancient Hindu text Natya Shastra, but with influences from the culture fusion between India and southeast Asia.[47][48][49]

Rasa lila in Manipuri dance style

On Janmashtami, parents dress up their children as Krishna or the gopis. Temples and community centers are decorated with regional flowers and leaves, while groups recite or listen to the tenth chapter of the Bhagavata Purana, and the Bhagavata Gita.[24]

Janmashtami is a major festival celebrated with fasts, vigil, recitation of scriptures and Krishna prayers in Manipur.[50] Dancers performing Raslila are a notable annual tradition during Janmashtami in Mathura and Vrindavan.[51] Children play the Likol Sannaba game in the Meetei Vaishnava community.[52]

The Shree Govindajee Temple and the ISKCON temples particularly mark the Janmashtami festival.[53] Janmashtami is celebrated in Assam at homes, in community centers called Namghars (Assamese: নামঘৰ). According to the tradition, the devotees sing the Nam, perform pujas and sharing food and Prasada.[53]

Odisha and West Bengal

Janmashtami Puja in Odia family

In the eastern state of Odisha, specifically the region around Puri and in Nabadwip, West Bengal, the festival is also referred to as Sri Krishna Jayanti or simply Sri Jayanti.[54][55] People celebrate Janmashtami by fasting and worship until midnight. The Bhagavata Purana is recited from the 10th chapter, a section dedicated to the life of Krishna. The next day is called "Nanda Ucchhaba" or the joyous celebration of Krishna's foster parents Nanda and Yashoda. Devotees keep fasting during the entire day of Janmashtami. They bring water from Ganga to bathe Radha Madhaba during their abhisheka ceremony. A grand abhisheka is performed at midnight for the small Radha Madha. In Odisha, the Jagannath Temple in Puri, best known for its grand Ratha Yatra celebrations, perform a Ratha Yatra during Janmashtami.[56]

Outside India

Nepal

Krishna Mandir in Patan, Nepal.

About eighty percent of the population of Nepal identify themselves as Hindus and celebrate Krishna Janmashtami. They observe Janmashtami by fasting until midnight. It is a national holiday in Nepal.[57] The devotees recite the Bhagavad Gita and sing religious songs called bhajans and kirtans. The temples of Krishna are decorated. Shops, posters and houses carry Krishna motifs.[58]

Bangladesh

Janmashtami is a national holiday in Bangladesh.[59] On Janmashtami, a procession starts from Dhakeshwari Temple in Dhaka, the National Temple of Bangladesh, and then proceeds through the streets of Old Dhaka. The procession dates back to 1902, but was stopped in 1948. The procession was resumed in 1989.[60]

Fiji

At least a quarter of the population in Fiji practices Hinduism, and this holiday has been celebrated in Fiji since the first Indian indentured laborers landed there. Janmashtami in Fiji is known as "Krishna Ashtami". Most Hindus in Fiji have ancestors that originated from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Tamil Nadu, making this an especially important festival for them. Fiji's Janmashtami celebrations are unique in that they last for eight days, leading up to the eighth day, the day Krishna was born. During these eight days, Hindus gather at homes and at temples with their 'mandalis,' or devotional groups at evenings and night, and recite the Bhagavat Purana, sing devotional songs for Krishna, and distribute Prasadam.[61]

Pakistan

Janmashtami is celebrated by Pakistani Hindus in the Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Karachi with the singing of bhajans and delivering of sermons on Krishna.[62] It is an optional holiday in Pakistan.

Others

In Arizona, United States, Governor Janet Napolitano was the first American leader to greet a message on Janmashtami, while acknowledging ISKCON.[63] The festival is also celebrated widely by Hindus in the Caribbean countries of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and Suriname. Many Hindus in these countries originate from Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; descendants of indentured immigrants from Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  2. ^ "National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  3. ^ "National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  4. ^ "National Portal of India". www.india.gov.in. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A–M (PDF). The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0823931798.
  6. ^ a b c d e f J. Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-59884-205-0.
  7. ^ a b c Edwin Francis Bryant (2007). Sri Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 223–225. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
  8. ^ a b Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 538–539.
  9. ^ "In Pictures: People Celebrating Janmashtami in India". International Business Times. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  10. ^ "Janma: English Translation of the Sanskrit word: Janma-- Sanskrit Dictionary". sanskritdictionary.org. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  11. ^ "Happy Janmashtami 2022: History and significance behind Lord Krishna's birth anniversary explained". The Economic Times. 16 August 2022. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  12. ^ "Janmashtami | Celebration, Date, India, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
  13. ^ Pavan K. Varma (2009). The Book of Krishna. Penguin Books. pp. 7–11. ISBN 978-0-14-306763-4.
  14. ^ a b c d Constance A Jones (2011). J. Gordon Melton (ed.). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7.
  15. ^ Vemsani, Lavanya (13 June 2016). Krishna in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-211-3.
  16. ^ Fenton, Stephanie (15 August 2022). "Krishna Janmashtami: Celebrating Lord Krishna around the world". Religious Holidays. Retrieved 8 May 2023.
  17. ^ Gibson, Lynne; Wootten, Pat (2002). Hinduism. Heinemann. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-435-33618-9.
  18. ^ Pavan K. Varma (2009). The Book of Krishna. Penguin Books. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-0-14-306763-4.
  19. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 449–457. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
  20. ^ "Janmashtami 2021: Date, history, significance and importance of Krishna Janmashtami". Hindustan Times. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  21. ^ "Krishna Janmashtami 2021 Date, Puja Muhurat and Significance". The Times of India. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  22. ^ "Janmashtami 2021: Know The Date, Timing, Significance And Celebrations Of Krishna Janmashtami". NDTV.com. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  23. ^ Kishore, B. R. (2001). Hinduism. Diamond. p. 118. ISBN 978-81-7182-073-3.
  24. ^ a b c d Christian Roy (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 213–215. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
  25. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10, 115–116, 265–267. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
  26. ^ Hawley, John Stratton (7 April 2009). The Memory of Love: Surdas Sings to Krishna. Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-045195-0.
  27. ^ a b c Sharma, Medhavi (14 August 2020). "Janmashtami in Jammu, A Visual Treat". Indic Today. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  28. ^ "The Festival of Kite Flying in Jammu". Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  29. ^ "Zaram Satam – Bhad'ru'peth Gatt Pachh Satam | Kashmir As It Is". Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  30. ^ a b "Krishna Janmashtami 2022: When is Dahi Handi? Know all about its date, history, celebrations and significance". Hindustan Times. 18 August 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  31. ^ John Stratton Hawley (2014). Krishna, The Butter Thief. Princeton University Press. pp. ix–xi, 3–11, 89, 256, 313–319. ISBN 978-1-4008-5540-7.
  32. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 114–118. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.
  33. ^ Ambarish Mishra; Nitin Yeshwantrao; Bella Jaisinghani (11 August 2012). "Nine-tier handi breaks into Guinness Records". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  34. ^ "Janmashtami celebrated with zeal, enthusiasm". Mid Day. 24 August 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  35. ^ DMello, Daniel (4 October 2011). "8 incredible facts about Mumbai". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  36. ^ Anjali H. Desai (2007). India Guide Gujarat. India Guide. pp. 71, 76. ISBN 978-0-9789517-0-2.
  37. ^ Basu, Helene (2018). "Gujarat". In Knut A., Jacobsen; Basu, Helene; Malinar, Angelika; Narayanan, Vasudha (eds.). Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online. Brill.
  38. ^ Dwyer, Rachel (2001). The Poetics of Devotion: The Gujarati Lyrics of Dayaram. Psychology Press. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-7007-1233-5.
  39. ^ Vaswani, Jashan P. (2004), Hinduism: What You Would Like to Know About, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, p. 92, ISBN 978-1-904910-02-2
  40. ^ a b c Sengar, Resham. "This is how the South India celebrates Krishna Janmashtami". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  41. ^ Manohar Laxman Varadpande (1982). Krishna Theatre in India. Abhinav Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-7017-151-5.
  42. ^ Banham, Martin (7 March 1996). The Cambridge Paperback Guide to Theatre. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-44654-9.
  43. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 420–421. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  44. ^ Reginald Massey 2004, p. 177.
  45. ^ Ragini Devi 1990, pp. 175–180.
  46. ^ Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. Lulu.com. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  47. ^ Saryu Doshi 1989, pp. xv–xviii.
  48. ^ Natalia Lidova 2014.
  49. ^ Tarla Mehta 1995.
  50. ^ Prakasan, Chethana (19 August 2016). "Latest travel Articles & blogs". India News, Breaking News, Entertainment News | India.com. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  51. ^ Vijaya Ghose; Jaya Ramanathan; Renuka N. Khandekar, eds. (1992). Tirtha, A Treasury of Indian Expressions. New Delhi: CMC. p. 184. ISBN 978-81-900267-0-3. Raslila plays are specially enacted during Janmashtami and Holi festivals at Mathura, Bridavan in the Braj region.
  52. ^ Naorem Sanajaoba (1988). Manipur, Past and Present: The Heritage and Ordeals of a Civilization. Mittal. pp. 284–285. ISBN 978-81-7099-853-2.
  53. ^ a b Janmashtami joy in Assam and Manipur, The Times of India (26 August 2016)
  54. ^ Prabhat Mukherjee (1981). The History of Medieval Vaishnavism in Orissa. Asian Educational Services. p. 185. ISBN 978-81-206-0229-8.
  55. ^ Bhakti Prajnan Yati Maharaj (1978). Renaissance of Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement. Sree Gaudiya Math. p. 260. OCLC 6199191. His Madras visit took place during the Sri Janmashtami (Sri Krishna's Advent day) ... they made an appeal to Srila Acharyadeva to visit Madras Math every year particularly during the Sri Jayanti (Janmastami).
  56. ^ Badlani, Dr Hiro G. (30 September 2008). Hinduism: Path of the Ancient Wisdom. iUniverse. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-595-87961-8.
  57. ^ "Krishna Janmashtami 2020: Puja Vrat Vidhi, Fasting and Significance". SpotlightNepal. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  58. ^ "Janmashtami in Nepal: Devotees throng magnificent Krishna Temple". ANI News. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  59. ^ Grover, Verinder (2000), Bangladesh: Government and Politics, Deep and Deep Publications, p. 8, ISBN 978-81-7100-928-2
  60. ^ "Bangladesh blessings". Hinduism Today. February 1997.
  61. ^ Mala, Shahani (6 September 2015). "Hindus Mark Birth of Lord Krishna". Fiji Sun.
  62. ^ "KARACHI: Janamashtami festival celebrated Jai Sri Krishna". Dawn. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  63. ^ Executive Orders, Proclamations of General Applicability, and Statements Issues by the Governor Pursuant to A.R.S. § 41-1013(B)(3), Arizona State Government, USA (2008)

Bibliography

Further reading