Achourya (Sanskrit: अचौर्यः, IAST: Acauryaḥ) or Asteya (Sanskrit: अस्तेय; IAST: Asteya) is the Sanskrit term for "non-stealing". It is a virtue in Hinduism. The practice of asteya demands that one must not steal, nor have the intent to steal, another's property through action, speech, and thoughts.[1][2]

Asteya is one of five major vows of Hinduism and Jainism.[3] It is also one of ten forms of temperance (virtuous self-restraint) in Indian philosophy.[4]

Etymology

The word "asteya" is a compound derived from Sanskrit, where "a" refers to "non-" and "steya" refers to "practice of stealing" or "something that can be stolen". Thus, asteya means "non-stealing".

Jainism

In Jainism, it is one of the five vows that all śrāvakas and śrāvikās (householders) as well as monastics must observe.[5] The five transgressions of this vow, as mentioned in the Jain text Tattvārthsūtra, are: "Prompting another to steal, receiving stolen goods, underbuying in a disordered state, using false weights and measures, and deceiving others with artificial or imitation goods".[6]

This is explained in the Jain text, Sarvārthasiddhi as (translated by S.A. Jain):

Prompting a person to steal, or prompting him through another or approving of the theft, is the first transgression. The second is receiving stolen goods from a person, whose action has neither been prompted nor approved by the recipient. Receiving or buying goods otherwise than by lawful and just means is an irregularity or a transgression. An attempt to buy precious things very cheaply in a disordered state is the third transgression. Cheating others by the use of false weights and measures in order to obtain more from others and give less to others, is the fourth transgression. Deceiving others with artificial gold, synthetic diamonds and so on, is the fifth transgression. These five are the transgressions of the vow of non-stealing.

— Sarvārthasiddhi (7–27)[6]

Hinduism

Asteya is defined in Hindu texts as "the abstinence, in one's deeds or words or thoughts, from unauthorized appropriation of things of value from another human being".[3] It is a widely discussed virtue in ethical theories of Hinduism.[2] For example, in the Yoga Sūtras (II.30), Asteya is listed as the third yama or virtue of self-restraint, along with ahimsa (nonviolence), satya (non-falsehoods, truthfulness), brahmacharya (sexual chastity in one's feelings and actions) and aparigraha (non-possessiveness, non-craving).[3][7]

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः

Non-violence, Non-falsehood, Non-stealing, Non-cheating (celibacy, chastity), and Non-possessiveness are the five Yamas.

— Patañjali, Yoga Sutra 2.30[8]

Asteya is thus one of the five essential restraints (yamas, "the don'ts") in Hinduism, that with five essential practices (niyamas, "the dos") are suggested for right, virtuous, enlightened living.[9]

Discussion

Asteya in practice implies to "not steal", "not cheat", nor unethically manipulate other's property or others for one's own gain.[10] Asteya as virtue demands not only that one "not steal", but that one should not encourage cheating through speech or writing, or want to cheat even in one's thinking. The virtue of asteya arises out of the understanding that all misappropriation is an expression of craving and lack of compassion for other beings.[11] To steal or want to steal expresses lack of faith in oneself: one's ability to learn and create property. To steal another's property is also stealing from one's own potential ability to develop.[12] The Sutras reason that misappropriation, conspiring to misappropriate, or wanting to misappropriate, at its root reflects the sin of lobha (bad greed), moha (material delusion), or krodha (bad anger).[13]

Gandhi held ahimsa as essential to the human right to life and liberty without fear, and asteya as essential to the human right to property without fear.[14] Asteya follows from ahimsa, in Gandhi's views, because stealing is a form of violence and injury to another person.[14] Asteya is not merely "theft by action", but it includes "theft by intent" and "theft by manipulation". Persistent exploitation of the weak or poor is a form of "asteya in one's thought".[14]

Related concepts

Dāna—charity to a deserving person without any expectation in return—is a recommended niyama in Hinduism. The motive behind dāna is reverse to that of "stealing from others". Dāna is a complementary practice to the yama (restraint) of asteya.[15]

Difference from aparigraha

Asteya and aparigraha are two of several important virtues in Hinduism and Jainism. They both involve interaction between a person and material world, either as property, fame or ideas; yet asteya and aparigraha are different concepts. Asteya is the virtue of non-stealing and not wanting to appropriate, or take by force or deceit or exploitation, by deeds or words or thoughts, what is owned by and belongs to someone else.[14][16] Aparigraha, in contrast, is the virtue of non-possessiveness and non-clinging to one's own property, non-accepting of any gifts or particularly improper gifts offered by others, and of non-avarice/non-craving in the motivation of one's deeds, words, and thoughts.[17][18][19]

Aparigraha means non-covetousness. Graham is where one stands. Pari is the limit. When one crosses the limit of one’s graha, even by intention it’s covetousness, not a virtue. It’s misappropriation or manipulation. This principle applies not only to physical property, but also to intellectual property.[citation needed] Crossing one’s limit, craving for something or someone rightfully belonging to others even by thoughts or intentions is a sin. “...whosever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart” (Matthew 5:27–28).

References

  1. ^ Corner, Patricia (2009). "Workplace spirituality and business ethics: Insights from an Eastern spiritual tradition". Journal of Business Ethics. 85 (3): 377–389. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9776-2. S2CID 144273760.
  2. ^ a b Tiwari, Kedar Nath (1998). Classical Indian Ethical Thought. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 87. ISBN 978-81-208-1607-7.
  3. ^ a b c The Yoga-System of Patañjali. Translated by Wood, James. Harvard University Press. pp. 178–182.
  4. ^ "Śāṇdilya-Upanishad of Atharvaṇaveḍa". Thirty Minor Upanishads. Translated by Aiyar, K. Narayanasvami. Madras: Kessinger Publishing. 1914. pp. 173–176. ISBN 978-1164026419.
  5. ^ Glasenapp, Helmuth Von (1999), Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6
  6. ^ a b S.A. Jain 1992, p. 208.
  7. ^ Feuerstein, Georg (1997). Feuerstein, Georg; Miller, Jeanine (eds.). The Essence of Yoga. Inner Traditions. ISBN 978-0-89281-738-2.
  8. ^ Yoga Sutra, Sadhana Pada, Verse 30
  9. ^ Clarke, Matthew (2013). Handbook of Research on Development and Religion. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-85793-357-7.
  10. ^ Corner, Patricia (August 2008). "Extending Theory through Experience: A Framework for Business Ethics from Yoga". Academy of Management Proceedings. Academy of Management. 2008 (1): 1–6. doi:10.5465/ambpp.2008.33643327.
  11. ^ Smith, D'Arcy (2007). "The Issue of Vocal Practice: Finding a Vocabulary for Our Blocks and Resistances". Voice and Speech Review. 5 (1): 128–131. doi:10.1080/23268263.2007.10769748. S2CID 62730554.
  12. ^ Falk, J.P. (2005). "Yoga and Ethics in High School". Journal of Dance Education. 5 (4): 132–134. doi:10.1080/15290824.2005.10387302. S2CID 144230474.
  13. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (5 July 2007). A Survey of Hinduism (3rd ed.). State University of New York Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.
  14. ^ a b c d Nikam, N.A. (1954). "Gandhi's Philosophy". The Review of Metaphysics. 7 (4): 668–678. JSTOR 20123409.
  15. ^ Patañjali. Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: With the Exposition of Vyasa. Vol. 2. Translated by Bharti, Swami Jnaneshvara. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 684–686. ISBN 978-8120818255.
  16. ^ Farhi, Donna (2011). Yoga Mind, Body & Spirit: A Return to Wholeness. MacMillan. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0805059700.
  17. ^ David Frawley, Yoga and the Sacred Fire, Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 978-8120827462
  18. ^ Frawley, David (2006). Yoga and the Sacred Fire: Self-Realization and Planetary Transformation. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-2746-2.
  19. ^ Bell, Charlotte (2011). Mindful Yoga, Mindful Life: A Guide for Everyday Practice. Rodmell Press. pp. 74–89. ISBN 978-1-930485-20-4.

Sources