Self-transcendence is a personality trait that involves the expansion or evaporation of personal boundaries. This may potentially include spiritual experiences[1] such as considering oneself an integral part of the universe.[2] Several psychologists, including Viktor Frankl,[3] Abraham Maslow,[4] Pamela G. Reed,[5] C. Robert Cloninger, Lars Tornstam,[6] and Scott Barry Kaufman[7] have made contributions to the theory of self-transcendence.

Self-transcendence is distinctive as the first trait-concept of a spiritual nature to be incorporated into a major theory of personality.[8] It is one of the "character" dimensions of personality assessed in Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory.[2] It is also assessed by the Self-Transcendence Scale[9] and the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory.[10]

Nature of the trait

Several overlapping definitions of self-transcendence have been given. Viktor Frankl wrote, "The essentially self-transcendent quality of human existence renders man a being reaching out beyond himself."[11]

According to Reed, self-transcendence is:

the capacity to expand self-boundaries intrapersonally (toward greater awareness of one's philosophy, values, and dreams), interpersonally (to relate to others' and one's environment), temporally (to integrate one's past and future in a way that has meaning for the present), and transpersonally (to connect with dimensions beyond the typically discernible world).[12]

Taking a developmental perspective, Tornstam defined the concept of gerotranscendence as "a shift in metaperspective, from a midlife materialistic and rational vision to a more cosmic and transcendent one, accompanied by an increase in life satisfaction."[6]: 38 

In Cloninger's seven-dimensional model of personality, there are four temperament dimensions that have a strong biological basis, and three learned character dimensions that are believed to be concept-based[clarification needed]. Self-transcendence is a character trait relating to the experience of spiritual aspects of the self.[2] The concept was influenced by theories of personality development in humanistic and transpersonal psychology. Self-transcendence refers to an identification of the self with the universe conceived as a unitive whole. According to Cloninger, this "may be described as acceptance, identification, or spiritual union with nature and its source."[2]


Temperament and Character Inventory

Self-transcendence as assessed in the Temperament and Character Inventory originally had three subscales,[2] but two more were later added:[8]

  1. self-forgetful vs. self-conscious experience
  2. transpersonal identification vs. self-isolation
  3. spiritual acceptance vs. rational materialism
  4. enlightened vs. objective
  5. idealistic vs. practical

An independent study found that the five subscales Cloninger proposed were difficult to replicate using factor analysis and suggested that the self-transcendence scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory is better represented by four sub-dimensions:[8]

  1. spiritual and religious beliefs (e.g., belief in the existence of a higher power)
  2. unifying interconnectedness (i.e., an experienced sense of connection with other living beings, the environment, and a higher power)
  3. belief in the supernatural (e.g., belief in paranormal phenomena, such as extrasensory perception)
  4. dissolution of self in experience (e.g., absorption, or a loss of sense of separate self while immersed in experience)

Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory

The Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory has five subscales:[13]

  1. self-knowledge and self-integration
  2. peace of mind
  3. non-attachment
  4. self-transcendence
  5. presence in the here-and-now and growth

Relationship to other personality traits

Coward found positive correlations between self-transcendence, hope, purpose in life, and cognitive and emotional well-being in a study of healthy adults ages 19 to 85.[14] Negative correlation has been found between self-transcendence as measured by Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale and depression in both middle-aged and older adults.[15]

Although there has not been a great deal of research into the validity of self-transcendence as a measure of spirituality, one study found that self-transcendence was significantly related to[vague] a number of areas of belief and experience that have been traditionally considered "spiritual".[8]

A study relating the Temperament and Character Inventory to the Five factor model personality traits found that self-transcendence was most strongly related to[clarification needed] openness to experience and to a lesser extent extraversion.[1] Self-transcendence is largely unrelated[vague] to traits in Zuckerman's "Alternative five" model and Eysenck's model, which do not include an equivalent to openness-to-experience. Self-transcendence is strongly related to[vague] absorption.[16]

Relationship to psychopathology

Cloninger found that psychiatric patients tend to be lower in self-transcendence compared with adults in the general population.[2] Low self-transcendence was found to be particularly evident in patients with many symptoms of schizoid personality disorder but is otherwise not a common feature of people with personality disorders. This is in contrast to the traits of cooperativeness and self-directedness which have been found to be low in personality disorder profiles generally. Cloninger suggested that self-transcendence levels may help differentiate between people with schizoid and those with schizotypal personality disorder as the latter is more strongly associated with psychotic thinking.

Psychosis proneness and psychotic symptoms

High self-transcendence has been linked to psychotic tendencies, such as schizotypy and mania, particularly in individuals low in both self-directedness and cooperativeness.

Cloninger proposed that self-transcendence leads to "mature creativity and spirituality" when coupled with high self-directedness.[17] But self-transcendence may be associated with psychotic tendencies when associated with underdeveloped[further explanation needed] character traits.[18] Self-transcendence in itself is moderately related to schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual component associated with magical thinking and unusual perceptions.

A research study found that the specific combination of high self-transcendence, low cooperativeness, and low self-directedness was especially associated with a high risk of overall schizotypy.[18] Another study found that people with schizophrenia also had a combination of high self-transcendence, low cooperativeness, and low self-directedness compared to non-psychotic siblings and a community control group.[19] Cloninger referred to this combination of traits as a "schizotypal personality style".[16] This combination of traits may result in openness to odd or unusual ideas and behaviours associated with distorted perceptions of reality.[16] On the other hand, high levels of cooperativeness and self-directedness may protect against the schizotypal tendencies associated with high self-transcendence.[19]

People with bipolar disorder have been found to score higher in self-transcendence and harm avoidance, and lower in self-directedness compared to a community control group.[17] Levels of self-transcendence in particular were found to be associated with severity of psychotic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder. This accords with previous research findings linking self-transcendence to delusions and mania.[citation needed] Higher self-transcendence in people with bipolar disorder may reflect residual symptoms of the disorder rather than transpersonal or spiritual consciousness.[citation needed]

MacDonald and Holland argued that two of the four sub-dimensions of self-transcendence identified in their study—belief in the supernatural and dissolution of the self in experience—probably account for the relationship between self-transcendence and psychopathology found by researchers.[8] Previous research found linkages between supernatural beliefs and schizotypy, so they suggested that dissolution of the self is likely to be linked to phenomena such as absorption, dissociation, and suggestibility, which have potentially pathological implications.


Criticisms have been made of Cloninger's conception of self-transcendence.[8] Although Cloninger proposed that character traits, including self-transcendence, are wholly learned, more recent research suggests that biological and genetic factors play an important role in how self-transcendence is expressed.[citation needed] Although humanistic and transpersonal theories of psychology maintain that spirituality is an essential component of health and well-being, published research using the Temperament and Character Inventory linked self-transcendence to various aspects of mental illness. Cloninger and colleagues have even proposed that self-transcendence may represent a subclinical manifestation of mood and psychotic disorders.[8]

There is little research evaluating the validity of self-transcendence as a measure of spiritual aspects of personality. MacDonald and Holland found that people who were convinced that they had had a spiritual experience[definition needed] scored higher on self-transcendence compared to those who had not.[8] They also found that self-transcendence had positive and meaningful associations with four areas of spirituality: beliefs about the existence and relevance of spirituality; spiritual experience; paranormal beliefs; and traditional religiousness. (The dissolution-of-the-self sub-dimension of self-transcendence had little relation to these things.) But self-transcendence was largely unrelated to existential well-being.[note 1] Existential well-being was most strongly related to the Temperament and Character Inventory traits of high self-directedness and low harm avoidance. Self-directedness is associated with self-control and adaptability, whereas low harm avoidance is associated with emotional well-being. This suggests that self-transcendence may be a valid measure of areas of spirituality relating to spiritual beliefs, spiritual experiences, paranormal beliefs, and traditional religiousness, but is unrelated to having a sense of meaning and purpose in life, which is more related to other features of personality. Additionally, the dissolution-of-the-self in experience aspect of self-transcendence appears to have little relationship with spirituality and may be related to the trait's more pathological aspects.

Contribution to quality of life

People with schizophrenia tend to have poorer self-rated quality of life compared to the general population. But a study of individual differences in people with schizophrenia found that higher scores on self-transcendence and self-directedness and lower scores on harm avoidance were associated with better self-ratings of quality of life. The authors suggested that this finding accords with previous studies finding that spirituality in people with schizophrenia is associated with better adjustment to illness.[21]

Self-transcendence is correlated with schizophrenia, depersonalization disorder, the dark triad, mystical experiences, mindfulness, peak experiences, flow, and positive emotions. According to David Bryce Yaden, self-transcendence reduces the role of the personal ego in order to establish an increased relational connectedness with the external world.[22]


  1. ^ Existential well-being refers to having a positive sense of meaning and purpose in life and a sense of inner strength. Although considered by some to be an aspect of spirituality, some researchers have argued that existential well-being taps general psychological well-being and is not clearly related to the "spiritual" as the term has been traditionally understood.[20]

See also


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  2. ^ a b c d e f Cloninger, C.R.; Svrakic, D.M.; Przybeck, T.R. (December 1993). "A psychobiological model of temperament and character". Archives of General Psychiatry. 50 (12): 975–90. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240059008. PMID 8250684.
  3. ^ Frankl, Viktor E. (1966). "Self-transcendence as a human phenomenon". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 6 (2): 97–106. doi:10.1177/002216786600600201. S2CID 144208833.
  4. ^ Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2006). "Rediscovering the later version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Self-transcendence and opportunities for theory, research, and unification" (PDF). Review of General Psychology. 10 (4): 302–317. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.10.4.302. S2CID 16046903.
  5. ^ Reed, P. G. (1991). "Toward a nursing theory of self-transcendence: Deductive reformulation using developmental theories". Advances in Nursing Science. 13 (4): 64–77. doi:10.1097/00012272-199106000-00008. PMID 2059006. S2CID 2099622.
  6. ^ a b Tornstam, Lars (1996). "Gerotranscendence: a theory about maturing into old age". Journal of Aging and Identity. 1: 37–50.
  7. ^ Kaufman, S. B. (2021). Transcend: The new science of self-actualization. Penguin.
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  9. ^ Reed, Pamela G. (1991). "Self-transcendence and mental health in oldest-old adults". Nursing Research. 40 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1097/00006199-199101000-00002. PMID 1987557. S2CID 37939669.
  10. ^ Levenson, Michael R.; et al. (2005). "Self-transcendence: Conceptualization and measurement". The International Journal of Aging and Human Development. 60 (2): 127–143. doi:10.2190/XRXM-FYRA-7U0X-GRC0. PMID 15801386. S2CID 35589606.
  11. ^ Frankl, Viktor E. (2014) [1969]. The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy. Penguin.
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  15. ^ Garcia-Romeu, Albert (2010). "Self-transcendence as a measurable transpersonal construct". Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 42 (1): 28.
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  17. ^ a b Loftus, S.T.; Garno, J.L.; Jaeger, L.; Malhotra, A.K. (2008). "Temperament and character dimensions in bipolar I disorder: a comparison to healthy controls". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 42 (13): 1131–6. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.11.005. PMID 18191148.
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