Penjor lining a road in Bali at Galungan
Also calledGalungan
Observed byBalinese Hindus
ObservancesPrayers, Religious rituals
DateHindu Balinese pawukon
Buda Keliwon Dunggulan

Galungan is a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma.[1] It marks the time when the ancestral spirits visit the Earth. The last day of the celebration is Kuningan, when they return. The date is calculated according to the 210-day Balinese Pawukon calendar.


Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremonies. The spirits of deceased relatives who have died and been cremated return to visit their homelands, and the current inhabitants have a responsibility to be hospitable through prayers and offerings. The most obvious sign of the celebrations are the penjor - bamboo poles with offerings suspended at the end. These are installed by the side of roads. A number of days around the Kuningan day have special names, and are marked by the organization of particular activities.[2]

Name of day Activities
3 days before Penyekeban Cooking of bananas for offerings
2 days before Penyajaan Making of jaja (fried rice cakes)
1 day before Penampahan Slaughtering of pigs or chicken for feasts
1 day after Manis Galungan Visiting family
10 days after Kuningan Prayers, offerings - spirits return to heaven
11 days after Manis Kuningan Fun


Galungan begins on the Wednesday (Buda), the 11th week of the 210-day pawukon calendar. This means that there are often two celebrations per solar year. Dates for 2018-2024 are as follows:[3]

Year Galungan Kuningan
2018 May 30 June 9
2018-2019 December 26 January 5
2019 July 24 August 3
2020 February 19 February 29
2020 September 16 September 26
2021 April 14 April 24
2021 November 10 November 20
2022 June 8 June 18
2023 January 4 January 14
2023 August 2 August 12
2024 February 28 March 9

Melasti – Cleansing & Purification

The Melasti ceremony is one of the most important religious rituals in Bali, which takes place a few days before the Nyepi ceremony, also known as the “Day of Silence”.

The Melasti ceremony is a purification ritual practiced by the Balinese people to cleanse their body, mind, and soul before the onset of the new year in accordance with the Saka calendar.

Traditionally, the Melasti ceremony is conducted near the coast or a riverbank, as water is believed to possess purifying qualities. During the ceremony, participants adorned in traditional Balinese attire carry various offerings and sacred items as they make their way to the water source. These offerings typically consist of fruits, flowers, rice, and other symbolic objects. Throughout the procession, prayers and hymns are chanted to invoke blessings and purification.

Nyepi – Day of Silence

It is commemorated every Isakawarsa (Saka new year) according to the Balinese calendar (in 2024, it falls on March 11). It is a Balinese celebration mainly celebrated in Bali, Indonesia.



  1. ^ Eiseman (1989) p353
  2. ^ Eiseman (1989) p183
  3. ^