Parent portals : Geography / Asia / India
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Introduction

TajMahal Banner.jpg
Taj Mahal, Agra, India
Flag of India
Location on the world map

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi. (Full article...)

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  • Core Western Ganga Territory
    Core Western Ganga Territory
  • Image 2The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka region of India made a lasting impact on the subcontinent. Before this, alien empires held sway over the region, and the nucleus of power was outside modern Karnataka. The medieval era can be broadly divided into several periods: The earliest native kingdoms and imperialism; the successful domination of the Gangetic plains in northern India and rivalry with the empires of Tamilakam over the Vengi region; and the domination of the southern Deccan and consolidation against Muslim invasion. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent power date back to the fourth-century birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the earliest of the native rulers to conduct administration in the native language of Kannada in addition to the official Sanskrit. This is the historical starting point in studying the development of the region as an enduring geopolitical entity and of Kannada as an important regional language.In the southern regions of Karnataka, the Western Gangas of Talakad were contemporaries of the Kadambas. The Kadambas and Gangas were followed by the imperial dynasties of the Badami Chalukya Empire, the Rashtrakuta Empire, the Western Chalukya Empire, the Hoysala Empire and the Vijayanagara Empire, all patronising the ancient Indic religions while showing tolerance to the new cultures arriving from the west of the subcontinent. The Muslim invasion of the Deccan resulted in the breaking away of the feudatory Sultanates in the 14th century. The rule of the Bahamani Sultanate of Bidar and the Bijapur Sultanate from the northern Deccan region caused a mingling of the ancient Hindu traditions with the nascent Islamic culture in the region. The hereditary ruling families and clans ably served the large empires and upheld the local culture and traditions. The fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 brought about a slow disintegration of Kannada-speaking regions into minor kingdoms that struggled to maintain autonomy in an age dominated by foreigners until unification and independence in 1947. (Full article...)
    The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka region of India made a lasting impact on the subcontinent. Before this, alien empires held sway over the region, and the nucleus of power was outside modern Karnataka. The medieval era can be broadly divided into several periods: The earliest native kingdoms and imperialism; the successful domination of the Gangetic plains in northern India and rivalry with the empires of Tamilakam over the Vengi region; and the domination of the southern Deccan and consolidation against Muslim invasion. The origins of the rise of the Karnataka region as an independent power date back to the fourth-century birth of the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the earliest of the native rulers to conduct administration in the native language of Kannada in addition to the official Sanskrit. This is the historical starting point in studying the development of the region as an enduring geopolitical entity and of Kannada as an important regional language.

    In the southern regions of Karnataka, the Western Gangas of Talakad were contemporaries of the Kadambas. The Kadambas and Gangas were followed by the imperial dynasties of the Badami Chalukya Empire, the Rashtrakuta Empire, the Western Chalukya Empire, the Hoysala Empire and the Vijayanagara Empire, all patronising the ancient Indic religions while showing tolerance to the new cultures arriving from the west of the subcontinent. The Muslim invasion of the Deccan resulted in the breaking away of the feudatory Sultanates in the 14th century. The rule of the Bahamani Sultanate of Bidar and the Bijapur Sultanate from the northern Deccan region caused a mingling of the ancient Hindu traditions with the nascent Islamic culture in the region. The hereditary ruling families and clans ably served the large empires and upheld the local culture and traditions. The fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 brought about a slow disintegration of Kannada-speaking regions into minor kingdoms that struggled to maintain autonomy in an age dominated by foreigners until unification and independence in 1947. (Full article...)
  • Collins on an 1899 postcard
    Collins on an 1899 postcard
  • Image 5 Kalidas (transl. The Servant of Kali, pronounced [kaːɭidaːs]) is a 1931 Indian Tamil- and Telugu-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani. It is notable for being the first sound film in the Tamil and Telugu languages, and the first sound film to be made in a language from South India. It was based on the life of the Sanskrit poet Kalidasa; it featured P. G. Venkatesan in the title role and T. P. Rajalakshmi as the female lead, with L. V. Prasad, Thevaram Rajambal, T. Susheela Devi, J. Sushila, and M. S. Santhanalakshmi in supporting roles. Kalidas, principally in Tamil, contained additional dialogue in Telugu and Hindi. While Rajalakshmi spoke Tamil, Venkatesan spoke only Telugu due to his lack of fluency in Tamil, and Prasad spoke only Hindi. Despite its mythological theme, the film featured songs from much later time periods, such as the compositions of Carnatic musician Tyagaraja, publicity songs of the Indian National Congress, and songs about Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian independence movement. The sound was recorded using German-made technology. Kalidas was shot in Bombay on the sets of India
  • Image 6Pather Panchali (Bengali pronunciation: [pɔtʰer pãtʃali]; transl. Song of the Little Road) is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal. It is an adaptation of Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's 1929 Bengali novel of the same name, and marked Ray's directorial debut. Featuring Subir Banerjee, Kanu Banerjee, Karuna Banerjee, Uma Dasgupta, Pinaki Sengupta, Chunibala Devi and being the first film in The Apu Trilogy, Pather Panchali depicts the childhood travails of the protagonist Apu and his elder sister Durga  amidst the harsh village life of their poor family.Production was interrupted because of funding problems and it took nearly three years for the film to be completed. The film was shot mainly on location, had a limited budget, featured mostly amateur actors, and was made by an inexperienced crew. The sitar player Ravi Shankar composed the film's soundtrack and score using classical Indian ragas. Subrata Mitra was in charge of the cinematography while editing was handled by Dulal Dutta. Following its premiere on 3 May 1955 during an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art, Pather Panchali was released in Calcutta later the same year to an enthusiastic reception. It was a hit at the box-office, yet up until early 1980 had earned a profit of only ₹24 lakh. A special screening was attended by the Chief Minister of West Bengal and the Prime Minister of India. Critics have praised its realism, humanity, and soul-stirring qualities, while others have called its slow pace a drawback, and some have condemned it for romanticising poverty. Scholars have commented on the film's lyrical quality and realism (influenced by Italian neorealism), its portrayal of the poverty and small delights of daily life, and the use of what the author Darius Cooper has termed the "epiphany of wonder", among other themes. (Full article...)
    Pather Panchali (Bengali pronunciation: [pɔtʰer pãtʃali]; transl.Song of the Little Road) is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal. It is an adaptation of Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's 1929 Bengali novel of the same name, and marked Ray's directorial debut. Featuring Subir Banerjee, Kanu Banerjee, Karuna Banerjee, Uma Dasgupta, Pinaki Sengupta, Chunibala Devi and being the first film in The Apu Trilogy, Pather Panchali depicts the childhood travails of the protagonist Apu and his elder sister Durga amidst the harsh village life of their poor family.

    Production was interrupted because of funding problems and it took nearly three years for the film to be completed. The film was shot mainly on location, had a limited budget, featured mostly amateur actors, and was made by an inexperienced crew. The sitar player Ravi Shankar composed the film's soundtrack and score using classical Indian ragas. Subrata Mitra was in charge of the cinematography while editing was handled by Dulal Dutta. Following its premiere on 3 May 1955 during an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art, Pather Panchali was released in Calcutta later the same year to an enthusiastic reception. It was a hit at the box-office, yet up until early 1980 had earned a profit of only ₹24 lakh. A special screening was attended by the Chief Minister of West Bengal and the Prime Minister of India. Critics have praised its realism, humanity, and soul-stirring qualities, while others have called its slow pace a drawback, and some have condemned it for romanticising poverty. Scholars have commented on the film's lyrical quality and realism (influenced by Italian neorealism), its portrayal of the poverty and small delights of daily life, and the use of what the author Darius Cooper has termed the "epiphany of wonder", among other themes. (Full article...)
  • Virupaksha temple at Hampi, the sacred centre at Vijayanagara, the royal capital
    Virupaksha temple at Hampi, the sacred centre at Vijayanagara, the royal capital
  • Male lion in Okonjima, Namibia
    Male lion in Okonjima, Namibia
  • Khan at an event for Hyundai in 2018
    Khan at an event for Hyundai in 2018
  • Image 10Gemini is a 2002 Indian Tamil-language crime action film written and directed by Saran and produced by AVM Productions. The film features Vikram in the title role of a small-time criminal and aspiring don who, after falling in love, decides to refrain from crime; Kiran Rathod plays his love interest. Murali stars as Singaperumal, a police officer who inspires and guides Gemini in his attempts to reform. The cast includes Kalabhavan Mani as the antagonist while Vinu Chakravarthy, Manorama and Thennavan portray significant roles. Based on gang wars in Chennai, the film delves into the lives of outlaws and the roles the police and society play in their rehabilitation and acceptance.In early 2001, rival gangsters "Vellai" Ravi and Chera reformed themselves with the patronage of a police officer. Saran was inspired by this incident and scripted a story based on it. Production began shortly afterwards in December the same year and was completed by March 2002. The film was shot mainly at the AVM Studios in Chennai, while two song sequences were filmed in Switzerland. The film had cinematography by A. Venkatesh and editing by Suresh Urs while the soundtrack was scored by Bharathwaj. (Full article...)
    Gemini is a 2002 Indian Tamil-language crime action film written and directed by Saran and produced by AVM Productions. The film features Vikram in the title role of a small-time criminal and aspiring don who, after falling in love, decides to refrain from crime; Kiran Rathod plays his love interest. Murali stars as Singaperumal, a police officer who inspires and guides Gemini in his attempts to reform. The cast includes Kalabhavan Mani as the antagonist while Vinu Chakravarthy, Manorama and Thennavan portray significant roles. Based on gang wars in Chennai, the film delves into the lives of outlaws and the roles the police and society play in their rehabilitation and acceptance.

    In early 2001, rival gangsters "Vellai" Ravi and Chera reformed themselves with the patronage of a police officer. Saran was inspired by this incident and scripted a story based on it. Production began shortly afterwards in December the same year and was completed by March 2002. The film was shot mainly at the AVM Studios in Chennai, while two song sequences were filmed in Switzerland. The film had cinematography by A. Venkatesh and editing by Suresh Urs while the soundtrack was scored by Bharathwaj. (Full article...)
  • Pinto in 2014
    Pinto in 2014
  • Image 12Margarita with a Straw is a 2014 Indian Hindi-language drama film directed by Shonali Bose. It stars Kalki Koechlin as an Indian teenager with cerebral palsy who relocates to America for her undergraduate education and comes of age following her complex relationship with a blind girl, played by Sayani Gupta. Revathi, Kuljeet Singh, and William Moseley play supporting roles. Produced by Bose in partnership with Viacom18 Motion Pictures, Margarita with a Straw was co-written by Bose and Nilesh Maniyar. The film deals with the challenging concepts of sexuality, inclusion, self-love, and self-acceptance.Bose conceived the idea for the film in January 2011, during a conversation with Malini Chib—her cousin and a disability rights activist—about the latter's desire to have a normal sex life. Inspired by Chib's story, Bose wrote the first draft of the film's script. After winning a Sundance Mahindra Global Filmmaker Award for the draft, she modified the script to reflect her own perspective, incorporating several personal experiences into the narrative. Bose completed the screenplay with co-writer Maniyar and the advisory council of the Sundance Institute. (Full article...)
    Margarita with a Straw is a 2014 Indian Hindi-language drama film directed by Shonali Bose. It stars Kalki Koechlin as an Indian teenager with cerebral palsy who relocates to America for her undergraduate education and comes of age following her complex relationship with a blind girl, played by Sayani Gupta. Revathi, Kuljeet Singh, and William Moseley play supporting roles. Produced by Bose in partnership with Viacom18 Motion Pictures, Margarita with a Straw was co-written by Bose and Nilesh Maniyar. The film deals with the challenging concepts of sexuality, inclusion, self-love, and self-acceptance.

    Bose conceived the idea for the film in January 2011, during a conversation with Malini Chib—her cousin and a disability rights activist—about the latter's desire to have a normal sex life. Inspired by Chib's story, Bose wrote the first draft of the film's script. After winning a Sundance Mahindra Global Filmmaker Award for the draft, she modified the script to reflect her own perspective, incorporating several personal experiences into the narrative. Bose completed the screenplay with co-writer Maniyar and the advisory council of the Sundance Institute. (Full article...)
  • Image 13 Tripura (/ˈtrɪpʊrə, -ərə/) is a state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi) and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country
  • Territory of the Western Chalukyas (c. 1100 CE) in India (modern boundaries shown) and the empire's capital, Kalyani, in the modern Bidar district, Karnataka state, India
    Territory of the Western Chalukyas (c. 1100 CE) in India (modern boundaries shown) and the empire's capital, Kalyani, in the modern Bidar district, Karnataka state, India
  • Image 15Aitraaz (transl. Objection) is a 2004 Indian Hindi-language romantic thriller film directed by Abbas–Mustan and produced by Subhash Ghai. It stars Akshay Kumar, Priyanka Chopra and Kareena Kapoor with Amrish Puri, Annu Kapoor, Paresh Rawal, Vivek Shauq, Preeti Puri and Upasana Singh in supporting roles.Aitraaz tells the story of a man accused of sexual harassment by his female superior, and was released on 12 November 2004 to positive reviews. Chopra received widespread critical acclaim for her performance as the antagonist. Loosely based on the 1994 film Disclosure, the film was a commercial success grossing ₹260 million at the box office against a budget of ₹80 million, and has been noted for its bold subject of sexual harassment. (Full article...)
    Aitraaz (transl. Objection) is a 2004 Indian Hindi-language romantic thriller film directed by Abbas–Mustan and produced by Subhash Ghai. It stars Akshay Kumar, Priyanka Chopra and Kareena Kapoor with Amrish Puri, Annu Kapoor, Paresh Rawal, Vivek Shauq, Preeti Puri and Upasana Singh in supporting roles.

    Aitraaz tells the story of a man accused of sexual harassment by his female superior, and was released on 12 November 2004 to positive reviews. Chopra received widespread critical acclaim for her performance as the antagonist. Loosely based on the 1994 film Disclosure, the film was a commercial success grossing 260 million at the box office against a budget of 80 million, and has been noted for its bold subject of sexual harassment. (Full article...)
  • Jinnah in 1945
    Jinnah in 1945
  • Image 17 The Chalukya dynasty ([tʃaːɭukjə]) was a Classical Indian dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas. A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". Kannada literature, which had enjoyed royal support in the 9th century Rashtrakuta court found eager patronage from the Western Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions. The 11th century saw the patronage of Telugu literature under the Eastern Chalukyas. (Full article...)
  • Map 1: Mysore and Coorg in a map of peninsular India showing shifting boundaries
    Map 1: Mysore and Coorg in a map of peninsular India showing shifting boundaries
  • Portrait by Rudolf Swoboda, 1888
    Portrait by Rudolf Swoboda, 1888
  • Indian roller in Kanha National Park, India
    Indian roller in Kanha National Park, India
  • Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura
    Profile of a Hoysala temple at Somanathapura
  • Image 22Anbe Sivam (transl. Love Is God) is a 2003 Indian Tamil-language comedy drama film directed by Sundar C. and produced by K. Muralitharan, V. Swaminathan and G. Venugopal under the banner of Lakshmi Movie Makers. The film was written by Kamal Haasan, and Madhan provided the dialogues. Anbe Sivam stars Haasan, Madhavan and Kiran Rathod, with Nassar, Santhana Bharathi, Seema and Uma Riyaz Khan playing supporting characters. The film tells the story of Nallasivam and Anbarasu, two men of contrasting personalities who undertake an unexpected journey from Bhubaneswar to Chennai.Produced on a budget of ₹120 million, Anbe Sivam takes on themes such as communism, atheism, and altruism and depicts Haasan's humanist views. The music was composed by Vidyasagar. Arthur A. Wilson served as the cinematographer and M. Prabhaharan served as the art director. (Full article...)
    Anbe Sivam (transl. Love Is God) is a 2003 Indian Tamil-language comedy drama film directed by Sundar C. and produced by K. Muralitharan, V. Swaminathan and G. Venugopal under the banner of Lakshmi Movie Makers. The film was written by Kamal Haasan, and Madhan provided the dialogues. Anbe Sivam stars Haasan, Madhavan and Kiran Rathod, with Nassar, Santhana Bharathi, Seema and Uma Riyaz Khan playing supporting characters. The film tells the story of Nallasivam and Anbarasu, two men of contrasting personalities who undertake an unexpected journey from Bhubaneswar to Chennai.

    Produced on a budget of 120 million, Anbe Sivam takes on themes such as communism, atheism, and altruism and depicts Haasan's humanist views. The music was composed by Vidyasagar. Arthur A. Wilson served as the cinematographer and M. Prabhaharan served as the art director. (Full article...)
  • Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
    Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
  • Image 24 The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent that ruled most of what is now Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur, but was later moved to Halebidu. The Hoysala rulers were originally from Malenadu, an elevated region in the Western Ghats. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the Western Chalukya Empire and Kalachuris of Kalyani, the Hoysalas annexed areas of present-day Karnataka and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri delta in present-day Tamil Nadu. By the 13th century, they governed most of Karnataka, minor parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in the Deccan Plateau. (Full article...)
  • Ray in New York, 1981
    Ray in New York, 1981

Selected pictures

  • Image 1Indian rollerPhotograph credit: Charles J. SharpThe Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis) is a member of the bird family Coraciidae, the rollers. It occurs widely from the Arabian Peninsula to the Indian subcontinent and is designated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The bird is best known for the aerobatic displays of males during the breeding season. It is commonly found in open grassland and scrub forest habitats, and is often seen perched on roadside bare trees and wires, which give it a good view of the ground below where it finds its prey. Its diet consists mainly of insects such as beetles and grasshoppers, but also includes spiders, scorpions, amphibians and small reptiles. The largest population occurs in India, and several states in India have chosen it as their state bird.This picture shows an Indian roller of the benghalensis subspecies, photographed in Kanha Tiger Reserve in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.More selected pictures
    The Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis) is a member of the bird family Coraciidae, the rollers. It occurs widely from the Arabian Peninsula to the Indian subcontinent and is designated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. The bird is best known for the aerobatic displays of males during the breeding season. It is commonly found in open grassland and scrub forest habitats, and is often seen perched on roadside bare trees and wires, which give it a good view of the ground below where it finds its prey. Its diet consists mainly of insects such as beetles and grasshoppers, but also includes spiders, scorpions, amphibians and small reptiles. The largest population occurs in India, and several states in India have chosen it as their state bird.

    This picture shows an Indian roller of the benghalensis subspecies, photographed in Kanha Tiger Reserve in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Image 2Danaus genutiaPhotograph: VengolisDanaus genutia, also known as the common tiger or striped tiger, is a species of butterfly found throughout India as well as Sri Lanka, Myanmar, South-East Asia and Australia. It is a member of the Danainae group of brush-footed butterflies. Both sexes have tawny wings with veins marked with broad black bands, and the male has a pouch on its hindwing. The butterfly is found in scrub jungles, fallow land adjacent to habitation, and deciduous forests, preferring areas of moderate to heavy rainfall. Its most common food plants in peninsular India are small herbs, twiners and creepers from the family Asclepiadaceae. The caterpillar of D. genutia obtains poison by eating poisonous plants, which make the caterpillar and butterfly taste unpleasant to predators. It has some 16 subspecies and although its evolutionary relationships are not completely resolved, it appears to be most closely related to the Malay tiger (D. affinis) and the white tiger.More selected pictures
    Danaus genutia, also known as the common tiger or striped tiger, is a species of butterfly found throughout India as well as Sri Lanka, Myanmar, South-East Asia and Australia. It is a member of the Danainae group of brush-footed butterflies. Both sexes have tawny wings with veins marked with broad black bands, and the male has a pouch on its hindwing. The butterfly is found in scrub jungles, fallow land adjacent to habitation, and deciduous forests, preferring areas of moderate to heavy rainfall. Its most common food plants in peninsular India are small herbs, twiners and creepers from the family Asclepiadaceae. The caterpillar of D. genutia obtains poison by eating poisonous plants, which make the caterpillar and butterfly taste unpleasant to predators. It has some 16 subspecies and although its evolutionary relationships are not completely resolved, it appears to be most closely related to the Malay tiger (D. affinis) and the white tiger.
  • Image 3PotterPhoto: YannA potter at work in Jaura, Madhya Pradesh, India. Pottery, defined by ASTM International as "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products", originated during the Neolithic period.More selected pictures
    Photo: Yann
    A potter at work in Jaura, Madhya Pradesh, India. Pottery, defined by ASTM International as "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products", originated during the Neolithic period.
  • Image 4Chandiroor DivakaranPhotograph: Augustus BinuChandiroor Divakaran (b. 1946) is a Malayalam–language poet and folk song writer from Kerala, India. He has published numerous collections of poetry since his debut collection, Radha, in 1965.More selected pictures
    Chandiroor Divakaran (b. 1946) is a Malayalam–language poet and folk song writer from Kerala, India. He has published numerous collections of poetry since his debut collection, Radha, in 1965.
  • Image 5Round ribbontail rayPhotograph credit: Rucha Karkarey; edited by John HarrisonThe round ribbontail ray (Taeniura meyeni) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found throughout the nearshore waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Reaching 1.8 m (6 ft) across, this large ray is characterized by a thick, rounded pectoral fin disc covered by small tubercles on top, and a relatively short tail bearing a single venomous spine. The ray is well-camouflaged when lying on the seabed; it is largely nocturnal, and preys on molluscs, crustaceans and bony fish. Mature females bear litters of up to seven pups, which are fed during gestation on "uterine milk", a product secreted by the walls of the oviduct. This round ribbontail ray was photographed in Lakshadweep, India.More selected pictures
    The round ribbontail ray (Taeniura meyeni) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found throughout the nearshore waters of the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Reaching 1.8 m (6 ft) across, this large ray is characterized by a thick, rounded pectoral fin disc covered by small tubercles on top, and a relatively short tail bearing a single venomous spine. The ray is well-camouflaged when lying on the seabed; it is largely nocturnal, and preys on molluscs, crustaceans and bony fish. Mature females bear litters of up to seven pups, which are fed during gestation on "uterine milk", a product secreted by the walls of the oviduct. This round ribbontail ray was photographed in Lakshadweep, India.
  • Image 6Al-Ameen College of PharmacyPhoto: Muhammad Mahdi KarimAl-Ameen College of Pharmacy is a pharmacy college in Bangalore, India. Established in 1983, it is under the purview of the Al-Ameen Educational Society.More selected pictures
    Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy
    Photo: Muhammad Mahdi Karim
    Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy is a pharmacy college in Bangalore, India. Established in 1983, it is under the purview of the Al-Ameen Educational Society.
  • Image 7Taj MahalPhotograph: Yann; edit: Jim CarterA view of the Taj Mahal from the south, featuring the Charbagh garden. The mausoleum complex also includes subsidiary tombs, waterworks infrastructure, the small town of Taj Ganji, and a "moonlight garden". Its origins and architecture have been extensively documented, covering both the circumstances of its commission and the cultural and historical influence of the Islamic Mughal Empire in India.More selected pictures
    Photograph: Yann; edit: Jim Carter
    A view of the Taj Mahal from the south, featuring the Charbagh garden. The mausoleum complex also includes subsidiary tombs, waterworks infrastructure, the small town of Taj Ganji, and a "moonlight garden". Its origins and architecture have been extensively documented, covering both the circumstances of its commission and the cultural and historical influence of the Islamic Mughal Empire in India.
  • Image 8Papilio polymnestorPhotograph credit: Jeevan JosePapilio polymnestor, the blue Mormon, is a species of swallowtail butterfly found in southern India and Sri Lanka. It is a woodland species, often seen on forest paths and near streams. The larvae feed on trees in the family Rutaceae, such as citrus. Young larvae are green with white markings and position themselves on the upper surface of leaves, relying on their cryptic colouring, which resembles bird droppings, for protection. Older larvae seek less conspicuous locations, and have a unique habit of securing their balance by weaving silk on the substratum. This adult male P. polymnestor butterfly was photographed in the Indian state of Kerala.More selected pictures
    Papilio polymnestor, the blue Mormon, is a species of swallowtail butterfly found in southern India and Sri Lanka. It is a woodland species, often seen on forest paths and near streams. The larvae feed on trees in the family Rutaceae, such as citrus. Young larvae are green with white markings and position themselves on the upper surface of leaves, relying on their cryptic colouring, which resembles bird droppings, for protection. Older larvae seek less conspicuous locations, and have a unique habit of securing their balance by weaving silk on the substratum. This adult male P. polymnestor butterfly was photographed in the Indian state of Kerala.
  • Image 9Black pepperPhoto: K Hari KrishnanUnripe drupes of black pepper (Piper nigrum) at Trivandrum, Kerala, India. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn.More selected pictures
    Photo: K Hari Krishnan
    Unripe drupes of black pepper (Piper nigrum) at Trivandrum, Kerala, India. The drupes are cooked briefly in hot water. The heat ruptures cell walls in the pepper, speeding the work of browning enzymes during drying. The drupes are dried for several days, during which the pepper around the seed shrinks and darkens into a thin, wrinkled black layer. Once dried, the spice is called black peppercorn.
  • Image 10Indian palm squirrelPhotograph: Muhammad Mahdi KarimAn Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) photographed in Bangalore, India. In India these squirrels are associated with the Hindu deity Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, and as such are not to be harmed. However, in Western Australia they are considered pests and at times targeted for eradication.More selected pictures
    An Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) photographed in Bangalore, India. In India these squirrels are associated with the Hindu deity Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, and as such are not to be harmed. However, in Western Australia they are considered pests and at times targeted for eradication.
  • Image 11Brahmaea wallichiiPhotograph: Arthur Chapman; edit: Papa Lima Whiskey and Ryan KaldariBrahmaea wallichii, also known as the owl moth, is a moth from the family Brahmaeidae. With a wingspan of about 90–160 mm (3.5–6.3 in), it is one of the largest species of Brahmin moth. This nocturnal species is found in India, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Taiwan and Japan.More selected pictures
    Photograph: Arthur Chapman; edit: Papa Lima Whiskey and Ryan Kaldari
    Brahmaea wallichii, also known as the owl moth, is a moth from the family Brahmaeidae. With a wingspan of about 90–160 mm (3.5–6.3 in), it is one of the largest species of Brahmin moth. This nocturnal species is found in India, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Taiwan and Japan.
  • Image 12OdissiPhotograph: Augustus BinuOdissi is an ancient classical dance that originated in the Hindu temples of Odisha, India. Historically, it has been performed predominantly by women, and expressed religious stories and spiritual ideas, particularly of Vaishnavism (Vishnu as Jagannath), but also of other traditions such as those related to Hindu gods Shiva and Surya, as well as Hindu goddesses (Shaktism). Modern Odissi productions by Indian artists have presented a diverse range of experimental ideas, culture fusion, themes and plays.Odissi is learnt and performed as a composite of a basic dance motif called the Bhangas (symmetric body bends, stance). It involves the lower, mid, and upper body as three sources of perfecting expression and audience engagement with geometric symmetry and rhythmic musical resonance.More selected pictures
    Odissi is an ancient classical dance that originated in the Hindu temples of Odisha, India. Historically, it has been performed predominantly by women, and expressed religious stories and spiritual ideas, particularly of Vaishnavism (Vishnu as Jagannath), but also of other traditions such as those related to Hindu gods Shiva and Surya, as well as Hindu goddesses (Shaktism). Modern Odissi productions by Indian artists have presented a diverse range of experimental ideas, culture fusion, themes and plays.

    Odissi is learnt and performed as a composite of a basic dance motif called the Bhangas (symmetric body bends, stance). It involves the lower, mid, and upper body as three sources of perfecting expression and audience engagement with geometric symmetry and rhythmic musical resonance.
  • Image 13Leptosia ninaPhotograph credit: Jeevan JoseLeptosia nina, known as the psyche, is a species of butterfly in the family Pieridae (the sulphurs, yellows and whites), found in the Indian subcontinent, southeastern Asia, and Australia. It has a small wingspan of 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in). The upper side of the otherwise white forewing has a large, somewhat pear-shaped, black spot; this spot is also present on the underside which is scattered with greenish dots and speckles, sometimes arranged in bands. This L. nina butterfly was photographed in Kerala, India.More selected pictures
    Photograph credit: Jeevan Jose
    Leptosia nina, known as the psyche, is a species of butterfly in the family Pieridae (the sulphurs, yellows and whites), found in the Indian subcontinent, southeastern Asia, and Australia. It has a small wingspan of 2.5 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in). The upper side of the otherwise white forewing has a large, somewhat pear-shaped, black spot; this spot is also present on the underside which is scattered with greenish dots and speckles, sometimes arranged in bands. This L. nina butterfly was photographed in Kerala, India.
  • Image 14BanglesPhotograph: Muhammad Mahdi KarimBangles on display in Bangalore, India. These rigid bracelets are usually made from metal, wood, or plastic and are traditionally   worn by women in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In India, it is a common tradition to see a new bride wearing glass bangles at her wedding and the honeymoon will end when the last bangle breaks.More selected pictures
    Bangles on display in Bangalore, India. These rigid bracelets are usually made from metal, wood, or plastic and are traditionally worn by women in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In India, it is a common tradition to see a new bride wearing glass bangles at her wedding and the honeymoon will end when the last bangle breaks.
  • Image 15Lal BaghPhoto: Muhammad Mahdi KarimThe glass house at Lal Bagh, a botanical garden in Bangalore, India. The garden was commissioned by the ruler of Mysore, Hyder Ali in 1760, and completed during the reign of his son Tipu Sultan. The glass house was modeled on London's Crystal Palace and constructed at the end of the 19th century.More selected pictures
    The glass house at Lal Bagh, a botanical garden in Bangalore, India. The garden was commissioned by the ruler of Mysore, Hyder Ali in 1760, and completed during the reign of his son Tipu Sultan. The glass house was modeled on London's Crystal Palace and constructed at the end of the 19th century.

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This is a Featured list, which the Wikipedia community considers to be the best lists on English Wikipedia.
  • Image 1 Piku is a 2015 Indian comedy-drama film directed by Shoojit Sircar and produced by N.P. Singh, Ronnie Lahiri and Sneha Rajani. The film stars Deepika Padukone as the eponymous protagonist, alongside Amitabh Bachchan and Irrfan Khan. Moushumi Chatterjee and Jisshu Sengupta play supporting roles. It was written by Juhi Chaturvedi and the musical score was composed by Anupam Roy. Piku tells the story of a headstrong Bengali architect, who along with her hypochondriac father and a helpful businessman embark on a road trip from New Delhi to Kolkata. Made on an estimated budget of ₹420 million (US$5.3 million), Piku was released on 8 May 2015, and grossed approximately ₹1.41 billion (US$18 million) worldwide. The film garnered awards and nominations in several categories, with particular praise for its writing, music, and the performances of Padukone and Bachchan. As of June 2016, the film has won a minimum of 35 awards. (Full article...)
  • Studio publicity photograph of Bachchan in 2009
    Studio publicity photograph of Bachchan in 2009
  • Kapoor at an event for Bajrangi Bhaijaan in 2015
    Kapoor at an event for Bajrangi Bhaijaan in 2015
  • Image 4 The chief minister of West Bengal is the representative of the Government of India in the state of West Bengal and the head of the executive branch of the Government of West Bengal. The chief minister is head of the Council of Ministers and appoints ministers. The chief minister, along with their cabinet, exercises executive authority in the state. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. In August 7 1947, the British Indian province of Bengal was partitioned into the Pakistani province of East Bengal and the Indian state of West Bengal. Since then West Bengal has had eight chief ministers, starting with Prafulla Chandra Ghosh of the Indian National Congress (INC) party as the premier. A period of political instability followed—West Bengal witnessed three elections, four coalition governments and three stints of President
  • Tabu in 2019
    Tabu in 2019
  • Dhanush in 2017
    Dhanush in 2017
  • Shetty in 2017
    Shetty in 2017
  • Kapil Dev is India's third highest wicket-taker in Test cricket.
    Kapil Dev is India's third highest wicket-taker in Test cricket.
  • Yash Chopra, the founder of Yash Raj Films, pictured in 2012. He directed 13 films for the company between 1973 and 2012.
    Yash Chopra, the founder of Yash Raj Films, pictured in 2012. He directed 13 films for the company between 1973 and 2012.
  • Khan at an event in 2012
    Khan at an event in 2012
  • Image 11Vishwaroopam is a 2013 Indian spy thriller film directed by Kamal Haasan. Besides starring in the lead role with Pooja Kumar, Haasan co-produced the film with S. Chandrahaasan and Prasad V. Potluri, and co-wrote the script with Atul Tiwari. Andrea Jeremiah, Rahul Bose, Shekhar Kapur and Nassar play supporting roles in the film. The film's story revolves around Wisam Ahmed Kashmiri, a spy from India's intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing, stopping a group of Al-Qaeda terrorists led by Omar (Bose) from triggering a dirty bomb made by scraping caesium from oncological equipment in New York City. A bilingual film, made in Tamil and Hindi (as Vishwaroop), the soundtrack and score were composed by Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy. Sanu Varghese and Mahesh Narayanan were in charge of the film's cinematography and editing respectively. Lalgudi N. Ilaiyaraaja and Boontawee 'Thor' Taweepasas were in charge of art direction while Birju Maharaj handled the choreography.Vishwaroopam was made on a budget of ₹950 million. The film was released on 25 January 2013 worldwide except Tamil Nadu where it was banned due to protest by Islamic organisations which cited that Muslims were depicted in a negative manner. The ban on the film was lifted and it released on 7 February 2013 after a mutual agreement between Haasan and the organisations; the Hindi version was released on 1 February 2013. Both versions received generally positive reviews and were commercial successes at the box office, collectively grossing ₹2.2 billion overall. (Full article...)
    Vishwaroopam is a 2013 Indian spy thriller film directed by Kamal Haasan. Besides starring in the lead role with Pooja Kumar, Haasan co-produced the film with S. Chandrahaasan and Prasad V. Potluri, and co-wrote the script with Atul Tiwari. Andrea Jeremiah, Rahul Bose, Shekhar Kapur and Nassar play supporting roles in the film. The film's story revolves around Wisam Ahmed Kashmiri, a spy from India's intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing, stopping a group of Al-Qaeda terrorists led by Omar (Bose) from triggering a dirty bomb made by scraping caesium from oncological equipment in New York City. A bilingual film, made in Tamil and Hindi (as Vishwaroop), the soundtrack and score were composed by Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy. Sanu Varghese and Mahesh Narayanan were in charge of the film's cinematography and editing respectively. Lalgudi N. Ilaiyaraaja and Boontawee 'Thor' Taweepasas were in charge of art direction while Birju Maharaj handled the choreography.

    Vishwaroopam was made on a budget of 950 million. The film was released on 25 January 2013 worldwide except Tamil Nadu where it was banned due to protest by Islamic organisations which cited that Muslims were depicted in a negative manner. The ban on the film was lifted and it released on 7 February 2013 after a mutual agreement between Haasan and the organisations; the Hindi version was released on 1 February 2013. Both versions received generally positive reviews and were commercial successes at the box office, collectively grossing ₹2.2 billion overall. (Full article...)
  • The Sudan Block of NDA
    The Sudan Block of NDA
  • Karan Johar, the son of founder Yash Johar, has directed seven films for Dharma Productions, as of 2022
    Karan Johar, the son of founder Yash Johar, has directed seven films for Dharma Productions, as of 2022
  • Basu at the audio release of Creature 3D
    Basu at the audio release of Creature 3D
  • Shahid Kapoor's portrayal of the titular character in Haider garnered him several awards
    Shahid Kapoor's portrayal of the titular character in Haider garnered him several awards
  • Antennas at a ham operator's station.
    Antennas at a ham operator's station.
  • Hrithik Roshan garnered several awards and nominations for his performance in Koi... Mil Gaya.
    Hrithik Roshan garnered several awards and nominations for his performance in Koi... Mil Gaya.
  • Since Brabourne hosted its first international match in 1948, 35 Test centuries and 2 ODI centuries have been scored at the ground.
    Since Brabourne hosted its first international match in 1948, 35 Test centuries and 2 ODI centuries have been scored at the ground.
  • Image 20 The Chief Minister of Jharkhand is the chief executive of the Indian state of Jharkhand. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state
  • Image 21Neerja is a 2016 Indian Hindi-language biographical thriller film directed by Ram Madhvani and produced by Atul Kasbekar. The film stars Sonam Kapoor as Neerja Bhanot and features Shekhar Ravjiani, Shabana Azmi and Yogendra Tiku among others in supporting roles. The film's script and screenplay were penned by Saiwyn Quadras, the dialogue was written by Sanyuktha Chawla Sheikh, and the editing was handled by Monisha R Baldawa. Set in Karachi, the plot of Neerja centres on the Libyan-backed Abu Nidal Organization's hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan, on 5 September 1986. The film is shown from the point of view of the flight's head purser, Neerja Bhanot, who died saving passengers on the hijacked flight.Made on a budget of ₹200 million (US$3.1 million), Neerja was released on 19 February 2016, and grossed ₹1.35 billion (US$17 million) worldwide. The film won 31 awards from 45 nominations; its direction and performances of the cast members have received the most attention from award groups. (Full article...)
    Neerja is a 2016 Indian Hindi-language biographical thriller film directed by Ram Madhvani and produced by Atul Kasbekar. The film stars Sonam Kapoor as Neerja Bhanot and features Shekhar Ravjiani, Shabana Azmi and Yogendra Tiku among others in supporting roles. The film's script and screenplay were penned by Saiwyn Quadras, the dialogue was written by Sanyuktha Chawla Sheikh, and the editing was handled by Monisha R Baldawa. Set in Karachi, the plot of Neerja centres on the Libyan-backed Abu Nidal Organization's hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan, on 5 September 1986. The film is shown from the point of view of the flight's head purser, Neerja Bhanot, who died saving passengers on the hijacked flight.

    Made on a budget of 200 million (US$3.1 million), Neerja was released on 19 February 2016, and grossed 1.35 billion (US$17 million) worldwide. The film won 31 awards from 45 nominations; its direction and performances of the cast members have received the most attention from award groups. (Full article...)
  • Vidya Balan's performance in Kahaani garnered her several awards and nominations
    Vidya Balan's performance in Kahaani garnered her several awards and nominations
  • Image 23Kaththi (transl. Knife) is a 2014 Indian Tamil-language action film written and directed by AR Murugadoss. The film stars Vijay and Samantha Ruth Prabhu while Sathish, Neil Nitin Mukesh and Tota Roy Chowdhury play supporting roles. The film focuses on the attempts made by a petty thief Kathiresan (Vijay), the look-alike of a jailed hydrology graduate Jeevanandham (Vijay), to lead a rebellion by farmers from the latter's village, Thanoothu. Kathiresan helps them fight against Chirag (Mukesh), the owner of a soft drink company who has exploited Thanoothu's water resources for his own profit. Produced by Allirajah Subaskaran and K. Karunamoorthy under their production company Lyca Productions, the soundtrack and score were composed by Anirudh Ravichander. George C. Williams and A. Sreekar Prasad were in charge of the cinematography and editing respectively.Produced on a budget of ₹700 million, Kaththi was released on 22 October 2014 to critical acclaim. It was commercially successful, grossing ₹1.3 billion worldwide. The film won 14 awards from 33 nominations; its direction, story, screenplay, performances of the cast members, music, choreography and stunt direction have received the most attention from award groups. (Full article...)
    Kaththi (transl. Knife) is a 2014 Indian Tamil-language action film written and directed by AR Murugadoss. The film stars Vijay and Samantha Ruth Prabhu while Sathish, Neil Nitin Mukesh and Tota Roy Chowdhury play supporting roles. The film focuses on the attempts made by a petty thief Kathiresan (Vijay), the look-alike of a jailed hydrology graduate Jeevanandham (Vijay), to lead a rebellion by farmers from the latter's village, Thanoothu. Kathiresan helps them fight against Chirag (Mukesh), the owner of a soft drink company who has exploited Thanoothu's water resources for his own profit. Produced by Allirajah Subaskaran and K. Karunamoorthy under their production company Lyca Productions, the soundtrack and score were composed by Anirudh Ravichander. George C. Williams and A. Sreekar Prasad were in charge of the cinematography and editing respectively.

    Produced on a budget of 700 million, Kaththi was released on 22 October 2014 to critical acclaim. It was commercially successful, grossing 1.3 billion worldwide. The film won 14 awards from 33 nominations; its direction, story, screenplay, performances of the cast members, music, choreography and stunt direction have received the most attention from award groups. (Full article...)
  • Ajith in 2021
    Ajith in 2021

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  • Image 1 Thanjavur (Tamil: [taɲdʑaːʋuːɾ]), also Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is the 11th biggest city in Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Kaveri Delta and is known as the Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 128.02 km2 (49.43 sq mi) and had a population of 290,720 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city also has rail connectivity. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km (37.0 mi) away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal, which is 94 km (58 mi) away from Thanjavur. (Full article...)
  • Rati
    Rati
  • Image 3 Leslie Simon Goonewardene (Sinhala: ලෙස්ලි සයිමන් ගුනවර්ධන, Tamil: லெஸ்லி சைமன் குணவர்தன; 31 October 1909 – 11 April 1983) was a prominent Sri Lankan statesman. He founded Sri Lanka
  • Image 4S/O Satyamurthy (read as Son of Satyamurthy) is a 2015 Indian Telugu-language action drama film written and directed by Trivikram Srinivas and produced by S. Radha Krishna for Haarika & Haasine Creations. The film stars Allu Arjun, Upendra, Samantha, Nithya Menen, Sneha, and Adah Sharma while Rajendra Prasad, Sampath Raj, Rao Ramesh, Vennela Kishore, and Ali play supporting roles. Prakash Raj make a cameo appearance as Satyamurthy.The film revolves around three characters; the first follows his heart, the second uses his brain and the third uses his brawn. The first is Viraj Anand, the son of a businessman named Satyamurthy, who gives away his assets to creditors after his father's death. A creditor still owed money is Paida Sambasiva Rao (the second of the three), whose daughter Sameera falls in love with Anand. Sambasiva Rao informs Anand that he has to produce documentation of land sold by Satyamurthy to a landlord, Devaraj Naidu (the third of the three) to marry Sameera. The rest of the film focuses on the consequences faced by Anand and Sambasiva Rao's change in viewpoint toward Satyamurthy. (Full article...)
    S/O Satyamurthy (read as Son of Satyamurthy) is a 2015 Indian Telugu-language action drama film written and directed by Trivikram Srinivas and produced by S. Radha Krishna for Haarika & Haasine Creations. The film stars Allu Arjun, Upendra, Samantha, Nithya Menen, Sneha, and Adah Sharma while Rajendra Prasad, Sampath Raj, Rao Ramesh, Vennela Kishore, and Ali play supporting roles. Prakash Raj make a cameo appearance as Satyamurthy.

    The film revolves around three characters; the first follows his heart, the second uses his brain and the third uses his brawn. The first is Viraj Anand, the son of a businessman named Satyamurthy, who gives away his assets to creditors after his father's death. A creditor still owed money is Paida Sambasiva Rao (the second of the three), whose daughter Sameera falls in love with Anand. Sambasiva Rao informs Anand that he has to produce documentation of land sold by Satyamurthy to a landlord, Devaraj Naidu (the third of the three) to marry Sameera. The rest of the film focuses on the consequences faced by Anand and Sambasiva Rao's change in viewpoint toward Satyamurthy. (Full article...)
  • Image 5 Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is an urban lake, the second largest lake in Jammu and Kashmir, and the most visited place in Srinagar by tourists and locals. It is integral to tourism and recreation in the Kashmir valley and is variously known as the "Lake of Flowers", "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar
  • Image 6The Mānasollāsa(ಮಾನಸೋಲ್ಲಾಸ) also known as Abhilashitartha Chintamani, is an early 12th-century Sanskrit text composed by the Kalyani Chalukya king Someshvara III, who ruled in present-day Karnataka . It is an encyclopedic work covering topics such as polity, governance, ethics, economics, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, veterinary medicine, horticulture, perfumes, food, architecture, games, painting, poetry, dance and music. The text is a valuable source of socio-cultural information on 11th- and 12th-century India.The encyclopedic treatise is structured as five sub-books with a cumulative total of 100 chapters. It is notable for its extensive discussion of arts, particularly music and dance. It is also notable for including chapters on food recipes and festivals, many of which are a part of modern Indian culture. (Full article...)
    The Mānasollāsa(ಮಾನಸೋಲ್ಲಾಸ) also known as Abhilashitartha Chintamani, is an early 12th-century Sanskrit text composed by the Kalyani Chalukya king Someshvara III, who ruled in present-day Karnataka . It is an encyclopedic work covering topics such as polity, governance, ethics, economics, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, veterinary medicine, horticulture, perfumes, food, architecture, games, painting, poetry, dance and music. The text is a valuable source of socio-cultural information on 11th- and 12th-century India.

    The encyclopedic treatise is structured as five sub-books with a cumulative total of 100 chapters. It is notable for its extensive discussion of arts, particularly music and dance. It is also notable for including chapters on food recipes and festivals, many of which are a part of modern Indian culture. (Full article...)
  • Roman trade in the subcontinent according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei 1st century CE
    Roman trade in the subcontinent according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei 1st century CE
  • L. p. punctulata (India)
    L. p. punctulata (India)
  • The cyclone on 29 October at its record peak intensity, as it made landfall on Odisha
    The cyclone on 29 October at its record peak intensity, as it made landfall on Odisha
  • Mokashi in 2009
    Mokashi in 2009
  • Image 11Drishyam (transl. Visual) is a 2013 Indian Malayalam-language crime thriller film written and directed by Jeethu Joseph. It stars Mohanlal and Meena, with Ansiba Hassan, Esther Anil, Kalabhavan Shajohn, Asha Sharath, Siddique, Roshan Basheer and Neeraj Madhav in supporting roles. The film was produced by Antony Perumbavoor for Aashirvad Cinemas. It follows the struggle of Georgekutty and his family, who come under suspicion when Varun Prabhakar, the son of the Inspector-General of Police, goes missing.The film began principal photography in the first week of October 2013 at Thodupuzha in Kerala, where the film was extensively shot. Filming was completed in 44 days which was originally scheduled for 52 days. The cinematography was done by Sujith Vaassudev and was edited by Ayoob Khan. The soundtrack of the film was composed by Anil Johnson and Vinu Thomas. (Full article...)
    Drishyam (transl. Visual) is a 2013 Indian Malayalam-language crime thriller film written and directed by Jeethu Joseph. It stars Mohanlal and Meena, with Ansiba Hassan, Esther Anil, Kalabhavan Shajohn, Asha Sharath, Siddique, Roshan Basheer and Neeraj Madhav in supporting roles. The film was produced by Antony Perumbavoor for Aashirvad Cinemas. It follows the struggle of Georgekutty and his family, who come under suspicion when Varun Prabhakar, the son of the Inspector-General of Police, goes missing.

    The film began principal photography in the first week of October 2013 at Thodupuzha in Kerala, where the film was extensively shot. Filming was completed in 44 days which was originally scheduled for 52 days. The cinematography was done by Sujith Vaassudev and was edited by Ayoob Khan. The soundtrack of the film was composed by Anil Johnson and Vinu Thomas. (Full article...)
  • Image 12Maitreyi (Sanskrit: मैत्रेयी) ("Wise one") was an Indian philosopher who lived during the later Vedic period in ancient India. She is mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as one of two wives of the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya; she is estimated to have lived around the 8th century BCE. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata and the Gṛhyasūtras, however, Maitreyi is described as an Advaita philosopher who never married.  In ancient Sanskrit literature, she is known as a brahmavadini (an expounder of the Veda).Maitreyi appears in ancient Indian texts, such as in a dialogue where she explores the Hindu concept of Atman (soul or self) in a dialogue with Yajnavalkya in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. According to this dialogue, love is driven by a person's soul, and Maitreyi discusses the nature of Atman and Brahman and their unity, the core of Advaita philosophy. This Maitreyi-Yajnavalkya dialogue is the topic of Sureshvara's varttika, a commentary. (Full article...)
    Maitreyi (Sanskrit: मैत्रेयी) ("Wise one") was an Indian philosopher who lived during the later Vedic period in ancient India. She is mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as one of two wives of the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya; she is estimated to have lived around the 8th century BCE. In the Hindu epic Mahabharata and the Gṛhyasūtras, however, Maitreyi is described as an Advaita philosopher who never married. In ancient Sanskrit literature, she is known as a brahmavadini (an expounder of the Veda).

    Maitreyi appears in ancient Indian texts, such as in a dialogue where she explores the Hindu concept of Atman (soul or self) in a dialogue with Yajnavalkya in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. According to this dialogue, love is driven by a person's soul, and Maitreyi discusses the nature of Atman and Brahman and their unity, the core of Advaita philosophy. This Maitreyi-Yajnavalkya dialogue is the topic of Sureshvara's varttika, a commentary. (Full article...)
  • Image 13Aashiqui 2 (transl. Romance 2) is a 2013 Indian Hindi-language romantic musical drama film directed by Mohit Suri and produced by Mukesh Bhatt, Bhushan Kumar and Krishan Kumar under the Vishesh Films and T-Series Films, with Mahesh Bhatt serving as presenter. A spiritual successor to the 1990 musical film Aashiqui. A remake of the 1937 film A Star Is Born, the film stars Aditya Roy Kapur and Shraddha Kapoor in the lead roles, with Shaad Randhawa and Mahesh Thakur in supporting roles, as well as Salil Acharya in a cameo appearance. Set in the early 2010s, the film centers on a turbulent romantic relationship between a failing singer, Rahul Jaykar, and his protege, aspiring singer Aarohi Keshav Shirke, which is affected by Rahul's issues with alcohol abuse and temperament.There were initially several concerns in the Indian media that it could not live up to the high standards and success of the original. Production of the film began in 2011, with the principal photography taking place in Cape Town, Goa and Mumbai on a budget of ₹18 crore (US$2.3 million). (Full article...)
    Aashiqui 2 (transl. Romance 2) is a 2013 Indian Hindi-language romantic musical drama film directed by Mohit Suri and produced by Mukesh Bhatt, Bhushan Kumar and Krishan Kumar under the Vishesh Films and T-Series Films, with Mahesh Bhatt serving as presenter. A spiritual successor to the 1990 musical film Aashiqui. A remake of the 1937 film A Star Is Born, the film stars Aditya Roy Kapur and Shraddha Kapoor in the lead roles, with Shaad Randhawa and Mahesh Thakur in supporting roles, as well as Salil Acharya in a cameo appearance. Set in the early 2010s, the film centers on a turbulent romantic relationship between a failing singer, Rahul Jaykar, and his protege, aspiring singer Aarohi Keshav Shirke, which is affected by Rahul's issues with alcohol abuse and temperament.

    There were initially several concerns in the Indian media that it could not live up to the high standards and success of the original. Production of the film began in 2011, with the principal photography taking place in Cape Town, Goa and Mumbai on a budget of 18 crore (US$2.3 million). (Full article...)
  • Image 14The economic development in India followed socialist-inspired politicians for most of its independent history, including state-ownership of many sectors; India's per capita income increased at only around 1% annualised rate in the three decades after its independence. Since the mid-1980s, India has slowly opened up its markets through economic liberalisation. After more fundamental reforms since 1991 and their renewal in the 2000s, India has progressed towards a free market economy. In the late 2000s, India's growth reached 7.5%, which will double the average income in a decade. IMF says that if India pushed more fundamental market reforms, it could sustain the rate and even reach the government's 2011 target of 10%. States have large responsibilities over their economies. The average annual growth rates (2007–12) for Gujarat (13.86%), Uttarakhand (13.66%), Bihar (10.15%) or Jharkhand (9.85%) were higher than for West Bengal (6.24%), Maharashtra (7.84%), Odisha (7.05%), Punjab (11.78%) or Assam (5.88%). India is the Fifth largest economy in the world by nominial basis and the third largest by purchasing power parity adjusted exchange rates (PPP). On per capita basis, it ranks 140th in the world or 129th by PPP. (Full article...)
    The economic development in India followed socialist-inspired politicians for most of its independent history, including state-ownership of many sectors; India's per capita income increased at only around 1% annualised rate in the three decades after its independence. Since the mid-1980s, India has slowly opened up its markets through economic liberalisation. After more fundamental reforms since 1991 and their renewal in the 2000s, India has progressed towards a free market economy.

    In the late 2000s, India's growth reached 7.5%, which will double the average income in a decade. IMF says that if India pushed more fundamental market reforms, it could sustain the rate and even reach the government's 2011 target of 10%. States have large responsibilities over their economies. The average annual growth rates (2007–12) for Gujarat (13.86%), Uttarakhand (13.66%), Bihar (10.15%) or Jharkhand (9.85%) were higher than for West Bengal (6.24%), Maharashtra (7.84%), Odisha (7.05%), Punjab (11.78%) or Assam (5.88%). India is the Fifth largest economy in the world by nominial basis and the third largest by purchasing power parity adjusted exchange rates (PPP). On per capita basis, it ranks 140th in the world or 129th by PPP. (Full article...)
  • Sai Baba (photograph before 1918)
    Sai Baba (photograph before 1918)
  • Image 16 , there have been two Formula One drivers from India. Indian Formula One drivers have had a race entry to 59 Grands Prix. Across these Grands Prix, Indian Formula One drivers have accumulated 5 points between them. No Indian driver has taken a race win, podium, fastest lap or pole position. Narain Karthikeyan made his debut in 2005 driving for Jordan. He would score 5 points at that year
  • Image 17Delhi Daredevils (abbreviated as DD) is a franchise cricket team based in Delhi, India, which plays in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The team competed in the 2012 IPL and finished at the third place, thus qualified for the 2012 Champions League Twenty20 (CLT20). It topped the league and the group stage in the IPL and the CLT20 respectively; however, it failed to win any match in the playoffs.After finishing last in the previous season, the Daredevils added players such as Mahela Jayawardene, Andre Russell, Kevin Pietersen and Ross Taylor to the squad. Eric Simons succeeded Greg Shipperd as the head coach and T. A. Sekhar took the mentorship. The team won 11 of the 16 matches played in the league stage of the IPL and topped the point table. However, it lost both its two matches in the playoffs and finished at the third place. In the CLT20, they won two of its four group stage matches, while the other two were abandoned due to rain. It topped its group and reached the semi-final, where it lost to the Highveld Lions. Morné Morkel was the highest wicket-taker in the IPL, whereas skipper Virender Sehwag became the first batsman to score five consecutive fifties in the league. After the CLT20, the team released fourteen of its players, including Robin Bist, Aaron Finch and Venugopal Rao, signing Jesse Ryder, Johan Botha and Jeevan Mendis. (Full article...)
    Delhi Daredevils (abbreviated as DD) is a franchise cricket team based in Delhi, India, which plays in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The team competed in the 2012 IPL and finished at the third place, thus qualified for the 2012 Champions League Twenty20 (CLT20). It topped the league and the group stage in the IPL and the CLT20 respectively; however, it failed to win any match in the playoffs.

    After finishing last in the previous season, the Daredevils added players such as Mahela Jayawardene, Andre Russell, Kevin Pietersen and Ross Taylor to the squad. Eric Simons succeeded Greg Shipperd as the head coach and T. A. Sekhar took the mentorship. The team won 11 of the 16 matches played in the league stage of the IPL and topped the point table. However, it lost both its two matches in the playoffs and finished at the third place. In the CLT20, they won two of its four group stage matches, while the other two were abandoned due to rain. It topped its group and reached the semi-final, where it lost to the Highveld Lions. Morné Morkel was the highest wicket-taker in the IPL, whereas skipper Virender Sehwag became the first batsman to score five consecutive fifties in the league. After the CLT20, the team released fourteen of its players, including Robin Bist, Aaron Finch and Venugopal Rao, signing Jesse Ryder, Johan Botha and Jeevan Mendis. (Full article...)
  • The final venue, DY Patil Stadium, before the match
    The final venue, DY Patil Stadium, before the match
  • Image 19"Within You Without You" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Written by lead guitarist George Harrison, it was his second composition in the Indian classical style, after "Love You To", and inspired by his stay in India in late 1966 with his mentor and sitar teacher Ravi Shankar. Recorded in London without the other Beatles, it features Indian instrumentation such as sitar, tambura, dilruba and tabla, and was performed by Harrison and members of the Asian Music Circle. The recording marked a significant departure from the Beatles' previous work; musically, it evokes the Indian devotional tradition, while the overtly spiritual quality of the lyrics reflects Harrison's absorption in Hindu philosophy and the teachings of the Vedas.The song was Harrison's only composition on Sgt. Pepper, although his endorsement of Indian culture was further reflected in the inclusion of yogis such as Paramahansa Yogananda among the crowd depicted on the album's cover. With the worldwide success of the album, "Within You Without You" presented Indian classical music to a new audience in the West and contributed to the genre's peak in international popularity. It also influenced the philosophical direction of many of Harrison's peers during an era of utopian idealism marked by the Summer of Love. The song has traditionally received a varied response from music critics, some of whom find it lacklustre and pretentious, while others admire its musical authenticity and consider its message to be the most meaningful on Sgt. Pepper. Writing for Rolling Stone, David Fricke described the track as "at once beautiful and severe, a magnetic sermon about materialism and communal responsibility in the middle of a record devoted to gentle Technicolor anarchy". (Full article...)
    "Within You Without You" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Written by lead guitarist George Harrison, it was his second composition in the Indian classical style, after "Love You To", and inspired by his stay in India in late 1966 with his mentor and sitar teacher Ravi Shankar. Recorded in London without the other Beatles, it features Indian instrumentation such as sitar, tambura, dilruba and tabla, and was performed by Harrison and members of the Asian Music Circle. The recording marked a significant departure from the Beatles' previous work; musically, it evokes the Indian devotional tradition, while the overtly spiritual quality of the lyrics reflects Harrison's absorption in Hindu philosophy and the teachings of the Vedas.

    The song was Harrison's only composition on Sgt. Pepper, although his endorsement of Indian culture was further reflected in the inclusion of yogis such as Paramahansa Yogananda among the crowd depicted on the album's cover. With the worldwide success of the album, "Within You Without You" presented Indian classical music to a new audience in the West and contributed to the genre's peak in international popularity. It also influenced the philosophical direction of many of Harrison's peers during an era of utopian idealism marked by the Summer of Love. The song has traditionally received a varied response from music critics, some of whom find it lacklustre and pretentious, while others admire its musical authenticity and consider its message to be the most meaningful on Sgt. Pepper. Writing for Rolling Stone, David Fricke described the track as "at once beautiful and severe, a magnetic sermon about materialism and communal responsibility in the middle of a record devoted to gentle Technicolor anarchy". (Full article...)
  • Image 20Ra.One is a 2011 Indian Hindi-language superhero film directed by Anubhav Sinha. The film stars Shah Rukh Khan in dual roles, Kareena Kapoor, Arjun Rampal and Armaan Verma with Shahana Goswami, Tom Wu, Dalip Tahil and Satish Shah in supporting roles. The script, written by Sinha and Kanika Dhillon, originated as an idea that Sinha got when he saw a television commercial and which he subsequently expanded. The film follows Shekhar Subramanium (Khan), in London in the year 2013, a game designer who creates a motion sensor-based game in which the antagonist (Ra.One) is more powerful than the protagonist (G.One)(also played by Khan). The former escapes from the game's virtual world and enters the real world; his aim is to kill Lucifer, the game ID of Shekhar's son and the only player to have challenged Ra.One's power. Relentlessly pursued, the family is forced to bring out G.One from the virtual world to defeat Ra.One and protect them.Principal photography began in March 2010 and took place in India and the United Kingdom and was overseen by an international crew. The post-production involved 3-D conversion and the application of visual effects, the latter being recognised as a technological breakthrough among Indian films. With a budget of ₹150 crore (equivalent to ₹263 crore or US$33 million in 2020), inclusive of publicity costs, Ra.One was the most expensive Indian film at the time of release surpassing the ₹132 crore (equivalent to ₹252 crore or US$32 million in 2020) budget of Enthiran (2010). The producers spent ₹130 crore (equivalent to ₹228 crore or US$29 million in 2020) out of a ₹52 crore (equivalent to ₹91 crore or US$11 million in 2020) marketing budget, which involved a nine-month publicity campaign, brand tie-ups, merchandise, video games and viral marketing. (Full article...)
    Ra.One is a 2011 Indian Hindi-language superhero film directed by Anubhav Sinha. The film stars Shah Rukh Khan in dual roles, Kareena Kapoor, Arjun Rampal and Armaan Verma with Shahana Goswami, Tom Wu, Dalip Tahil and Satish Shah in supporting roles. The script, written by Sinha and Kanika Dhillon, originated as an idea that Sinha got when he saw a television commercial and which he subsequently expanded. The film follows Shekhar Subramanium (Khan), in London in the year 2013, a game designer who creates a motion sensor-based game in which the antagonist (Ra.One) is more powerful than the protagonist (G.One)(also played by Khan). The former escapes from the game's virtual world and enters the real world; his aim is to kill Lucifer, the game ID of Shekhar's son and the only player to have challenged Ra.One's power. Relentlessly pursued, the family is forced to bring out G.One from the virtual world to defeat Ra.One and protect them.

    Principal photography began in March 2010 and took place in India and the United Kingdom and was overseen by an international crew. The post-production involved 3-D conversion and the application of visual effects, the latter being recognised as a technological breakthrough among Indian films. With a budget of 150 crore (equivalent to 263 crore or US$33 million in 2020), inclusive of publicity costs, Ra.One was the most expensive Indian film at the time of release surpassing the 132 crore (equivalent to 252 crore or US$32 million in 2020) budget of Enthiran (2010). The producers spent 130 crore (equivalent to 228 crore or US$29 million in 2020) out of a 52 crore (equivalent to 91 crore or US$11 million in 2020) marketing budget, which involved a nine-month publicity campaign, brand tie-ups, merchandise, video games and viral marketing. (Full article...)
  • Image 21Nenjil Or Aalayam (transl. A Temple in the Heart) is a 1962 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film directed, produced and written by C. V. Sridhar. The film stars Kalyan Kumar, Devika and R. Muthuraman while Nagesh, Manorama and Kutty Padmini play supporting roles. The original soundtrack album and background score were composed by Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy, while the lyrics for the songs were written by Kannadasan.The film revolves around a young woman named Seetha, her husband Venu and Murali, who was Seetha's lover. Due to his tenure overseas, Seetha's parents force her to marry another person. A few years later, Venu contracts cancer and Seetha brings him to Chennai to meet a cancer specialist who, to her dismay, is revealed to be Murali. Realising that something is worrying Seetha, Venu gives her the freedom to marry Murali after his death. The remainder of the film shows how Murali sacrifices his love for the sake of the couple's happiness and cures Venu. (Full article...)
    Nenjil Or Aalayam (transl. A Temple in the Heart) is a 1962 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film directed, produced and written by C. V. Sridhar. The film stars Kalyan Kumar, Devika and R. Muthuraman while Nagesh, Manorama and Kutty Padmini play supporting roles. The original soundtrack album and background score were composed by Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy, while the lyrics for the songs were written by Kannadasan.

    The film revolves around a young woman named Seetha, her husband Venu and Murali, who was Seetha's lover. Due to his tenure overseas, Seetha's parents force her to marry another person. A few years later, Venu contracts cancer and Seetha brings him to Chennai to meet a cancer specialist who, to her dismay, is revealed to be Murali. Realising that something is worrying Seetha, Venu gives her the freedom to marry Murali after his death. The remainder of the film shows how Murali sacrifices his love for the sake of the couple's happiness and cures Venu. (Full article...)
  • Image 22Rakta Sambandham (transl. A bond of blood) is a 1962 Indian Telugu-language drama film directed by V. Madhusudhan Rao and produced by Sundarlal Nahata and Doondi. The film stars N. T. Rama Rao, Kanta Rao, Savitri and Devika, with Relangi, Ramana Reddy, M. Prabhakar Reddy and Suryakantham in supporting roles. A remake of A. Bhimsingh's Tamil-language film Pasamalar (1961), it narrates the story of bonding between Rajasekhar "Raju" and his sister Radha, who lose their parents at an early age. Radha falls in love with Raju's friend Anand and they marry. The rest of the film focuses on the impact made by Anand's aunt Kanthamma on their lives post marriage.Produced on a restricted budget and filmed majorly in sets erected at Golden Film Studios and Vijaya Vauhini Studios, Rakta Sambandham's screenplay was written by Mullapudi Venkata Ramana. Ghantasala composed the soundtrack and background score. C. Nageswara Rao and N. S. Prakasham served as the director of photography and editor respectively. Krishna Rao was the art director. (Full article...)
    Rakta Sambandham (transl. A bond of blood) is a 1962 Indian Telugu-language drama film directed by V. Madhusudhan Rao and produced by Sundarlal Nahata and Doondi. The film stars N. T. Rama Rao, Kanta Rao, Savitri and Devika, with Relangi, Ramana Reddy, M. Prabhakar Reddy and Suryakantham in supporting roles. A remake of A. Bhimsingh's Tamil-language film Pasamalar (1961), it narrates the story of bonding between Rajasekhar "Raju" and his sister Radha, who lose their parents at an early age. Radha falls in love with Raju's friend Anand and they marry. The rest of the film focuses on the impact made by Anand's aunt Kanthamma on their lives post marriage.

    Produced on a restricted budget and filmed majorly in sets erected at Golden Film Studios and Vijaya Vauhini Studios, Rakta Sambandham's screenplay was written by Mullapudi Venkata Ramana. Ghantasala composed the soundtrack and background score. C. Nageswara Rao and N. S. Prakasham served as the director of photography and editor respectively. Krishna Rao was the art director. (Full article...)
  • Image 23 Madurai (/ˈmædjʊraɪ/ MA-DHU-RYE, also US: /ˌmɑːdəˈraɪ/ MAH-də-RYE, Tamil: [mad̪uɾaɪ̯]) is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the cultural capital of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Madurai District. As of the 2011 census, it was the third largest Urban agglomeration in Tamil Nadu after Chennai and Coimbatore and the 44th most populated city in India. Located on the banks of River Vaigai, Madurai has been a major settlement for two millennia and has a documented history of more than 2500 years. It is often referred to as "Thoonga Nagaram", meaning "the city that never sleeps". Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language. The third Tamil Sangam, a major congregation of Tamil scholars said to have been held in the city. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned by Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the Maurya empire, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Signs of human settlements and Roman trade links dating back to 300 BCE are evident from excavations by Archeological Survey of India in Manalur. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Pandyas, Cholas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Carnatic kingdom, and the British East India Company British Raj. (Full article...)
  • Image 24Anniyan (transl. Stranger) is a 2005 Indian Tamil-language psychological action thriller film written and directed by S. Shankar and produced by V. Ravichandran of Aascar Films. The plot centres on a disillusioned everyman whose frustration at what he sees as increasing social apathy and public negligence leads to a split personality that attempts to improve the system. Vikram stars as Ambi, an idealistic, law-abiding lawyer who has Dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as Multiple personality disorder) and develops two other identities: a suave fashion model named Remo and a murderous vigilante named Anniyan. Sadha plays the female lead role. Actors Vivek, Nedumudi Venu, Nassar and Prakash Raj also featured in the film.Shankar conceived the film in mid-2003 during the post-production period of his previous film, Boys. He based the film on his own life experiences during his formative years when he was disturbed by what he saw around him, and his eventual displeasure with the society. Pre-production for Anniyan began in November 2003 and principal photography in March 2004. The making of the film, which included numerous production delays, took 14 months. The film was shot at Hyderabad, Thanjavur, Tindivanam and Chennai, and the song sequences were filmed in Mumbai, Malaysia, Amsterdam and Tenkasi. The film was notable for its recreation of the Tyagaraja Aradhana music festival and the extensive use of time slice photography in an action sequence. (Full article...)
    Anniyan (transl. Stranger) is a 2005 Indian Tamil-language psychological action thriller film written and directed by S. Shankar and produced by V. Ravichandran of Aascar Films. The plot centres on a disillusioned everyman whose frustration at what he sees as increasing social apathy and public negligence leads to a split personality that attempts to improve the system. Vikram stars as Ambi, an idealistic, law-abiding lawyer who has Dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as Multiple personality disorder) and develops two other identities: a suave fashion model named Remo and a murderous vigilante named Anniyan. Sadha plays the female lead role. Actors Vivek, Nedumudi Venu, Nassar and Prakash Raj also featured in the film.

    Shankar conceived the film in mid-2003 during the post-production period of his previous film, Boys. He based the film on his own life experiences during his formative years when he was disturbed by what he saw around him, and his eventual displeasure with the society. Pre-production for Anniyan began in November 2003 and principal photography in March 2004. The making of the film, which included numerous production delays, took 14 months. The film was shot at Hyderabad, Thanjavur, Tindivanam and Chennai, and the song sequences were filmed in Mumbai, Malaysia, Amsterdam and Tenkasi. The film was notable for its recreation of the Tyagaraja Aradhana music festival and the extensive use of time slice photography in an action sequence. (Full article...)

News

6 September 2022 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in India
COVID-19 vaccination in India
India approves a nasal COVID-19 vaccine to combat COVID-19, becoming the second country to do so after China. (CNA)
21 August 2022 –
At least 50 people are killed by flooding caused by heavy rains in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, India. (Reuters)
16 August 2022 –
Six people are killed and several others are injured when a bus falls into a gorge in Jammu and Kashmir, India. (Reuters)

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