BSE Limited
Official logo of BSE[1]
Corporate headquarters on Dalal Street
TypeStock exchange
LocationMumbai, Maharashtra, India
Founded9 July 1875; 148 years ago (9 July 1875)[2]
Key people
CurrencyIndian rupee ()
No. of listings5,390[5]
Market cap424.6 trillion (US$5.1 trillion) (May 2024)[6]
Indices
Websitebseindia.com
Company
NSEBSE
ISININE118H01017
Headquarters
Websitewww.bseindia.com Edit this on Wikidata

BSE Limited, also known as the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), is an Indian stock exchange which is located on Dalal Street, known as the Wall Street of Mumbai,[8] in turn described as the New York of India.[9] Established in 1875 by cotton merchant Premchand Roychand,[10] it is the oldest stock exchange in Asia,[11] and also the tenth oldest in the world.[12] The BSE is the world's 7th largest stock exchange with a market capitalization exceeding US$5 trillion as of May 2024.[13]

History

Bombay Stock Exchange logo until June 2023

Bombay Stock Exchange was founded by Premchand Roychand in 1875.[14] While BSE Limited is now synonymous with Dalal Street, it was not always so. In the 1850s, five stock brokers gathered together under a Banyan tree in front of Mumbai Town Hall, where Horniman Circle is now situated.[15] A decade later, the brokers moved their location to under the banyan trees at the junction of Meadows Street and what was then called Esplanade Road, now Mahatma Gandhi Road. With a rapid increase in the number of brokers, they had to shift places repeatedly. At last, in 1874, the brokers found a permanent location, the one that they could call their own. The brokers group became an official organization known as "The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association" in 1875.[16]

On 12 March 1993, a car bomb exploded in the basement of the building during the 1993 Bombay bombings.[17] The BSE is also a Partner Exchange of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchange initiative, joining in September 2012.[18] BSE established India INX on 30 December 2016. India INX is the first international exchange of India.[19] BSE became the first stock exchange in the country to launch commodity derivatives contract in gold and silver in October 2018.[20]

BSE was demutualized and corporatized on 19 May 2007, pursuant to the BSE (Corporatization and Demutualization) Scheme, 2005 notified by SEBI.[21][22] It was listed on NSE on 3 February 2017.[23][24][a]

Market statistics

BSE from 1990 to 2020 (Indices S&P BSE Sensex)
Indian stock market indices S&P BSE 500 (1999 to 2020)
Chart of S&P BSE SENSEX monthly data from January 1991 to May 2013
BSE Sensex from December 1979 to May 2012 (daily closings)

Criticism and controversies

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

Main articles: 1992 Indian stock market scam, Harshad Mehta, and Ketan Parekh

See also: NSE co-location scam

The Indian stock exchanges BSE and NSE have witnessed several high-profile corruption scandals.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57] At times, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has barred several individuals and entities from trading on the exchanges for insider trading, stock manipulation, especially in illiquid mid-caps, small-caps and penny stocks.[58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65]

Market operators illegal activity

Market operators continue to operate in the Indian stock market, albeit within a regulatory framework aimed at ensuring transparency and fairness. Market operators are individuals or entities that actively engage in buying and selling securities to influence their prices for profit. They operate through various strategies, such as arbitrage, short selling, high-frequency trading, front running, churning, scalping, wash trading, spoofing, and layering, often leveraging sophisticated technology and large capital. Regulatory bodies like the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) oversee market activities to curb malpractices such as insider trading, price rigging, and market manipulation. SEBI has implemented measures, including surveillance systems, to detect and penalize unethical practices. Despite these regulations, market operators exploit loopholes to gain an edge, necessitating continuous vigilance and regulatory updates. Market operators in India often use the "pump and dump" strategy, despite strict regulations against such practices. The "pump and dump" scheme involves artificially inflating the price of a stock (pump) through false or misleading positive statements. Once the price has been significantly raised, the operators then sell off their holdings (dump) at the inflated prices, leading to a sharp price decline and substantial losses for other investors who bought in at the higher prices. Their activities have continued to impact market volatility, liquidity, and price discovery, playing a significant role in the dynamics of the Indian stock market.[66][67][68][69][70]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ SEBI Regulation 45(1) of Securities Contracts (Regulation) (Stock Exchanges and Clearing Corporations) Regulations, 2018 prohibits self-listing of a stock exchange in India.[25]

Citations

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Further reading

  • Kochhar, S. (2015). BSE: Journey of an Aspiring Nation. Skoch Media. ISBN 978-8-1929-1725-2.
  • Ramkumar, R.R. and Selvam, M. (2014). Efficiency of BSE Sectoral Indices in India: A Study with Special Reference to Bombay Stock Exchange Ltd in India. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH KG. ISBN 978-3-6592-1130-0.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Kaur, H. (2002). Stock Market Volatility in India. Deep & Deep Publications. ISBN 978-8-1762-9361-7.
  • Basu, D. and Dalal, S. (1993). The Scam: Who Won, who Lost, who Got Away. UBS Publishers' Distributors. ISBN 978-8-1859-4410-4. LCCN 93902443.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Hiremath, G.S. (2013). Indian Stock Market: An Empirical Analysis of Informational Efficiency. Springer India. ISBN 978-8-1322-1590-5. LCCN 2013946889.
  • Cummings, L. (2014). Rethinking the BSE Crisis: A Study of Scientific Reasoning under Uncertainty. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-9-4017-8491-7.
  • Razdan, A. Scaling in the bombay stock exchange index. Pramana - J Phys 58, 537–544 (2002). doi:10.1007/s12043-002-0063-y
  • Goel, A., Tripathi, V. and Agarwal, M. (2021), "Market microstructure: a comparative study of Bombay stock exchange and national stock exchange", Journal of Advances in Management Research, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 414-442. doi:10.1108/JAMR-06-2020-0109
  • Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar and Eleswarapu, Venkat R., Liquidity, Stock Returns and Ownership Structure - An Empirical Study of the Bombay Stock Exchange (March 31, 1994). IIM Bangalore Research Paper No. 65, Available at SSRN 2181543 or doi:10.2139/ssrn.2181543
  • Sumon Kumar Bhaumik. “Stock Index Futures in India: Does the Market Justify Its Use?” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 32, no. 41, 1997, pp. 2608–11. JSTOR 4405950. Accessed 13 Feb. 2024.
  • Ganeshaiah, K. N. “Has the Behaviour of the Stock Market Been Affected by the Scam? — A Statistical Analysis.” Current Science, vol. 63, no. 7, 1992, pp. 345–47. JSTOR 24095453. Accessed 13 Feb. 2024.
  • Nair, S. (2021). Bulls, Bears and Other Beasts (5th Anniversary Edition): A Story of the Indian Stock Market. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-9-3907-4257-8.

18°55′47″N 72°50′00″E / 18.9298°N 72.8334°E / 18.9298; 72.8334 (Bombay Stock Exchange)