Map showing the location of airports and seaports in India

India has a coastline spanning 7517 kilometres, forming one of the biggest peninsulas in the world. According to the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways, around 95 per cent of India's trading by volume and 68 per cent by value is done through maritime transport. It is serviced by 13 major ports (12 Government-owned and one private) and 187 notified minor and intermediate ports. India's major ports handled highest ever cargo of 795 million tonne in FY23.[1] India has 13 major ports - Deendayal (Kandla), Mumbai, Mormugao, New Mangalore, Cochin, Chennai, Ennore (Kamarajar), Tuticorin (V O Chidambaranar), Visakhapatnam, Paradip and Kolkata (including Haldia) and Jawaharlal Nehru Port. Port Blair which was notified as major port in 2010 was removed of its status recently. The total 200 major and non-major ports are present in the following States: Maharashtra (53); Gujarat (40); Kerala (21); Tamil Nadu (15); Andhra Pradesh (13); Karnataka (10) and others (50).[2] Government of India plans to build new greenfield ports and also built associated infrastructure such as railway lines through the 2015 established Sagarmala project,[3] and National Maritime Development Programme.[4]

Classification of ports

Indian government has a federal structure, and according to its constitution, maritime transport is to be administered by both the Central and the State governments. While the central government's shipping ministry administers the major ports, the minor and intermediate ports are administered by the relevant departments or ministries in the nine coastal states of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Several of these 187 minor and intermediate ports have been identified by the respective governments to be developed, in a phased manner, a good proportion of them involving public–private partnership.


The capacity of Indian ports currently stands at 2,604.99 mtpa.[5] The container throughput of Indian ports stood at 17 million TEUs for the period 2020.[6]

Ship breaking

As of January 2020, India has 30% share of ship breaking with annual US$1.1 billion revenue. India is a signatory to Hong Kong International Convention for the safe and environmentally sound recycling of ships. India plans to pass the "Recycling of Ships Act, 2019" to ratify the Hong Kong treaty. This will allow India to capture its targeted 60% in the global ship breaking business while doubling the annual to US$2.3 billion target.[7] India's Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard is world's largest ships' graveyard.[7] Other ship graveyards in India is the Steel Industrials Kerala Limited breaking unit.[8]

Cargo handled

List of ports in India is located in India
Navi Mumbai
Location of 28 major & big ports of India. Hover over the dot to see the city name with rank in parentheses.

The following table gives the detailed data about the 28 major & big ports of India.[9] (Source: Indian Ports Association and Indian Private Ports & Terminals Association )

No. Name Estb. Date/Year Image City State Cargo Handled
Container Traffic
Ownership Coast
million tonnes % Increase
(over previous FY)
'000 TEUs % Increase
(over previous FY)
1 Mundra Port 1998 Mundra Gujarat 150 Adani Group Western
2 Deendayal Port Trust 1965 Kandla Gujarat 137.0[10] 4.42% ↑ 117 95.73% ↑ Government of India Western
3 Paradip Port Authority 18 April 1966 Paradeep Odisha 135[11] 14.68% ↑ 7 71.43% ↑ Government of India Eastern
4 Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust 1988 Navi Mumbai Maharashtra 75.94 6.20% ↑ 4,833 6.89% ↑ Government of India Western
5 Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port, Kolkata
(Kolkata Dock System and Haldia Dock Complex)
1870 (KDS) and 1967 (HDC) Kolkata and Haldia West Bengal 65.66 18.61% ↑ 675 3.45% ↑ Government of India Eastern
6 Visakhapatnam Port Trust 1933 Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 63.54 4.12% ↑ 389 5.66% ↑ Government of India Eastern
7 Mumbai Port Trust 1873 Mumbai Maharashtra 62.83 -0.35% ↓ 42 -2.38% ↓ Government of India Western
9 Karaikal Port 2009 Karaikal Puducherry 55 Adani Group Eastern
10 Chennai Port Trust 1881 Chennai Tamil Nadu 51.88 3.32% ↑ 1,549 3.49% ↑ Government of India Eastern
11 JSW Jaigad Port 2006 Ratnagiri district Maharashtra 50 JSW Group Western
12 Krishnapatnam Port 2008 Krishnapatnam Andhra Pradesh 45 Adani Group Eastern
13 New Mangaluru Port Trust 1974 Mangaluru Karnataka 42.06 5.28% ↑ 115 17.39% ↑ Government of India Western
14 Kamarajar Port 2001 Ennore Tamil Nadu 38 Adani Group Eastern
15 V.O. Chidambaranar Port Authority 1974 Thoothukkudi Tamil Nadu 36.58 -4.91% ↓ 698 8.02% ↑ Government of India Eastern
16 JSW Dharamtar Port 2012 Alibag Maharastra 34 JSW Group Western
17 Cochin Port Trust 1928 Kochi Kerala 32.02 16.52% ↑ 735 11.69% ↑ Government of India Western
18 Hazira Port 2013 Hazira Gujarat 30 Adani Group Western
19 Dighi Port 2000 Raigad district Maharashtra 30 Adani Group Eastern
20 Mormugao Port Trust 1985 Mormugao Goa 26.90 -18.94% ↓ 32 6.25% ↑ Government of India Western
21 Dhamra Port 2011 Bhadrak district Odisha 25 Adani Group Eastern
22 Gopalpur port 2013 Chhatrapur Odisha 25 Shapoorji Pallonji Group Eastern
23 Gangavaram Port 2009 Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 18.04 Adani Group Eastern
24 Kattupalli Port 2012 Kattupalli Tamil Nadu 18 Adani Group Eastern
25 Dahej Port 2010 Bharuch district Gujarat 17.5 Adani Group Western
26 Kakinada Port 1999 East Godavari Andhra Pradesh 14 Aurobindo Group Eastern
27 Tuna Port 2022[12] Tuna Gujarat 14 Adani Group Western
28 APM Terminals Pipavav 2002 Pipavav Gujarat 2 -46% ↓ 1.35 Maersk Western
All Ports India 1,234.1 4.77% ↑ 9,138 7.62% ↑ -

Regional Ports

There are maritime boards that port operates minor ports under the ownership of state governments.In 2018–19, minor ports of Gujarat alone handled total 542 MMT of cargo.[13] Maharashtra Maritime Board sets record of handling 71 mn tons of cargo in 2022–23.[14]

There are multiple regional minor ports in India under the maritime boards as given below:-

Port Handling Equipment

India has multiple port machinery companies such as Elecon Engg., TRF, Yellowstone Engineers India Pvt Ltd, McNally Bharat Engineering etc.

Partially opened ports

These type of ports are partially constructed or undergoing mass expansion due to which they are operating without full capacity.

Name Location Type Ownership
Angré Port Jaigad, Maharashtra Dry/Bulk Chowgule Group
Agardanda Shipyard & Terminals Agardanda, Maharashtra Container/Bulk Adani Group
New Bedi Port Bedi, Gujarat Container/Bulk Gujarat Maritime Board
Bhavnagar Port Bhavnagar, Gujarat CNG/Bulk Government of Gujarat
Karanja Port[15] Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra Container/Bulk Mercantile Ports and Logistics (MPL)
JSW Salav Port Salav, Maharashtra Dry/Bulk JSW Infrastructure
Mulapeta Port Bhavanapadu, Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh Container/Bulk AP Government
Machilipatnam Port Machilipatnam, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh Container/Bulk AP Government
Ramayapatnam Port Ramayapatnam, Andhra Pradesh Container/Bulk AP Government
Rohini Yard Rohini, Maharashtra Dry/Bulk DAS Offshore Ltd.
Kakinada Gateway Port Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh Container/Bulk AP Government
Konkan Terminal Dabhol, Maharashtra LNG GAIL
Vizhinjam International Seaport Thiruvananthapuram Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala Container Adani Group

List of terminals

These are classified as terminals not ports, these can be easily upgraded to container ports

Name Location Status Type Ownership
Bhavnagar Port Bhavnagar, Gujarat under-construction CNG/Bulk Government of Gujarat
Konkan Terminal Dabhol, Maharashtra Completed in 2018 LNG GAIL
Chhara LNG Terminal Chhara, Gujarat under-construction LNG HPCL
Kochi LNG Terminal Kochi, Kerala Completed in 2013 LNG Petronet LNG
Kukrahati LNG Terminal Kukrahati,West Bengal under-construction LNG H-Energy
Jaigad Terminal Jaigad, Maharashtra Completed in 2022 LNG H-Energy
Jafrabad Terminal Jafrabad,Gujarat under-construction LNG Swan Energy
Sikka Port Sikka, Gujarat Completed in 1997 Oil Reliance Industries
Vadinar Port Vadinar,Gujarat Completed in 1978 Oil Indian Oil, Nayara Energy

Apart from this there are also LNG Terminals in ports such as Dahej, GAIL Kakinada FSRU, Hazira LNG Terminal, Krishnapatnam FSRU, Mumbai FSRU, Ennore LNG Terminal, Dhamra LNG Terminal, Chennai LNG Terminal etc.


  1. ^ "India's Major Ports Handled Highest Ever Cargo Of 795 Million Tonne In FY23: Sarbananda Sonowal". Outlook. Press Trust of India. 28 April 2023.
  2. ^ "MoS, GoI". Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Cabinet gives 'in principle' nod to concept of Sagarmala project". Economic Times, Times of India. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  4. ^ "National Maritime Development Programme". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 17 December 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  5. ^ Rajan, Jessica (28 July 2023). "Cargo handling capacity of ports to rise in 2024". The Economic Times.
  6. ^ "Maritime India Vision (MIV) 2030 estimates investments of Rs. 1,00,000–1,25,000 crore for capacity augmentation and development of world-class infrastructure at Indian Ports".
  7. ^ a b India eyes 60 per cent share of global ship recycling business; higher GDP contribution, Economic Times, 30 December 2019.
  8. ^ Sucheth, P R (26 May 2014). "Locals up in Arms against SILK Ship-breaking Unit". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  9. ^ "Operational Details". Indian Ports Association. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  10. ^ "DPA Kandla highlights Major achievements of FY 2022-23 during Annual Press Meet - India Shipping News". 6 April 2023.
  11. ^ "Paradip Port eyes top spot among major ports, aims at 150 mt cargo handling this fiscal - ET EnergyWorld".
  12. ^ "Union Cabinet decision: Kutch to get 2 new port terminals at Rs 5,963 crore". 13 October 2022.
  13. ^ Media, Gateway (5 April 2019). "GMB ports handle 400 mmt of cargo in 2018-19". Maritime Gateway. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Maharashtra Maritime Board sets record of handling 71 mn tons of cargo in 2022-23 - ET Infra".
  15. ^ Birkett, Holly (19 August 2015). "India's Karanja port project may be underway again". splash247. Retrieved 19 August 2015.