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Navi Mumbai
New Bombay[1]
Form top left to right:
Navi Mumbai Skyline, Vashi Sector 30A, Utsav Chowk, Vashi Sector 30A, Vashi Railway Station, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, Seawoods Grand Central mall, PKP IT Park in Airoli Naka, Pandavkada Falls, Wonders Park, Seawoods, Rajiv Gandhi Joggers Park, Buildings along palm beach road.
Nickname: 
Flamingo City
Mumbai
Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai (India)
Mumbai
Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai (Mumbai)
Coordinates: 19°01′N 73°01′E / 19.02°N 73.02°E / 19.02; 73.02
Country India
State Maharashtra
DivisionKonkan
DistrictThane District
Raigad District
Planned and Developed by
CIDCO


Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyNavi Mumbai Municipal Corporation
(Thane District)
Panvel Municipal Corporation (Raigad District)
Area
 • Total344 km2 (133 sq mi)
Elevation
14 m (46 ft)
Population
 • Total1,618,000
DemonymNavi Mumbaikar
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationMH-43 (Thane district)
MH-46 (Raigad district)

Navi Mumbai (Marathi pronunciation: [nəʋiː mumbəi] previously New Bombay) is a planned city next to Mumbai (Bombay), located in the Konkan division of the western Indian state of Maharashtra, on the mainland of India. Navi Mumbai is situated across two districts, Thane (Taana) & Raigad (Colaba district). It is a part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Area.

The city has been ranked third among 73 cities surveyed for cleanliness and hygiene by the Union Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and Quality Council of India (QCI) as a part of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and is being modified with various projects and formation.[2]

Navi Mumbai is home to various educational institutions. Various multinational corporations have their head offices/branches across the city, making it an active business hub. Navi Mumbai also has recreational facilities such as a Golf Course, Central Park and Pandavkada Water Falls in Kharghar. Thane Belapur Marg and Palm Beach Marg are major business attraction and upmarket residential areas.

History

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In the late 1500s, Siddis of Janjira built the Belapur Killa located atop a small hill near the mouth of the Panvel Creek. In 1682, the fort was captured by the Portuguese, who had managed to annex the regions controlled by the Siddis.

In 1733, the Marathas, led by Chimaji Appa, wrested control of the fort from the Portuguese. Appa had made a vow that if it were to be successfully recaptured from the Portuguese, he would place a garland of beli leaves in a nearby Amruthaishwar temple, and after the victory the fort was christened as Belapur Fort. The Marathas ruled the area until 23 June 1817, when it was captured by Captain Charles Gray of the British East India Company. The British partially destroyed the fort under their policy of razing any Maratha stronghold in the area.

Planning and development

Navi Mumbai traffic at rush hour
Low Income housing facilities in Navi Mumbai
Skyline of Nerul, Navi Mumbai
Utsav Chowk at Kharghar

The population of Greater Mumbai doubled from three to nearly six million between 1951 and 1971. The population growth led to deteriorating quality of life for many in the city.

The Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act was passed in 1966 and the Bombay Metropolitan Region was created in June 1967 and finalized in 1970. The plan called for development of a twin city across the harbour, on the mainland to the east.

The Board recommended that the new metro-centre or Navi Mumbai as it is now called, be developed to accommodate a population of 2.1 million.[3]

The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971 and involved leading architects and urban planners including Adi Kanga, Charles Correa, Shirish Patel, Pravina Mehta[4] and R. K. Jha.[5] The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was created as part of these efforts.

The area covered 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the Konkan coast. Privately owned land consisting of 86 villages covering within the present limits of Navi Mumbai were acquired by the government of Maharashtra.[6] Navi Mumbai covers the southern part of Thane taluka (from Thane District) and part of Panvel and Uran talukas (from Raigad District).

CIDCO carved out 19 small nodes with a view towards facilitating comprehensive development. These nodes were named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Juhu Nagar, Vashi, Turbhe, Sanpada, Juinagar, Nerul, Seawoods, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Dronagiri and Taloja. Sanpada is the smallest Node of Navi Mumbai at 8.6 km2.[7]

CIDCO planned and constructed railway stations, roads and public spaces in Navi Mumbai and developed nearby areas commercially.In 1973, the Vashi bridge was opened to the public for residents of Vashi, CBD Belapur and Nerul. The Sion-Panvel Highway was built to reduce the time taken to travel from Sion to Panvel. Major changes took place only after 1990, with the commissioning of a wholesale agricultural produce market at Turbhe and the construction of a commuter railway line from Mankhurd to Vashi in May 1992. These developments caused a sudden growth in economic activities and population in Navi Mumbai.

The city was originally planned to create affordable housing for people who could not afford living in Mumbai. Planners were intent on preventing the growth of slums in the city, however, according to the 2001 census, a fifth[8][9] to a third[10] of the population of municipalized Navi Mumbai live in slums [11] and gaothans (urban villages),[6] with thousands of buildings violating planning norms.[12]

By the end of the 1990s, the planning authority of Navi Mumbai sought to attract private developers to the city. A new rail link between Nerul and Uran was opened on 11 November 2018.[13] Southern Navi Mumbai is being developed rapidly with its class infrastructure and modern nodes of Kharghar, Kamothe, Panvel and Kalamboli. These nodes are experiencing major infrastructural developments due to their proximity to the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport. Also, the latest development known as 'One Time Planning' with an estimated budget of ₹12,821 crores is underway to transform the municipalized Navi Mumbai on the lines of the Mega Cities of the world.

Flora and fauna

A significant percentage of flamingos that settle in the Greater Mumbai Region are found in Navi Mumbai.[14][15][16] Navi Mumbai also contains a stretch of Mangroves around the Palm Beach Road area.

Administration

CIDCO

The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was responsible for maintenance, tax collection, and development of the city since its inception in the 1970s.

CIDCO planned 14 areas for the city.[17] The seven areas in the North were Airoli node, Ghansoli node, Kopar Khairane node, Vashi node, Sanpada node, Nerul node and Belapur node. The seven areas in the South were Kharghar node, Kamothe node, Kalamboli node, Pushpak Nagar node, Panvel node, Ulwe node and Dronagiri node. Two additional municipal bodies were created, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in the North and Panvel Municipal Corporation in the South. Each of the areas is divided into smaller groups called sectors.

CIDCO initially developed areas like Juhu Nagar (Vashi), Nerul, and CBD Belapur with homes, schools, and roads. Later, due to a growing population with the railway extension in the 1990s, CIDCO shifted focus to Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, and Kopar Khairane. Private builders played a large role in developing these areas. CIDCO, as of 2015, runs newer areas in South Navi Mumbai.[18][19]

Palm Beach Road in Seawoods

Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

On 17 December 1991, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) was constituted by the state government for maintaining some of the developed nodes of Navi Mumbai.

Local self-government started on 1 January 1992. NMMC was handed seven of the 14 nodes of the Navi Mumbai project area for its jurisdiction. However, CIDCO, as a planning authority, has rights on the open plots in these seven nodes.

The NMMC jurisdiction starts at Digha Gaon in the North and ends at Belapur in the South.[20] The NMMC area is planned into seven nodes (zones) - Belapur, Nerul, Sanpada, Vashi, Kopar Khairane, Ghansoli and Airoli.

NMMC Main Building

Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation is rated amongst the richest corporations in Maharashtra.

The Municipal Corporation is headed by a Municipal Commissioner and an elected Mayor.

Panvel Municipal Corporation

Panvel Municipal Council (PMC), which previously administered the city of Old Panvel, was upgraded from Municipal Council to a Municipal Corporation[21][22] after incorporating the adjacent nodes of Navi Mumbai under CIDCO's jurisdiction and surrounding villages in the proposed Panvel Municipal Corporation.[23]

Demographics

Religion in Navi Mumbai City (2011)[24]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
80.39%
Islam
8.68%
Buddhism
6.23%
Christianity
2.35%
Others
1.35%
Sikhism
1.01%

According to the census of Census India, the population of Navi Mumbai in 2011 is 1,120,547; out of which males and females are 610,060 and 510,487 respectively. Although Navi Mumbai has population of 1,120,547, its urban / metropolitan population is 18,414,288 of which 9,894,088 are males and 8,520,200 are females. At least 65.5% of population speaks Marathi language in Navi Mumbai.

Transport and infrastructure

DEMU train at Panvel, Navi Mumbai
Belapur Railway Station

Navi Mumbai has a robust infrastructure, is well connected to other parts of the state and country and is less polluted compared to Mumbai. The city has a good public transportation system with NMMT, the transport wing of NMMC, serving bus commuters, the Mumbai suburban railway serving train commuters and a large fleet of auto rickshaws for intra-nodal commute. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway starts at Kalamboli in Navi Mumbai. The Mumbai Trans Harbour Link (MTHL), also known as the Sewri-Nhava Sheva Trans Harbour Link, is a 22-kilometre (14 mi) long freeway grade road bridge connecting South Mumbai with Navi Mumbai.[25] It was opened on 12 January 2024, after Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurates the bridge. [26][27]

The Mumbai suburban railway network covers most of the populated regions of the city. The most important suburban stations are Vashi, Nerul, Belapur and Panvel. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Panvel is the only mainline station and also the busiest railway station of Navi Mumbai. All outstation trains halt here for time periods varying from five to 20 minutes. It is an important junction, railway lines come and meet here and it is connected to almost all parts of India. A new broad gauge line is functional between Karjat & Panvel.

Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses run from various area of Mumbai to Navi Mumbai & Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) buses run all over Navi Mumbai and various area in Mumbai, Thane, Bhiwandi, Kalyan-Dombivli-Badlapur, Panvel-Khopoli-Taloja, Uran-Ulwe etc. The Palm Beach Marg, a 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) long six lane road connects Vashi to CBD Belapur running parallel to the Thane Creek.

Auto rickshaws provide inter as well as intra nodal public transport across the city. Taxis operating from designated taxi stands provide the means to travel to further destinations. Taxis charge a fixed rate approved by the R. T. O. details of which can be found on popular local transit apps of the city.[28]

Navi Mumbai has the 2nd largest container terminal in India after Mundra Port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva near Uran.[29] It is well connected by road and rail, and handles approximately 56.13% of India's container traffic.[30][31] The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, 30 km away, is the nearest airport to the city.

International airport

Main article: Navi Mumbai International Airport

The Navi Mumbai International Airport[32] is being constructed in southern Panvel near Ulwe. The 16,700 crore (US$2.1 billion) project is being executed by Navi Mumbai International Airport Limited (NMIAL), a special-purpose vehicle formed by the Adani Airports Holdings Limited and CIDCO, which will hold 74% and 26% equity shares of NMIAL respectively.[33] It is being built in three phases. The first phase will be able to handle 25 million passengers per annum.[34] The foundation stone for the project was laid by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 18 February 2018, and construction was started in August 2021[35] It is expected to be completed and become operational by March 2025.[36] NMIA is set to become the first airport in the country with multimodal connectivity through metro, rail and road. The airport will be connected to three roads: NH 4B (348), the Sion Panvel Highway and through MTHL. The railway connection will be through Targhar railway station, and metro connectivity will be via Mumbai Metro Line 8 (Gold Line) and the Navi Mumbai Metro Line 1.[37]

Metro

Main article: Navi Mumbai Metro

The Navi Mumbai Metro is a new rapid transit system serving the city. A network of as many as five lines has been planned, of which four lines will be constructed by CIDCO in the Navi Mumbai south region, while the second and third lines of the metro system will be constructed by NMMC and MMRDA, respectively.[38] The first line of the metro system was completed by CIDCO and was opened to the public on 17 November 2023, after several delays spanning for around a decade due to various construction and land acquisition issues. This line includes three phases. In the first phase, the line joins the CBD Belapur station on the Mumbai suburban railway and Pendhar village.[39][40] In the second phase, the line will join Taloja MIDC and Khandeshwar node (which will be extended to the under-construction Navi Mumbai International Airport in Ulwe node of the city), and in the third phase, the line will link the Pendhar and Taloja MIDC metro stations. The cost of the metro project has risen from 4,163 crore for 21.45 km in 2011 to 8,904 crore for 26.26 km in 2018.[38]

Other infrastructure

The city boasts a reliable supply of electricity from various sources, and excellent motoring conditions, with numerous flyovers, broad roads, and parking lots. A hovercraft service from Vashi to Colaba and the CBD to Colaba did not succeed due to the high cost of tickets and maintenance. CIDCO is planning to relaunch its hovercraft service from Vashi, Belapur, Nerul and Airoli to Gateway of India.

Services

There are adequate utility services, banks, restaurants, malls, multiplexes and other shops in Navi Mumbai. The City boasts several shopping malls such as Little World Mall, Glomax Mall, Prime mall and Pacific Mall in the most developed node of Navi Mumbai, Kharghar; K-Mall and the Orion Mall in Panvel node of the city; Center One, Palm Beach Galleria, Citi Center, Raghuleela Mall and Inorbit Mall in Vashi, along with the Seawoods Nexus Mall in Seawoods. Throughout Navi Mumbai, supermarkets and hypermarkets like Big Bazaar, Reliance Smart, Reliance Smart points, Apna Bazaar, More, Spencer's, Reliance Fresh, Spinach, Daily Bazar and Fairprice cater to the shopping needs of the residents. DMart has launched eight hypermarkets in Navi Mumbai.

Leading banks such as Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, South Indian Bank, State Bank of India, Union Bank, Saraswat Bank, Bank of Baroda, AXIS Bank, Canara Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Central Bank of India, Bank of Maharashtra, State Bank of Hyderabad, Citibank India, ICICI Bank, Jammu & Kashmir Bank, Citi Bank, HSBC Bank and HDFC Bank have their branches and ATMs around Navi Mumbai. The Reserve Bank of India has served the people of Navi Mumbai since 2001.

Navi Mumbai has some three-star and five-star hotels; namely Royal Tulip (five-star hotel in Kharghar), The Hotel Three Star (In Kharghar), The Park (Belapur CBD), Fortune Select Exotica-Member ITC Hotel Group (Vashi), The Regenza by Tunga (Vashi), Four Points by Sheraton (Vashi) & Hotel Yogi Executive (Vashi) to name a few.

Commerce

Vashi station complex
Cricket Stadium in Nerul

The Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located in the nodes of Dronagiri and Kalamboli are planned to provide commercial growth and employment to the city. Positioned en route to the proposed Navi Mumbai Airport, this megaproject has attracted investments of close to 40,000 crores.[citation needed] Navi Mumbai is a new hub for newly incorporated companies & start ups to establish their base in Mumbai.[41] As per the list of newly incorporated companies in Navi Mumbai around 500 new & startup companies were registered in and around the region every month.[citation needed]

Sports

The DY Patil International Stadium in Nerul

Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Navi Mumbai has its own International Cricket Stadium in Shiravne (Nerul) called the DY Patil Stadium which hosts IPL T-20 matches, including hosting the 2008[42] and 2010 IPL finals. It was one of the two venues for the inaugural edition of the Women's Premier League (WPL) in 2023.[43] It is also the home ground for the Indian Super League football club Mumbai City FC. The Fr. Agnel Stadium in Vashi is the training ground of the team.[citation needed]

Navi Mumbai was one of the host cities of the 2017 FIFA U-17 Men's World Cup and the 2022 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup with the DY Patil Stadium hosting the final of the event in 2022.[44][45]

Navi Mumbai Sports Association[46] is the oldest sports complex in Navi Mumbai, NMSA has contributed significantly to the sports world by creating international level athletes from Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai has an Olympic-size swimming pool at Nerul. CIDCO has proposed two 18-hole golf course academies at Nerul and Kharghar. There are plans to have sports facilities in the proposed 80 hectare Central Park being developed in Kharghar. The CIDCO has also constructed an 11-hole golf course in Kharghar near Central Park.[citation needed]

Education

Main article: Schools and Colleges in Navi Mumbai

Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5,000 populations, one high school for 12,500 populations and one college for 50,000 population.

Each of the nodes is self-sufficient in terms of providing quality education. Students are given access to various syllabi, including the State Education Board, CBSE, IGCSE, IB and ICSE patterns. Other than this, CIDCO encouraged private institutions as well.

About 22.5% of the total population is considered to be school-going children. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). 76% of the students walk to their school or college, 12% use public transport, 10% use bicycles and only 2% travel by school bus.

A number of premier schools and colleges have been set up in Navi Mumbai. And not just local students, but students from Mumbai and even outside come to Navi Mumbai in their quest for quality education. As such, Navi Mumbai is quickly acquiring the title of educational hub.[47] Some of these premium institutions have been listed below.

Colleges & Universities

Engineering colleges

Medical colleges

Schools

See also

References

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