Mumbai Police
मुंबई पोलीस
Emblem of the Mumbai Police
Emblem of the Mumbai Police
Abbreviationमुं.पो.
MottoTo protect the Good and to destroy the Evil
Agency overview
Formed1661/1669[citation needed]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionMumbai, IN
Mumbaicitydistricts.png
Mumbai Police jurisdictional area
Size603.4 km2 (233.0 sq mi)
Population13,662,885
Legal jurisdictionMumbai City and Mumbai Suburban District, MH, IN
Governing bodyGovernment of Maharashtra
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersThe Office of Commissioner of Police
Elected officer responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyMaharashtra Police
Facilities
Stations94 (Police Stations)
102 (Traffic Police outlets)
Hatch-backs, SUV, Motorcycles3,500
Speed Gunboats32 of Mumbai Police and 60 of Mumbai coast guard
Helicopters5
Dogs (K-9)s~52
Website
mumbaipolice.gov.in

The Mumbai Police (Marathi: मुंबई पोलीस, IAST: Mumbaī Pulīs, formerly Bombay Police) is the police department of the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a part of Maharashtra Police and has the primary responsibilities of law enforcement and investigation within the limits of Mumbai. The force's motto is "Sadrakṣaṇāya Khalanigrahaṇāya" (Sanskrit: सद्रक्षणाय खलनिग्रहणाय, English: "To protect Good and to destroy Evil").[1]

It is headed by the Commissioner of the Mumbai Police assisted by an IPS officer in the rank of Additional Director General, and each district headed is headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police in the rank of Superintendent of Police (excluding jails headed by Inspector Generals). Each police station is headed by a Senior Inspector called the Station House Officer (SHO).

History

Early history

From 1534 until 1661, Mumbai (then known as Bombay) was under Portuguese colonial rule. The Portuguese authorities in Mumbai established a police station in 1661, the same year it was transferred to the English colonial empire.[2] Now being governed by the East India Company, the new city administration established a militia known as the Bhandari Militia (which consisted of approximately 600 Bandareen men supplied by 100 local landowners) in 1669 to combat street gangs that targeted sailors. This new force, which was organised by governor of Bombay Gerald Aungier, was headquartered at Mahim, Sevree and Sion (with a subedar stationed in each headquarter) and used primarily for law enforcement purposes.[3] In 1672, the city administration implemented a policy of having all law enforcement decisions to be subject to judicial review by the judiciary, though the East India Company suffered from a lack of trained judges during the first decades of their control over Mumbai.[4] The situation remained unchanged for decades.[5] By 1682, law enforcement in Mumbai remained stagnant, and there was only one ensign, two corporals and three sergeants in the Bhandari Militia.[2][6]

Creation and early days

On 29 March 1780, the office of the Lieutenant of Police was dissolved and the office of Deputy of Police was created. James Tod, the then Lieutenant of Police was appointed as the first Deputy of Police on 5 April 1780. He was tried and dismissed for corruption in 1790. Subsequently, the designation was changed to "Deputy of Police and High Constable".[2]

In 1793, Act XXXIII, Geo. III was promulgated. The post of Deputy of Police was abolished and a post of Superintendent of Police was created in its place, with a Deputy of Superintendent of Police assisting him. Mr. Simon Halliday was the first Superintendent of Police, and governed till 1808. During this time, a thorough revision and re-arrangement of policing in the area outside the Fort was carried out. The troublesome area known as "Dungree and the Woods" was split up into 14 Police divisions, each division being staffed by two English constables and a varying number of Peons (not exceeding 130 for the whole area), who were to be stationary in their respective charges and responsible for dealing with all illegal acts committed within their limits.[2]

Post-1857

A photograph of four members of the Bombay Police c. 1855–1862
A photograph of four members of the Bombay Police c. 1855–1862
A member of the Bombay Police photographed during the 19th century
A member of the Bombay Police photographed during the 19th century

Following the establishment of Crown rule in India after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in 1864 Commissioners of Police were assigned to the three presidency towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. On 14 December 1864, Sir Frank Souter was appointed as the first Police Commissioner of Bombay; in the same year, Khan Bahadur Sheikh Ibrahim Sheikh Imam became the first Indian to be appointed to a senior rank in the Bombay Police, while Souter remained in office for 24 years until 3 July 1888.[5] In 1896, the Police Commissioner of Bombay's office was moved to a Indo-Saracenic building, which it still occupies to this day. The building has been designated as a protected heritage site by the Indian government.[citation needed]

After 1947

After independence, many changes to the Bombay Police were instituted. On 15 August 1947, J.S. Bharucha became the first Indian head of the Bombay Police, taking over from the last British Commissioner, Mr. A.E. Caffin.[2] A dog squad was set up in 1965. Computers were first used by the Bombay police in 1976. A Narcotics Cell and an anti-terrorist special operations squad were created in 1989.

The service was renamed to Mumbai Police in 1995, following the renaming of Bombay to Mumbai. In 1995, the control room was computerised, and finally, in 1997, the Mumbai Police went online.[5]

Modernisation and present day

A massive modernization of the Mumbai Police took place in 2005. New vehicles, guns and electronic equipment were procured for police use. The Tourist Squad was also created to patrol the beaches of Mumbai. On 30 May 2009 the Maharashtra government in Mumbai set up a police station dedicated to tackling cyber crime. It is the third such facility in India after Bangalore and Hyderabad. The dedicated police station will now register first information reports (FIRs) on its own and investigate offences pertaining to cyberspace. It is not clear how people abroad may report to Mumbai Cybercell. The police station will take care of all cyber cases in the city including that of terror e-mails. The existing Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of the city police probes cyber offences, but the FIRs are registered in local police stations depending on the site of the offence. A specially trained team of over 25 policemen, headed by an Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP), were selected for the new job. The facility will function under the supervision of Deputy Commissioner of Police (Preventive) and Joint Commissioner of Police (Crime).[7]

Headquarters

Mumbai Police Headquarters, opposite Crawford Market.
Mumbai Police Headquarters, opposite Crawford Market.

The Mumbai Police Headquarters are in a Grade II-A listed heritage building that was built in 1894 and designed by John Adams, who also designed the Royal Bombay Yacht Club. It is located opposite Crawford Market in South Mumbai, a mile away from the Victoria Terminus. The construction work started on 17 November 1894 and finished two years later on 24 December 1896. The building was formally opened on 1 January 1897.[8]

The architectural style of the building is Gothic Revival. In contrast to the Maharashtra Police Headquarters in Fort, which uses blue basalt and was built some two decades earlier, this building uses yellow basalt.[8] The building underwent a major restoration in 2017 for the first time in its 120-year history.[9] In 2018, it was announced that a police museum funded by Tata Trusts would open in the building.[10] Since then, there have been no further developments.

Organisation

The Mumbai Police Department is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an IPS officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state home department through Maharashtra Police. The city is divided into Twelve police zones and Twenty Five traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police.[11]

The department holds several programs for the welfare of its officials including Retirement Planning Workshop.

Geographical division

Mumbai police is broadly divided into five regions namely Central, North, South, East and West. For administrative purposes, each region is subdivided into 3 to 4 zones.[12] Each zone contains 3 to 4 police stations. Each zone is commanded by a Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). Apart from the 12 zones, there is also an additional Port zone. Police stations under the Port zone keep vigil on the Mumbai Port and container terminals in Mumbai. There are a total of 91 police stations in the jurisdiction of Mumbai Police. Every police station has a Police Inspector who is the in-charge officer of the station.

Subunits

Mumbai Police is divided into the following units:

Each of these units have a Chief of the rank of Joint Commissioner of Police.

Insignia of Mumbai Police (City Police)

Gazetted Officers
Indian Police Service gazetted officers rank insignia [15][16][17]
Insignia
Director General of Police.png
Director General of Police.png
Insignia of Inspector General of Police in India- 2013-10-02 16-14.png
Deputy Inspector General of Police.png
Senior Superintendent of Police.png
Superintendent of Police.png
Additional SP IPS.png
DySP IPS.png
Assistant SP IPS 2.png
Assistant SP IPS 1.png
Rank Director General of Police Additional Director General of Police[note 1] Inspector General of Police Deputy Inspector General of Police Assistant Inspector General of Police / Senior Superintendent of Police Superintendent of Police Additional superintendent of police Deputy superintendent of police Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 2 years of service) Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 1 year of service)
Abbreviation DGP ADGP IGP DIG AIG/SSP SP Addl. SP DSP ASP ASP


Non-gazetted officers
Indian Police non-gazetted officers rank insignia [18][19][20]
Insignia
Police Inspector insignia.png
Assistant Police Inspector.png
Police Sub-Inspector.png
Assistant Sub-Inspector.png
Head Constable.png
Police Head Constable.png

Police Naik.png
Senior Police Constable.png
No insignia
Rank Inspector Assistant inspector[note 2] Sub-inspector Assistant sub-inspector Head constable
Senior Civil Police Officer (Kerala)[note 3][note 4]
Police Naik Constable

Civil Police Officer (Kerala)[note 5]

Abbreviation INS/CI API SI ASI HC/SCPO SC PC/CPO
  • Note: Colour pattern and size of chevrons may vary according to the different rules of several distinct Indian State Police services.


Hierarchy

Main article: Police ranks and insignia of India

Hierarchy structure of the Mumbai Police[21]
Rank Abbreviation Strength
Commissioner of Police (DG rank/ADG rank) CP 1
Joint Commissioner of Police (IGP rank) Jt.CP 5
Additional Commissioner of Police (DIG rank) Addl. CP 11
Deputy Commissioner of Police (SP rank) DCP 41
Assistant Commissioner of Police (Deputy SP rank/Assistant SP rank) ACP 124
Police Inspector PI 977
Assistant Police Inspector API 756
Police Sub Inspector PSI 2850
Assistant Sub Inspector ASI 3329
Head Constable HC 8146
Police Naik PN 60100
Police Constable PC 118666

Recruitment

Those who join the police department through the subordinate services examination of the Maharashtra Public Service Commission enter the force at the lowest ranks of the force. Their starting rank is that of a Police constable. Those who join the police force through the combined competitive examination of the Maharashtra Public Service Commission holds a starting rank of Sub Inspector or Deputy Superintendent of Police of Maharashtra Police Service . Civil Servants who join the police force through the civil service examination conducted by UPSC holds a starting rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police of Indian Police Service cadre. Generally the IPS officers make it to the highest rank of Director General. The Commissioner of Police of Mumbai, an IPS officer is one of the rank of Additional Director General of Police.

High-profile cases

26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks

Main article: 26 November 2008 Mumbai attacks

Anti-Terrorism Squad Chief Hemant Karkare, Additional Commissioner of Police Ashok Kamte and Encounter specialist Vijay Salaskar were among the policemen who fell to the bullets of the terrorists. Then Joint Commissioner of Mumbai Crime Branch Mr. Rakesh Maria under the leadership of Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor tackled the abrupt attack by his superb skills.[citation needed] Mr. Ramesh Mahale, then an officer with crime branch investigated the case and brought the lone arrested militant Ajmal Kasab to justice. Police Commissioner Hasan Gafoor was shunted out of his office.[22] Mahale resigned recently over a murder case investigation which he was leading.[23] In the following year, as a response to these attacks, a specialised counter-terrorism unit, Force One was formed and commissioned on 24 November 2009, two days before the anniversary of the 26/11 terror attacks. A Committee was appointed to look into the failures of cops pertaining to the terror attack. The Ram Pradhan Committee, as it came to be known, furnished a report recommending a series of improvements & reforms. The State Government of Maharashtra however never had this report tabled in the legislature fearing a fallout over strictures passed in the report. A Public Interest Litigation has been filed by social activist Ketan Tirodkar to demand equal justice for all the police who were killed in the terror attack; especially for the members of the Bomb Disposal Squad of Mumbai Police. During the hearing of the petition, the Government informed the High Court that the Federal Government of India has rejected the proposal to award the Bomb Disposal Squad of the city police for their contribution in defusing granades in the terror attack.

Sheena Bora murder case

Main article: Sheena Bora murder case

Sheena Bora, an executive working for Metro One based in Mumbai, went missing on 24 April 2012. In August 2015, the Mumbai Police had received a tip-off from an unknown man claiming that Sheena Bora had been murdered. After they got in touch with their Counterparts in Pune, they arrested her mother, Indrani Mukerjea, her stepfather Sanjeev Khanna, and her mother's chauffeur, Shyamvar Pinturam Rai, for allegedly abducting and killing her and subsequently burning her corpse. They also arrested Indrani's husband, Peter Mukerjea in connection with the case. Rai has now been allowed to turn approver in the case after he was pardoned by the Bandra Magistrate Court in Mumbai. As of May 2017, Indrani, Peter, and Sanjeev have been lodged in Byculla Women's Prison and Arthur Road Jail in Mumbai, respectively.

Equipment

Much of the equipment for the Mumbai Police are manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. Weapons such as Glock Pistols are imported from Austria. These pistols were first imported for the Anti-terrorist Squad in Mumbai when the same was formed in 2004.

Weapons

Rifles SMLE Mk III*, Ishapore 2A1, SUB Machine GUN CARBINE 9 mm 1A1, 7.62 MM 1A1, Assault Rifle 7.62 mm, 38 MM Multi Shot Riot Gun, INSAS 5.56 mm, AK-47(247 in total),[24] FN-FAL

250 MP5 German automatic sub-machine guns have just been ordered.,[25] M4, M107 anti-material rifle and SWAT equipment.

Pistols Glock pistol, Pistol Auto 9mm 1A, Smith & Wesson M&P.

Detail List of Mumbai police's Vehicles

Mumbai Police Speedboat
Mumbai Police Speedboat
Mahindra Bolero in Mumbai Police service
Mahindra Bolero in Mumbai Police service
C.P.Pool Mumbai Vehicle Fleet[26]
Vehicle Category Total Vehicle Fleet
Special Purpose Vehicle 50
Transportation Vehicles ( Squad cars ) 210
Patrol Vehicles 280
Station Vehicles 960
Response Vehicles 160
Motor Cycles 1405
Police Helicopters 5
Total 3070

72 speed boats have been also ordered.[27]

Uniform

Peaked caps are worn with an orange band and crown that is less stiff such it drops downwards. Khaki short sleeve shirt and long pants are worn by most members. Some women might wear sarees if they prefer. The patch of the police force is visible too.

Mumbai police in popular culture

Because Bollywood, India's Hindi language film industry, is primarily based in Mumbai, the Mumbai police has been frequently portrayed in films. Some of the prominent ones are listed below:

Most of these films are based on the operational groups most commonly known as Encounter Squads. Officers like Pradeep Sharma, Vijay Salaskar, Praful Bhosale, Ravindra Angre etc. have previously headed these squads. Junior officers Hemant Desai, Ashok Khot, Sachin Waze, Daya Nayak, Uttam Bhosale etc. assisted them.[citation needed]

Honours

The Ashok Chakra, India's highest civilian honour during peace time, was conferred posthumously upon two Mumbai Police officers – Hemant Karkare and Ashok Kamte who laid their lives in the service of the nation during the 2008 Mumbai attacks.[28] Junior officer Vijay Salaskar was also posthumously awarded the Ashok Chakra.

Notable achievements

The Cyber Crime App launched by Mumbai Police in 2019 registered 140,000 incidents within one year whereby 132,000 suspicious phone numbers were tracked.[29]

Controversies

The 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai have been ascribed to massive intelligence failure by Mumbai Police.[30] Indian poet Dr Tapan Kumar Pradhan in his books and social media posts has exposed several loopholes in criminal investigation by Mumbai Police,[31] especially with regard to Hemangi Sharma Fraud Case[32]

See also

Literature

Notes

  1. ^ Rank insignia of DGP is similar to additional DGP.
  2. ^ This rank only exists in the Maharashtra Police.
  3. ^ Shoulder insignia rank only used in the Maharashtra Police.
  4. ^ The senior civil police officer rank only exist in Kerala Police
  5. ^ The Civil Police Officer rank only exist in Kerala Police, this rank is equivalent to police constable of other state police forces.

References

  1. ^ "Say hello to the crorepati police constable from Thane". No. Mid-day.com. Mid-Day. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e Mumbai Police – History at the Mumbai Police Website
  3. ^ "Maharashtra State Gazetteers – Greater Bombay District". Maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  4. ^ Edwardes (1923), p 19
  5. ^ a b c Mumbai Police Force History on TIFR website.
  6. ^ Criminal Justice India Series, Vol. 4 (HB). Allied Publishers. pp. 20–21. ISBN 8177643657. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  7. ^ "Cyber crime police station in Mumbai". Ndtv.com. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  8. ^ a b "HT Exclusive: Iconic Mumbai police commissioner's building to undergo major repairs". Hindustan Times. 6 February 2017.
  9. ^ "Mumbai Police's over 100-yr-old office set for a facelift". 1 November 2017 – via The Economic Times.
  10. ^ "Tata Trusts to set up Maharashtra's 1st police museum in Mumbai | Mumbai News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  11. ^ "MUMBAI POLICE: CUSTODIANS OF YOUR TRUST". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
  12. ^ "About Us". Mumbai Police. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  13. ^ "Indian Cyber Crime Investigation Cell Official Website". Cybercellmumbai.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  14. ^ "Cyber Crime Investigation Cell, Mumbai". Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Police Ranks" (PDF). Maharashtra Police. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  16. ^ "Governance of Kerala Police". Kerala Police. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Police Ranks and Badges". Odisha Police. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  18. ^ "Police Ranks" (PDF). Maharashtra Police. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  19. ^ "Governance of Kerala Police". Kerala Police. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  20. ^ "Police Ranks and Badges". Odisha Police. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Senior Officers List" (PDF). Mumbai Police. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  22. ^ Gaikwad, Shailesh (9 February 2014). "26/11 probe fallout: Top cop Gafoor transferred". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  23. ^ Ali, Ahmed S (9 February 2014). "26/11 terror attack case: Chief investigating officer Ramesh Mahale resigns". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  24. ^ "On 26/11, cops had 247 AK-47s, but they stayed under lock & key – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  25. ^ "No consensus on security plan even a month after Mumbai attacks". Business-standard.com. 27 December 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  26. ^ "Official website". Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  27. ^ "72 speedboats bought after 26/11 attacks lie unused in coastal police stations". Mumbai Mirror.
  28. ^ "Karkare, Ombale & Sharma among Ashok Chakra awardees". The Economic Times. 26 January 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  29. ^ "2019 App helps Mumbai Police solve Cyber Crimes". The Indian Express. 18 September 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Systemic failures led to Mumbai attacks". Reuters. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  31. ^ Dr Tapan Kumar Pradhan. I, She and the Sea. New Delhi: Kohinoor Books. p. 217-228. ISBN 9788194283591.
  32. ^ FIR No 1767/18 dated 20 August 2018, Nagpada PS, Mumbai Police