Delhi Police
(({logocaption))}
AbbreviationDP
MottoShanti Seva Nyaya
(शांति सेवा न्याय)
Peace Service Justice
Agency overview
Formed1861; 163 years ago (1861) (originally founded as a security force under the British rule)
16 February 1948; 76 years ago (16 February 1948) (as Delhi Police)[1]
Preceding agency
  • Municipal Police
Employees94,255
Annual budget11,397.98 crore (US$1.4 billion) (2024–25)[2]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionDelhi, IN
11 revenue districts of Delhi
Size1,484 km2 (573 sq mi)
Population16,753,235
Legal jurisdictionAs per operations jurisdiction
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersJai Singh Marg,
New Delhi, Delhi, India
Elected officer responsible
Agency executive
Facilities
Stations198 (including 20 specialized)
Helicopters1[3]
Website
delhipolice.gov.in
Delhi Police Headquarters.[4][5]

The Delhi Police (DP) is the law enforcement agency for the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Delhi Police comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.[6][7] In 2015, sanctioned strength of Delhi Police was 84,536 (including I.R. Battalions)[6] making it one of the largest metropolitan police forces in the world.[8] About 25% of Delhi Police strength is earmarked for VIP security.[9]

History

Delhi Police has its origin in a small security force, established in 1854, under the assistant of British Resident to the Mughal Imperial Courts.[10] In 1861 after the adoption of the Indian Police Act, Delhi Police remained a part of the Punjab Police until India gained independence in 1947.

Organisation

Before 1948 Delhi was part of Punjab Police.

1948–1966

In 1948, the Delhi Police was restructured. Mr D.W. Mehra became the first chief of Delhi Police. The strength of the Delhi Police in 1951 was about 8,000 with one Inspector General of Police (IGP) and eight Superintendents of Police (SP). In 1956 a post of Deputy Inspector General of Police was created. In 1961, the strength of Delhi police was over 12,000.[11]

In 1966, the Delhi Police on the basis of the Khosla Commission Report was reorganized. Four police districts, namely, North, Central, South and New Delhi were created.[11] In 1978, the Delhi Police Act was passed and the Commissioner System was introduced with effect from 1 July 1978.[6]: para7.69 

J.N. Chaturvedi, with rank of IGP, became first Commissioner of Delhi Police from October 1978 – Jan 1980.[11]

Old headquarters of Delhi Police at Indraprastha Marg

Impact of Sixth Central Pay Commission

Following the Sixth Central Pay Commission, the UPA Government, in 2008, decided to make promotions for Indian Police Service officers, even for higher ranks, time-bound. Indian Police Service officers are now promoted on a fixed time table, more or less independent of functional requirements or span of responsibility, up to the level of Inspector General of Police, at intervals of 4, 9, 13, 14, and 18 years of service.[12]: p 155–56, section 3  The time-bound promotion, much of it non-functional, to high ranks apart from increasing the burden on the policing budget has made Delhi Police top-heavy, sluggish, and unwieldy. Delhi Police, which had one Inspector General (IG) until January 1980s, now has 12 officers with ranks senior to IGPs. They are called Commissioners and Special Commissioners, who are in the HAG grades and apex pay grades. In addition, Delhi police, instead of one IGP, has several dozen IGPs, as everyone gets to be IGP after completion of 18 years service. New IG's functions and responsibilities are no different from that of pre-1980s DIGs and Superintendents of Police (SPs).[12]: Senior Duty Posts under Government of Delhi, p 177 

Current Organisation

Main article: Districts of Delhi Police

As of January 2019, Delhi Police has 2 Police Zones, 6 Police Ranges, 15 Police Districts, 66 Police Subdivisions with 178 'territorial' Police Stations. Apart from this there are 7 Railway Police stations, 16 Metro Rail Police stations and 5 specialized crime units declared as Police Stations namely, Economic Offenses Wing, Crime Branch, Special Cell, Special Police Unit for Women and Children (SPUWAC) and Vigilance.[6]: para7.69 

Training

Since 1984, DP Training College is located in the village of Jharoda Kalan and Wazirabad, Delhi .[8]

Hierarchy

Officers[13]

Subordinates

Crime in Delhi

'Heinous crime' in Delhi, in 2014, according to government statistics, increased by 157.13 percent from 3268 in 2013, to 8403 in 2014: Murder is up 7.4 percent from 416 to 447; Attempted murder by 36.11 percent from 457 to 622; Rape by 37.64 percent from 1230 to 1693; Burglary by 239.20 percent, from 2352 to 7978; and robbery by 429 percent.[6]: para p 89. 7.71 [14] Neither the Government or the Police Commissioner gave explanation for the spurt in crime. However, since 2002, Delhi Police can avail the powers of Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act, when necessary, in tackling international crime syndicates like the Ndrangheta.[15]

04.2013-31-12 2013 2014– 31-12 2014 Percent change Comment
Murder 416 447 +7.45 by comparison, in 2014, 328 were murdered in New York, a city with reputation for violent crime and higher weapon ownership[16]
Attempted Murder 457 662 +36.11
Rape 1230 1693 +37.6
Robbery 1024 5425 +429.79

Controversies

Delhi Police has often been reported as one of the most corrupt police forces in the country, with the highest number of complaints in the Indian Police Services being registered against its personnel.[17][18][19]

Over the years, Delhi Police has been involved in a series of controversies; ranging from custodial deaths, refusal to write First Information Report, inaction and collusion with arsonists during communal riots. At various times, Delhi Police has been found to be harsher on criminals which has caused it to get warnings from the Supreme Court of India and Central Bureau of Investigation.

In September 2008, a police officer from Delhi Police filed a case of obscenity against a married couple for kissing in the Dwarka court complex. The couple appealed in the Delhi High Court. The Court noted that even though the charge-sheet claimed that the case was filed because the passerby were feeling bad, no one was mentioned by name. The Court said that kissing in public by married couples cannot be termed obscene.[20][21] The Court passed its verdict on 25 May 2009 and asked the police to drop the case against the couple. The police was asked to pay 5,000 to both husband and wife.[22]

In December 2012, Delhi Police came under serious criticism following the Nirbhaya case. Following the outrage in the aftermath, public protests took place in New Delhi on 21 December 2012 at India Gate and Raisina Hill, the latter being the location of both the Parliament of India and Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the President of India. Thousands of protesters clashed with police and battled Rapid Action Force units.[23] Demonstrators were baton charged,[24] shot with water cannon and tear gas shells, and arrested.[25]

In February 2020, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) said that Delhi Police failed to stop violent attacks against Muslims during 2020 communal riots.[26]

VIP security by Delhi Police

Out of a total Delhi police strength of 77,965, in 2016, over 20,000 personnel or over 25 percent, were assigned to secure VVIPs in Delhi. Delhi Police Commissioner Alok Kumar Verma, arguing that 20,000 police force earmarked for VIP security was inadequate pitched for increasing earmarked Delhi Police for VVIP security from 20,000 to 22, 500. [9]

Alok Kumar Verma said he will give the "utmost priority" to get government to sanction the increase in police deployment for VVIP duties. He is expected to play the Terror threat card to get the extra 2250 police personnel, citing Ministry of Home Affairs, Intelligence Bureau, and Delhi police's special bureau threat assessments. The increase in Police strength for VVIP security will increase the deployment of police personnel per VIP from 17 to 19, and Police Deployment for VIP security from 25 percent to almost one third [28.8 percent] of its total strength.[9]

The demand for increasing Police strength for Securing Delhi's VIP, at considerable cost, is against the background of worsening law and order situation in the rest of the city, especially the more deprived areas of the city of some 19 million people. [9]

VVIP security

Delhi Police Deployment for VIPs[9]
VVIP Police Deployment Remarks
Prime Minister, Vice-President, Union ministers, judges, courts, and others categorized as Protected Persons and visiting protectees. 7178 Special Protection Group, which is force of over 2000 armed personnel, responsible for the PMs security is not included in this total
Near Prime Minister's Residence 89 seven police pickets are deployed permanently close to the PM's residence
Presidential Palace Or Rashtrapati Bhavan 884 Joint Commissioner of Delhi Police is in charge of this force.

This Delhi Police Force contingent is in addition to elements of an infantry battalion from the Indian army deployed permanently in The presidents' palace, and the Army's President's Body Guards.

Residences of ministers, MPs, and judges. 2115
VVIP 254
Total 10,484 Delhi Police Force for VIP security is headed by Special Commissioner of Delhi Police. This total does not include several hundred, possibly thousands, armed personnel deployed from Paramilitary forces of India such as the BSF, CISF, NSG, CRPF etc.[clarification needed] as body and residential guards to secure Delhi's VVIPs.

In addition Delhi Police deploys 79 Police Control Room Vehicles (Static and semi-static) in Lutyens' Delhi, where most of Delhi's VVIP live. 24 are exclusively for Members of Parliament (MPs). In addition Delhi Police provides static pickets, motor cycle patrol, and foot patrol, on 24-hour basis, including 39 static pickets, 17 motorcycle police patrols, and five Emergency Response Vehicles mounted patrols. The high police presence is supplemented with surveillance devices: 230 Close Circuit Television Cameras are located in North Avenue, South Avenue, MS MP flats, Narmada Apartment, Brahmaputra Apartment and Swarn Jayanti Complex. This is in addition to 412 CCTVs are installed at various roads leading to ministers and MP's residences in Lutyens' Delhi.[9]

Intelligence Bureau

The Intelligence Bureau and the Ministry of Home Affairs are responsible for identifying and nominating persons deserving police protection. The level of police protection is decided by the Home Minister and the home Secretary. There are five categories of protection or security cover: Z+, Z, Y+, Y and X. Who will get which category of security cover is decided by Security Categorization Committee (SCC) — headed by the home secretary.[27][9]

Armed Police protection to those designated as deserving protection by the Ministry of Home Affairs is provided by personnel drawn from central paramilitary forces under the home ministry such as the NSG, CRPF and CISF. In 2006 the CISF was mandated to raise a Special Security Group for VIP security. The unit came into being on 17 November 2006. This unit is responsible for the physical protection of highly threatened dignitaries/individuals, evacuation of Protected Persons, and providing static as well as mobile security to the Protected Persons".[28] : para 2.129 

In addition to the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Intelligence Bureau, the Delhi Police Commissioner is also authorized to extend police protection on the basis of reports by the Special Bureau of Delhi police.[27]

In 2012, during the tenure of the Congress(I) led government, the Intelligence Bureau nominated 332 persons for protection; in 2016, under the BJP led NDA government, the number of people identified by Intelligence Bureau and Ministry of Home Affairs for police protection shot up to 454. A spokesperson of the Ministry of Home Affairs dismissed allegations that the list of persons given police protection is prepared arbitrarily. He said, "The number of protectees keeps changing depending on reports and inputs received from the security agencies. " Home Minister Rajnath Singh's predecessor Sushil Kumar Shinde, had explained that the persons nominated for protection "Only on the basis of recommendations from the Intelligence Bureau (IB)...We don't do it on our own," The current list includes nine expelled Congress MLAs from Uttarakhand who revolted against Harish Rawat and joined the BJP on 18 May 2016 . It includes the name of BJP's Kisan Morcha chief Vijay Pal Singh Tomar, Umesh Kumar, a journalist, who carried out a sting on chief minister Rawat.[27][9]

In 2016 in Delhi categories of security cover was : 42 Z+, 55 Z; 72 Y+ ; 143 Y ; 67 X category, 19 security under discretion of Special Commissioner of Police . Delhi police is responsible for providing security cover to 66.[9]

Helplines

Delhi Police has Helpline numbers through which people can seek help without going to the police station in person. The various Helpline numbers of Delhi Police are as follows;[29]

Delhi Police has also launched the facility of registering Online FIR from February 2014.[30]

Vehicles

A Delhi Police All Women PCR vehicle. The car pictured is a Toyota Innova.
A Mahindra Marksman used by Delhi Police

SWAT Commandos

Were formed in 2009 in wake of 26/11, they saw action first in 2010 Commonwealth Games, they were tasked with protection duties. They are trained on the lines of National Security Guard. All the commandos are under 28 years of age, thus making them fit and capable of tasks meant for commandos. Their main work is to fight against any terrorist attack that occurs in Delhi NCR. They have been trained exclusively in Krav Maga. Delhi was one of the first cities to get an all-women SWAT team.[34] SWAT team members will function under the elite Special Cell.[35]

Equipment:

Delhi Police vehicle of Special Weapons And Tactics (SWAT)

References

  1. ^ "69th Delhi Police Raising Day – (16.02.2016)".
  2. ^ "Rs 1.85 lakh crore allocation to MHA in budget". The Economic Times. Retrieved 1 February 2024.
  3. ^ ndaph. "The Hindu Business Line : Pawan Hans to provide copter to Delhi Police for surveillance". www.thehindubusinessline.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
  4. ^ Nandy, Sumana (23 April 2020). ""Dil Ki Police": Delhi Cops' Balm For Commuters Amid Lockdown". NDTV. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  5. ^ Taskin, Bismee (23 April 2020). "'Dil Ki Police': Delhi Police Twitter handle gets colourful makeover to motivate ground staff". The Print. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Annual Report Ministry of Home Affairs 2014–2015" (PDF). Delhi: Departments of Internal Security, States, Home, Jammu & Kashmir Affairs and Border Management. July 2015. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  7. ^ "दिल्ली पुलिस: राज्य सरकार को नियंत्रण देना कितना कठिन?". BBC News हिंदी (in Hindi). 21 January 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2020. दिल्ली पुलिस फिलहाल गृह मंत्रालय के अधीन है. दूसरे राज्यों पर पुलिस और प्रशासन की व्यवस्था राज्य सरकार के अधीन होती है.
  8. ^ a b N. R. Madhava Menon, D. Banerjea (2002). Criminal Justice India Series: Volume 7 National Capital Territory of Delhi. Ahmedabad: Allied Publishers. pp. 45–46.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Singh, Sumit Kumar (8 May 2016). "Delhi Sees 142 Murders, 578 Rapes and 1,729 Robberies in Less Than Four Months". New Delhi: sundaystandard. NewIndianexpress. Retrieved 27 May 2016.[dead link]
  10. ^ "Delhi Police: With you, for you, since 1911". Hindustan Times. 1 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013.
  11. ^ a b c Delhi police (July 2015). "History of Delhi Police". New Delhi: Delhi police. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Indian Police Service (Pay) Rules, 2007" (PDF). DOPT. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  13. ^ ":: DELHI POLICE Shanti Sewa Nyay ::". delhipolice.gov.in. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  14. ^ "CRIME IN DELHI" (PDF). Delhi Police. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  15. ^ Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Archived 19 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Goodman, J. David; Baker, Al (31 December 2014). "Murders in New York Drop to a Record Low, but Officers Aren't Celebrating". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  17. ^ "Anti Corruption Branch finds Delhi Police, MCD most corrupt". Hindustan Times. 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Delhi Police most corrupt, says report". The Times of India. 29 October 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  19. ^ "Cops turn rogues and turn Delhi Capital of corruption". India Today. 22 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  20. ^ "Delhi HC snubs anti-kissing moral police". Hindustan Times. 3 February 2009. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  21. ^ "Court notice to Delhi police over couple's plea". The Hindu. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  22. ^ A & B v. State Thr. N.C.T. of Delhi & Anr. (Delhi High Court 25 May 2009), Text.
  23. ^ "Government waging 'war' against people: Arvind Kejriwal". CNN-IBN. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  24. ^ "Rape & Shame in Delhi : A witness' account of the protests". thatssogloss.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  25. ^ Timmons, Heather; Mandhana, Hinarika; Gottipatti, Sruthi (23 December 2012). "Protests Over Rape Turn Violent in Delhi". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  26. ^ "US Commission on Religious Freedom Condemns Violence in Delhi, Calls for Swift Action". News18. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  27. ^ a b c Ahuja, Rajesh (29 May 2016). "Staggering rise in VIP protectee list: 454 people in 2016". Hindustan Times. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  28. ^ "Ministry of Home Affairs Annual Report 2015-2016" (PDF). New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  29. ^ Helplines Archived 22 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Delhi Police. Retrieved on 19 August 2013.
  30. ^ "Delhi Police to launch the Facility of filing FIR Online". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  31. ^ "Tata Nano unveiled as new Delhi Police PCR van at security expo". The Economic Times. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  32. ^ "Delhi: Police Station Heads to Get Toyota Innovas". NDTV. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  33. ^ "Delhi cops openly flout PMO order on vehicle use". India Today. 2 February 2015. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  34. ^ Gupta, Swati (15 August 2018). "India's Independence Day sees first deployment of all-female SWAT team". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  35. ^ "Delhi gets SWAT team". The Indian Express. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2016.

See also