Kolkata Police
Insignia of Kolkata Police
Insignia of Kolkata Police
AbbreviationKPF
MottoWith You - Always
Agency overview
Formed1866
Annual budget1,727.0843 crore (US$230 million) (2021–22 est.)[1]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionKolkata, West Bengal, IN
Kolkata Police Jurisdiction Area
Size311 sq mi (810 km2)
Population45,80,544 (within 200.71 km**)
Legal jurisdictionAs per operations jurisdiction
Governing bodyDepartment of Home and Hill Affairs
Constituting instrument
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters18, Lalbazar Street, Kolkata-700 001
Police officers38[2]
Unsworn members35000
Police Commissioner responsible
Divisions
10
  • North and North Suburban Division
  • Central Division
  • Eastern Suburban Division
  • South Division
  • Port Division
  • South East Division
  • South Suburban Division
  • South West Division
  • East Division
  • River Traffic
Facilities
Police Stations80 [4]
Cars & Bikes4000+[5]
Website
www.kolkatapolice.gov.in Edit this at Wikidata

The Kolkata Police Force (KPF) is one of the two presidency police forces of the Indian state of West Bengal. Kolkata Police has the task of policing the metropolitan area (apart from Bidhannagar and New Town, which are served by the Bidhannagar City Police) of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India, as defined under the Calcutta Police Act, 1866 and the Calcutta Suburban Police Act, 1866. The primary functions of the forces are maintaining law and order in the city, traffic management, prevention and detection of crime and co-ordinating various citizen-centric services for the people of Kolkata. As of 2018, Kolkata Police has 8 divisions covering 79 police stations. It has a strength of approximately 35,000 and a territorial jurisdiction of 243 km2 (approx). There are 8 battalions of armed forces as well as specialised branches. The force also uses various modern technologies for effective handling of unconventional crimes, terrorism and related activities.

History

Early years (17th century)

The history of the present structure of policing in Kolkata goes back to East India company times, when the city was known as "Calcutta", and was an early settlement of the English East India Company. Calcutta was founded on the eastern banks of the Hooghly by an Englishman, Job Charnock in 1690. Policing in Calcutta's earliest days was confined to the Mughal administration and their local representatives. Bengal was still technically a part of the Mughal Empire, but the Nawabs of Bengal, based in Murshidabad in Northern South Bengal, were its effective rulers. The watch and ward functions were entrusted to a Kotwal or town prefect who had 45 peons under him, armed with traditional weapons like staves and spears, to deal with miscreants.[6]

East India Company Police (1720–1845)

In 1720, the East India Company formally appointed an officer to be in charge of civil and criminal administration. He was assisted by an Indian functionary commonly known as black deputy or black zamindar. Under him were three naib-dewans, one of whom was in charge of the police. The settlement was divided into "thanas" (police stations) under "thanadars" who had in turn contingents of "naiks" and "paiks". A small contingent of river police was also formed. A statute passed in 1778 raised the strength of the police in Calcutta to 700 paiks, 31 thanadars and 34 naibs under a superintendent. In 1785 commissioners of conservancy were appointed for the town who also looked after watch and ward. Policing was still very loosely organised. In 1794, justices of peace were appointed for the municipal administration of Calcutta and its suburbs, under a chief magistrate who was directly in charge of the Police. In 1806 justices of peace were constituted as magistrates of 24 Parganas and parts of the adjacent districts within a 20-mile radius of the town.[7]

Consolidation (1845–1866)

The middle decades of the 19th century witnessed a greater systematisation and institutionalisation of policing in Calcutta. A city magistrate named William Coats Blacquiere inaugurated a network of spies or goendas (Bengali: গোয়েন্দা). In 1845 a committee under J.H. Patton brought about key changes in police organisation which now began to be modelled on the London Metropolitan Police. A Commissioner of Police was appointed with powers of a justice of peace to preserve law and order, detect crime and apprehend offenders. In 1856 the Governor-General promulgated an Act treating the Calcutta Police as a separate organisation and S. Wauchope, who was then the chief magistrate of Calcutta, was appointed as the first Commissioner of Police.[8]

1857 was a difficult time for the English East India Company. The year saw the first upsurge against British rule. The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. It also led the British to reorganise the army, the financial system and the administration in India.[9] The country was thereafter directly governed by the crown as the new British Raj. Commissioner Wauchope handled the situation ably and was knighted for his achievement. During the incumbency of his successor V.H. Schalch the Calcutta Police Act and the Calcutta Suburban Police Act were enacted in 1866.

Modernisation (1866–1947)

In 1868, Sir Stuart Hogg set up the Detective Department in Calcutta Police with A. Younan as the superintendent and R. Lamb as the first-class inspector. Hogg was both the Commissioner of Police and the Chairman of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation. Sir Fredrick Halliday, who was appointed as the Commissioner of Police in 1906, also introduced several changes in the administration of Calcutta Police including the system of running a Control Room. In response to the threat of the nationalist organisation Anushilan Samiti, Haliday oversaw the creation of the Special Branch in June 1909 on the recommendation of Sir Charles Augustus Tegart. For his numerous contributions to the growth of the city police, he is regarded as the father of modern Calcutta Police.[8] Sir Charles Augustus Tegart headed the Detective Department was the first cadre of the Indian Police (IP) force in the organisation. He reorganised the city police force and made it efficient. A highly decorated officer, he was the Commissioner of Police from 1923–31 and was admired for keeping the city free from crime. However, he was unpopular with freedom fighters and his encounters with revolutionaries are a part of popular Bengali folklore. The same time saw the rise of three Bengali police officers named Ramgati Banerjee, Sukumar Sengupta and Zakir Hussain. During the Salt March movement in 1930, the Calcutta Police was headed by Charles Tegart as Police Commissioner, Ramgati Banerjee as DC (South) and Sukumar Sengupta as DC (North). Later, Banerjee left his position and took up teaching as a profession, and Hussain left the job to become the First Inspector-General of East Pakistan. Sukumar Sengupta continued in the job to become the first Bengali Inspector General of Police, West Bengal soon after independence.

Post-independence (1947 onward)

Police van
Police van

The colonial history of the Calcutta Police force was primarily repressive and anti-nationalist. After India gained independence from British rule in 1947, Calcutta Police was re-organised as an essential element of the Indian law enforcement agencies. Surendra Nath Chatterjee was the first Indian Commissioner of Police. As of 2014, Kolkata Police has 8 divisions covering 70 police stations. It has a strength of approximately 35,000 and a territorial jurisdiction of 243 km2 (approx). There are 8 battalions of armed forces as well as specialised branches.

Organizational structure

White uniformed Traffic Police directing traffic in Kolkata.
White uniformed Traffic Police directing traffic in Kolkata.

As of 2018, Kolkata Police has 8 divisions covering 79 police stations.[10] It has a strength of 35,000 and a territorial jurisdiction of 243 km2. The commissioner is the chief of the Kolkata Police. The commissioner is appointed by the Government of West Bengal and reports independently to the Home Minister of the State. The headquarters are at 18, Lalbazar Street, near B.B.D. Bagh area in Central Kolkata. The commissioner is an Indian Police Service officer of the rank of Additional DG & IG of police. Shri Vineet Goyal (IPS) is the present commissioner. The state government vests the commissioner with the powers of a magistrate of First Class with limits within the suburbs of Calcutta. He has power to issue orders with his discretion.

Units

Rank structure

Main article: List of police ranks in India

The rank structure of Kolkata Police officers is as follows (in descending order of seniority):

Jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the Kolkata Police covers the area of Kolkata District and an adjacent area as well. That adjacent area, like Kolkata District, is within the boundaries of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation. The Kolkata Police's entire area comprises all 144 wards of the KMC.

Administration

Particulars of the Kolkata Police Commissionerate, functions and duties

Commissioner of Police, Kolkata, is the Executive and Administrative Head of Kolkata Police Force. Under his command and control, there are:

Rank structure of the Kolkata Police[11]
S no. Rank Strength
1 Commissioner of Police 1
2 Special Commissioner of Police 1
3 Additional Commissioner of Police 4
4 Joint Commissioner of Police 9
5 Deputy Commissioner of Police 33
6 Assistant Commissioner of Police 140
7 Inspector 612
8 Sub-Inspector 1962
9 Sergeant Major 29
10 Sergeant 1553
11 Subedar 150
12 Assistant Sub-Inspector 4460
13 Police Constable 20740

Police stations

Police stations under the jurisdiction of Kolkata Police are as follows:[12][13]

  1. Alipore
  2. Amherst Street
  3. Amherst Street Women
  4. Anandapur
  5. Ballygunge
  6. Bansdroni
  7. Behala
  8. Behala Women
  9. Beliaghata
  10. Beniapukur
  11. Bhowanipur
  12. Bowbazar
  13. Burrabazar
  14. Burtolla
  15. Charu Market
  16. Chetla
  17. Chitpur
  18. Cossipore
  19. Ekbalpur
  20. Entally
  21. Garden Reach
  22. Garfa
  23. Gariahat
  24. Girish Park
  25. Golf Green
  26. Hare Street
  27. Haridevpur
  28. Hastings
  29. Jadavpur
  30. Jorabagan
  31. Jorasanko
  32. Kalighat
  33. Kolkata Leather Complex
  34. Karaya
  35. Karaya Women
  36. Kasba
  37. Lake
  38. Maidan
  39. Maniktala
  40. Metiabruz
  41. Muchipara
  42. Nadial
  43. Narkeldanga
  44. Netaji Nagar
  45. New Alipore
  46. New Market
  47. North Port
  48. Panchasayar
  49. Park Street
  50. Parnashree
  51. Patuli
  52. Patuli Women
  53. Phoolbagan
  54. Posta
  55. Pragati Maidan
  56. Purba Jadavpur
  57. Rabindra Sarobar
  58. Rajabagan
  59. Regent Park
  60. Sarsuna
  61. Shakespeare Sarani
  62. Shyampukur
  63. Sinthee
  64. South Port
  65. Survey Park
  66. Tala
  67. Taltala
  68. Taltala Women
  69. Tangra
  70. Taratala
  71. Thakurpukur
  72. Tiljala
  73. Tollygunge
  74. Tollygunge Women
  75. Topsia
  76. Ultadanga
  77. Ultadanga Women
  78. Watgunge
  79. Watgunge Women
  80. West Port
Police Training School, Kolkata
Police Training School, Kolkata
A Kolkata police ambulance
A Kolkata police ambulance

See also

References

  1. ^ "Detailed Demands For Grants For 2021–22" (PDF). 5 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  2. ^ "West Bengal Police".
  3. ^ Saha, Rajesh (31 December 2021). "Vineet Kumar Goyal appointed new Kolkata Police commissioner". India Today 12:34 IST. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  4. ^ "Kolkata to get eight more police stations | Kolkata News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  5. ^ CHAUDHURI, MONALISA (14 September 2021). "E-vehicles to replace old police fleet in Kolkata". The Telegraph 07:13 AM. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Origins of Kolkata Police". Kolkata police. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Consolidation of the Police Force". Kolkata police. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Colonial History of the Kolkata Police". Kolkata Police. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  9. ^ Bayly 1990, pp. 194–197
  10. ^ Ghosh, Dwaipayan (27 February 2014). "Four new police stations in Kolkata". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
  11. ^ a b "Right to Information" (PDF). Kolkata Police.
  12. ^ http://www.kolkatapolice.gov.in
  13. ^ http://www.kolkatapolice.gov.in/images/docs/rti.pdf[bare URL PDF]