Communist Party of India (Marxist)
AbbreviationCPI(M), CPIM, CPM
General SecretarySitaram Yechury
PresidiumPolitburo
Lok Sabha LeaderP. R. Natarajan
Rajya Sabha LeaderElamaram Kareem
Founded7 November 1964 (59 years ago) (1964-11-07)
Split fromCommunist Party of India
HeadquartersA. K. Gopalan Bhawan, 27–29, Bhai Vir Singh Marg, New Delhi-110 001
NewspaperPeople's Democracy
Ganashakti
Deshabhimani
Theekkathir

Loklahar

Daily Desher Katha
Student wing
Youth wing
Women's wingAll India Democratic Women's Association
Labour wingCentre of Indian Trade Unions
Peasant's wing
MembershipIncrease 1 million+ (2023)[1][2][3][4]
IdeologyCommunism[5][6]
Marxism-Leninism[5][6]
Anti-capitalism
Political positionLeft-wing[7]
International affiliationIMCWP
Colours  Red
ECI StatusNational Party[8]
Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
3 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
5 / 245
Seats in State legislatures
78 / 4,036
(Total)
State Legislatures
61 / 140
(Kerala)
10 / 60
(Tripura)
2 / 234
(Tamil Nadu)
2 / 243
(Bihar)
1 / 126
(Assam)
1 / 147
(Odisha)
1 / 288
(Maharashtra)
Number of states and union territories in government
2 / 31
Election symbol
Hammer Sickle and Star
Party flag
Website
cpim.org

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated as CPI(M)) is a communist political party in India.[5] It is the largest communist party in India in terms of membership and electoral seats, and one of the national parties of India.[8] The party was founded through a splitting from the Communist Party of India in 1964 and it quickly became the dominant fraction.

The 34 years of CPI(M) led Left Front rule in West Bengal was the longest-serving democratically elected communist-led government in the world. It has been also the third largest party of parliament several times.[9] Presently, CPI(M) is a part of ruling alliances in two states - the LDF in Kerala, which it leads, and the SPA in Tamil Nadu. It also has representation in the legislative assemblies of seven states.

The All-India Party Congress is the supreme authority of the Communist Party of India (Marxist).[10] However, during the time between two party congresses, the Central Committee is the highest decision-making body.[10] The Central Committee shall elect from among its members a Polit Bureau including the General Secretary.[10] The Polit Bureau carries on the work of the Central Committee between its two sessions and has the right to take political and organisational decisions in between two meetings of the Central Committee.[10]

CPI(M) had a total income of ₹1,620,000,000 in fiscal year 2021–22. The party reported zero funding from Electoral Bonds.[11][12]

Name

CPI(M) is officially known as भारत की कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी (मार्क्सवादी) [Bhārat kī Kamyunisṭ Pārṭī (Mārksvādī)] in Hindi, but it is often known as मार्क्सवादी कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी (Mārksvādī Kamyunisṭ Pārṭī, abbreviated MaKaPa) in press and media circles. During its initial years after the split, the party was often referred to by different names such as 'Left Communist Party' or 'Communist Party of India (Left)'. The party has used the name 'Left' because CPI people were dubbed 'rightist' in nature for their support of the Congress-Nehru regime. During the Kerala Legislative Assembly elections of 1965, the party adopted the name 'Communist Party of India (Marxist)' and applied to obtain its election symbol from the Election Commission of India.[13]

Background

Main article: Communist Party of India

Guerrillas of the Telangana armed struggle (1946–1951)
CPI election campaign in Karol Bagh, Delhi, for the 1952 Indian general election
Swearing-in ceremony of E. M. S. Namboodiripad as first Chief Minister of Kerala, April 1957

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) emerged from a division within the Communist Party of India, which was formed on 26 December 1925.[14] The CPI had experienced an upsurge in support during the years following the World War II, and had led armed rebellions in Telangana, Tripura, and Kerala. However, it soon abandoned the strategy of armed revolution in favor of working within the Parliament framework. In 1950, B. T. Ranadive, the CPI general secretary and a prominent representative of the radical sector inside the party, was demoted on grounds of left-adventurism.[15]

Under the government of the Indian National Congress party of Jawaharlal Nehru, independent India developed close relations and a strategic partnership with the Soviet Union. The Soviet government consequently wished that the Indian communists moderate their criticism towards the Indian state and assume a supportive role towards the Congress governments. However, large sections of the CPI claimed that India remained a semi-feudal country and that Class conflict could not be put on the back-burner for the sake of guarding the interests of Soviet trade and foreign policy.[16] Moreover, the Indian National Congress appeared to be generally hostile towards political competition. In 1959 the central government intervened to impose President's rule in Kerala, toppling the E. M. S. Namboodiripad cabinet (the sole non-Congress state government in the country).[17]

History

Formation of CPI(M) (1964)

Main article: 1964 split in the Communist Party of India

Further information: Sino-Soviet split

The basis of difference in opinion between the two factions in CPI was ideological – about the assessment of the Indian scenario and the development of a party programme. This difference in opinion was also a reflection of whether the Communist Party in India would toe the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) or follow an independent path based on the concrete analysis of the Indian situation. The alleged 'right-wing' inside the party followed the Soviet path[18] whereas the 'left-wing' wanted to follow the mass party with a class line with national characteristics, based on the 'independent' development of socialism in accordance to the India situation. Moreover, the faction of CPI which later became CPI(M) referred to the "right" strategy as a national approach of class collaboration, a damning charge within the communist movement, in which the prioritization of working-class interests and independence is considered paramount.[18][19] Ideological difference also grew on the analysis of the role and character of the Indian bourgeoisie and the character of the Indian revolution. While the 'right wing' in the Party sought the Indian bourgeoisie to have a 'progressive' character and called for a national democratic revolution, the 'left wing' sought the character of the Indian bourgeoisie to be essentially reactionary and called for a peoples' democratic revolution. However as the 'left wing' grew, the Congress and the Party's 'right wing' dubbed them as pro-Chinese and essentially made extensive efforts to incriminate them of committing 'anti-national' activities. This ideological difference later intensified, and ultimately gave rise to the establishment of CPI(M).[20]

Hundreds of CPI leaders, accused of being pro-Chinese, were imprisoned. Thousands of Communists were detained without trial.[a][18] The Communist Party CPI(M) has a strong history of championing labor rights[22] and it supports the rights of industrial laborers, demanding fair wages, safe working conditions, and the right to unionize.

In 1962, Ajoy Ghosh, the General Secretary of the CPI died. After his death, Shripad Amrit Dange was installed as the party chairman (a new position) and E.M.S. Namboodiripad as general secretary. This was an attempt to achieve a compromise.

At a CPI National Council meeting held on 11 April 1964, 32 Council members walked out.[b]

The leftist section, to which the 32 National Council members belonged, organized a convention in Tenali, Andhra Pradesh 7 to 11 July. In this convention, the issues of the internal disputes in the party were discussed. 146 delegates, claiming to represent 100,000 CPI members, took part in the proceedings. The convention decided to convene the 7th Party Congress of CPI in Kolkata later the same year.[24]

Marking a difference from the official sector of CPI, the Tenali convention was marked by the display of a large portrait of the Communist leader of China, Mao Zedong.[24]

At the Tenali convention, a Bengal-based pro-Chinese group, representing one of the most radical streams of the CPI left-wing, presented a draft program proposal of their own. These radicals criticized the draft program proposal prepared by Makineni Basavapunnaiah for undermining Class conflict and failing to take a clear pro-Chinese position in the ideological conflict between the CPSU and the CPC.[c]

After the Tenali convention, the CPI left-wing organized party district and state conferences. In West Bengal, a few of these meetings became battlegrounds between the most radical elements and the more moderate leadership. At the Calcutta Party District Conference, an alternative draft program was presented to the leadership by Parimal Das Gupta (a leading figure amongst far-left intellectuals in the party). Another alternative proposal was brought forward to the Calcutta Party District Conference by Aziz ul Haq, but Haq was initially banned from presenting it by the conference organizers. At the Calcutta Party District Conference, 42 delegates opposed M. Basavapunniah's official draft program proposal.[26]

At the Siliguri Party District Conference, the main draft proposal for a party program was accepted, but with some additional points suggested by the far-left North Bengal cadre Charu Majumdar. However, Hare Krishna Konar (representing the leadership of the CPI left-wing) forbade the raising of the slogan Mao Tse-Tung Zindabad (Long live Mao Tse-Tung) at the conference.[26]

Parimal Das Gupta's document was also presented to the leadership at the West Bengal State Conference of the CPI leftwing. Das Gupta and a few others spoke at the conference, demanding the party ought to adopt the class analysis of the Indian state of the 1951 CPI conference. His proposal was, however, voted down.[26]

The Calcutta Congress was held between 31 October and 7 November, at Tyagraja Hall in southern Kolkata.[27] Simultaneously, the CPI convened a Party Congress in Mumbai. [28] The group which assembled in Calcutta would later adopt the name 'Communist Party of India (Marxist)', to differentiate themselves from the CPI. The CPI(M) also adopted its own political program. Puchalapalli Sundarayya was elected general secretary of the party.[18][19]

In total, 422 delegates took part in the Calcutta Congress. CPI(M) claimed that they represented 104,421 CPI members, 60% of the total party membership.[29]

At the Calcutta conference, the party adopted a class analysis of the character of the Indian state, that claimed the Indian bourgeoisie was increasingly collaborating with imperialism.[30]

Parimal Das Gupta's alternative draft program was not circulated at the Calcutta conference. However, Souren Bose, a delegate from the far-left stronghold Darjeeling, spoke at the conference asking why no portrait had been raised of Mao Tse-Tung along with the portraits of other communist stalwarts. His intervention was met with huge applause from conference delegates.[30]

Early years of CPI(M) (1964–1966)

The CPI (M) was born into a hostile political climate. At the time of the holding of its Calcutta Congress, large sections of its leaders and cadres were jailed without trial. Again on 29–30 December, over a thousand CPI (M) cadres were arrested and detained and held in jail without trial.[31] In 1965 new waves of arrests of CPI(M) cadres took place in West Bengal, as the party launched agitations against the rise in fares in the Calcutta Tramways Company and against the then-prevailing food crisis. Statewide general strikes and hartals were observed on 5 August 1965, 10–11 March 1966, and 6 April 1966.[31] The March 1966 general strike resulted in several deaths during confrontations with police forces.[31]

Also in Kerala, mass arrests of CPI(M) cadres were carried out during 1965. In Bihar, the party called for a Bandh (general strike) in Patna on 9 August 1965 in protest against the Congress state government.[31] During the strike, police resorted to violent actions against the organizers of the strike. The strike was followed by agitations in other parts of the state.[31]

P. Sundaraiah, after being released from jail, spent the period of September 1965 – February 1966 in Moscow for medical treatment. In Moscow, he also held talks with the CPSU.[31]

The Central Committee of CPI(M) held its first meeting on 12–19 June 1966. The reason for delaying the holding of a regular CC meeting was that several of the persons elected as CC members at the Calcutta Congress were jailed at the time.[d] A CC meeting had been scheduled to have been held in Thrissur during the last days of 1964, but had been canceled due to the wave of arrests against the party. The meeting discussed tactics for electoral alliances and concluded that the party should seek to form a broad electoral alliance with all non-reactionary opposition parties in West Bengal (i.e. all parties except Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party). This decision was strongly criticized by the Communist Party of China (CPC), the Party of Labour of Albania, the Communist Party of New Zealand, and the radicals within the party itself. The line was changed at a National Council meeting in Jalandhar in October 1966, where it was decided that the party should only form alliances with select left parties.[33]

Naxalbari uprising (1967)

Main article: Naxalite

At this point, the party stood at crossroads. There were radical sections of the party who were wary of the increasing parliamentary focus of the party leadership, especially after the electoral victories in West Bengal and Kerala. Developments in China also affected the situation inside the party. In West Bengal, two separate internal dissident tendencies emerged, which both could be identified as supporting the Chinese line.[e]

In 1967, a peasant uprising broke out in Naxalbari, in northern West Bengal. The insurgency was led by hardline district-level CPI(M) leaders Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. The hardliners within CPI(M) saw the Naxalbari uprising as the spark that would ignite the Indian revolution. The CPC hailed the Naxalbari movement, causing an abrupt break in CPI(M)-CPC relations.[f]

The Naxalbari movement was violently repressed by the West Bengal government, of which CPI(M) was a major partner. Within the party, the hardliners rallied around an All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries. [38] Following the 1968 Burdwan plenum of CPI(M) (held on 5–12 April 1968), the AICCCR separated itself from CPI(M).[39] This split divided the party throughout the country. But notably in West Bengal, which was the center of the violent radicalized stream, no prominent leading figure left the party. The party and the Naxalites (as the rebels were called) were soon to get into a bloody feud.[40]

In Andhra Pradesh, another revolt was taking place. There the pro-Naxalbari dissidents had not established any presence. But in the party organization, there were many veterans from the Telangana armed struggle, who rallied against the central party leadership. In Andhra Pradesh, the radicals had a strong base even amongst the state-level leadership. The main leader of the radical tendency was T. Nagi Reddy, a member of the state legislative assembly. On 15 June 1968, the leaders of the radical tendency published a press statement outlining the critique of the development of CPI(M). It was signed by T. Nagi Reddy, D.V. Rao, Kolla Venkaiah, and Chandra Pulla Reddy.[g]

In total, around 50% of the party cadres in Andhra Pradesh left the party to form the Andhra Pradesh Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries, under the leadership of T. Nagi Reddy.[h]

Dismissal of United Front governments in West Bengal and Kerala (1967–1970)

A tableau in a CPI(M) rally in Kerala, India showing two farmers forming the hammer and sickle.

In November 1967, the West Bengal United Front government was dismissed by the central government. Initially, the Indian National Congress formed a minority government led by Prafulla Chandra Ghosh, but that cabinet did not last long.[42] Following the proclamation that the United Front government had been dislodged, a 48-hour hartal was effective throughout the state.[43] After the fall of the Ghosh cabinet, the state was put under President's Rule. CPI(M) launched agitations against the interventions of the central government in West Bengal.[44][45]

The 8th Party Congress of CPI(M) was held in Kochi, Kerala, on 23–29 December 1968. On 25 December 1968, whilst the congress was held, 42 Dalits were burned alive in the Tamil Nadu village of Kizhavenmani. The massacre was a retaliation from landlords after Dalit labourers had taken part in a CPI(M)-led agitation for higher wages.[46][47]

The United Front government in Kerala was forced out of office in October 1969, as the CPI, RSP, KTP, and Muslim League ministers resigned. E.M.S. Namboodiripad handed in his resignation on 24 October.[48] A coalition government led by CPI leader C. Achutha Menon was formed, with the outside support of the Indian National Congress.

Elections in West Bengal and Kerala

Fresh elections were held in West Bengal in 1969. CPI(M) contested 97 seats and won 80. The party was now the largest in the West Bengal legislative.[i] But with the active support of CPI and the Bangla Congress, Ajoy Mukherjee was returned as Chief Minister of the state. Mukherjee resigned on 16 March 1970, after a pact had been reached between CPI, Bangla Congress, and the Indian National Congress against CPI(M). CPI(M) strove to form a new government, instead but the central government put the state under President's Rule.

Land Reform

Main article: Operation Barga

Though land reform was successfully done in three Indian states (West Bengal, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu), India's first land reform was done in West Bengal in 1967, under the leadership of two Communist leaders: Hare Krishna Konar and Benoy Choudhury, in which Hare Krishna Konar played a leading role in getting surplus land held by big land owners in excess of land ceiling laws and kept ‘benami' (or false names) vested with the state. The quantum of land thus vested was around one million acres (4,000 km2) of good agricultural land. Subsequently, under the leadership of Hare Krishna Konar and Benoy Choudhury land was distributed amongst 2.4 million landless and poor farmers. Later after 1970 the united front government of west Bengal fail and the land reform was also stopped for seven years and after left front came in West Bengal in 1977 this land reform was renamed to Operation Barga and this barga was the notable contribution to the people from Left Front Government of West Bengal. To begin with, group meetings between Officials and Bargadars were organized during "settlement camps" (also called "Reorientation camps"), where the bargadars could discuss their grievances. The first such camp was held at Halusai in Polba taluk in Hooghly district from 18 to 20 May 1978. In noted camp, two Adibashi Borgaders objected procedure adopted by the official for Barga Operation. They suggested to start it organising people in the field instead of sitting in the houses of rural rich people or the places dominated by them.[49][50][51]

Formation of CITU (1970)

Main article: Centre of Indian Trade Unions

Centre of Indian Trade Unions, CITU is a National level Trade Union in India and its trade union wing is a spearhead of the Indian Trade Union Movement.[52] The Centre of Indian Trade Unions is today one of biggest assembly of workers and classes of India. It has strong unchallengeable presence in the Indian state of Tripura besides a good presence in West Bengal, Kerala and Kanpur. They have an average presence in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

A CITU rally in Pondicherry.

According to the provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, CITU had a membership of approximately 6,040,000 in 2015.[53]

Tapan Kumar Sen is the General Secretary and K. Hemalata is the president of CITU. K. Hemalata was the first woman President in CITU who was elected after A. K. Padmanabhan.[54] It runs a monthly organ named WORKING CLASS.

CITU is affiliated to the World Federation of Trade Unions.[55]

Outbreak of war in East Pakistan (1971–1972)

Main article: Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist)

In 1971, Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) declared its independence from Pakistan. The Pakistani military tried to quell the uprising. India intervened militarily and gave active backing to the Bangladeshi rebels.[56] Millions of Bangladeshi refugees sought shelter in India, especially in West Bengal.[57]

At the time, the radical sections of the Bangladeshi communist movement were divided into many factions. Whilst the pro-Soviet Communist Party of Bangladesh actively participated in the rebellion, the pro-China communist tendency found itself in a peculiar situation as China had sided with Pakistan in the war. In Calcutta, where many Bangladeshi leftists had sought refuge, CPI(M) worked to co-ordinate the efforts to create a new political organization. In the fall of 1971 three small groups, which were all hosted by the CPI(M), came together to form the Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist). The new party became the sister party of CPI(M) in Bangladesh.[j]

Boycott of Assembly and Emergency rule (1972–1977)

In 1975, the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi imposed a State of emergency on the premise of internal disturbances suspending elections, legitimising rule by decree and curbing civil liberties.[58] The proposition for the declaration of the emergency and the formal draft of the ordinance were both notably corroborated to have been forwarded by Siddhartha Shankar Ray.[59][60][61] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) emerged as one of the primary opposition to The Emergency (India).[58] The following period witnessed a succession of authoritarian measures and political repression, which was particularly severe in West Bengal.[62] The members of the CPI-M's labour union became the first subject to political repression and mass arrests while the rest of the members of the CPI-M went underground.[63]

With the initiation of the Jayaprakash Narayan (JP)'s movement, the CPI-M began providing support to it and went on to participate in discussions for the creation of a united front under the umbrella of the Janata Party. Several of the leaders of the CPI-M were also influenced by JP with Jyoti Basu noted to be one of his prominent admirers having worked under him in the All India Railwaymen's Federation during the 1940s.[63] The involvement of the Hindutva movement however complicated matters, according to JP the formal inclusion of the marxists who had undergone a splintering and whose organisation was localised in particular region would have been detrimental to the movement as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh members would switch sides if they joined.[63][64] JP and Basu eventually came to an agreement that the CPI-M would not formally join the Janata Party as it would weaken the movement.[63] After the revocation of the emergency, the CPI-M joined an electoral alliance with the Janata Party in the 1977 Indian general election which resulted in an overwhelming victory for the Janata Alliance.[65]

Left Front Government formation in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura assembly (1977 afterwards)

West Bengal

Main article: Communist Party of India (Marxist), West Bengal

CPI(M) West Bengal under the leadership of Jyoti Basu fought the 1977 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election. Initially the election was planned to fight in alliance with the Janata Party but the negotiations between the parties broke down. [66] This led to a three sided contested between the Indian National Congress, the Janata Party and the Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Front coalition. The results of the election was a surprising sweep for the Left Front winning 230 seats out of 290 with the CPI-M winning an absolute majority on its own, Basu became the Chief Minister of West Bengal. From the 1977 election the CPI(M) led Left Front won 7 continuous elections till 2011. Under Jyoti Basu's leadership the Left Front won, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1991, 1996 elections. For the next 23 years he was the Chief Minister of West Bengal making him longest serving at this position. [67]

In the late 2000s the Left Front saw a change in leadership. Under the leadership of Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, the Left Front won the elections of 2001 elections and 2006. From 2000 to 2011, remained the Chief Minister of West Bengal for 11 years.

Following the events of 2007 Nandigram anti land acquisition violence[68] and the 2006 Singur anti land acquisition violence, led by opposition parties in West Bengal. In the 2011 assembly election lost the elections marking the end of 34-year rule of Left Front, the longest-serving democratically elected communist government in the world, a fact that was noted by international media.[69][70] After 2021 elections the Left Front has no representatives in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

Kerala

Main article: Communist Party of India (Marxist), Kerala

After the CPI split in 1964, prominent communist leader in Kerala E.M.S. Namboodiripad, A. K. Gopalan and K. R. Gouri Amma stood with the Communist Party of India (Marxist). One year after the split, in the 1965 elections CPI(M) which was splinter faction of CPI, emerged as the largest party in the assembly with 40 seats. Where CPI settled with 3 seats only. However no single party could form a ministry commanding majority and hence this election is considered abortive. President's rule was invoked for the fourth time.[71][72]

In the 1967 Kerala assembly election both communist parties - CPI (M) and CPI - along with smaller parties including SSP and Muslim League contested this election as a United Front. A total of seven parties contested in the front, and the front was known as Saptakakshi Munnani.[73] The CPI(M) led front won the election with a record 113 seats out of 133 seats and formed the government under E.M.S. Namboodiripad.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, two main pre-poll political alliances were formed: the Left Democratic Front (LDF) led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Communist Party of India and the United Democratic Front (UDF), led by the Indian National Congress. These pre-poll political alliances of Kerala have stabilized strongly in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the respective alliances (Left Democratic Front or United Democratic Front).

LDF first came into power in Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1980 under the leadership of E. K. Nayanar who later became the longest serving Chief minister of Kerala, ever since 1980 election, the power has been clearly alternating between the two alliances till the 2016. In 2016, LDF won the 2016 election and had a historic re-election in 2021 election where an incumbent government was re-elected for first time in 40 years. Pinarayi Vijayan is the first chief minister of Kerala to be re-elected after completing a full term (five years) in office.[74]

Tripura

Main article: Communist Party of India (Marxist), Tripura

Under the leadership of Nripen Chakraborty, the CPI(M) led Left Front won the 1977 assembly elections. Nripen Chakraborty, became the first Chief minister of Tripura from CPI(M). In the next 1983 assembly elections the incumbent government of Left Front was again re-elected and therefore it was in the government for 10 years.[75] In 1988 assembly elections CPI(M) was out of power for 5 years despite being the largest party by seats won. In 1993 assembly elections, the Left Front won the elections and Dasarath Deb sworn in as the Chief minister of Tripura.

From 1993 to 2013, the Left Front won 5 elections continuously. Since the 1998 assembly elections, Manik Sarkar was the Chief minister of Tripura for 20 years making him the longest serving at the position in Tripura. Under his leadership the Left Front has won 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2013. Currently, CPI(M) is the main opposition party in the Tripura Legislative Assembly.

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the dominant party in the coalition.[75][76] The other four members of the Left Front are the Communist Party of India, the Revolutionary Socialist Party, the All India Forward Bloc and the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation.[77]

International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties

Main article: International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties

In 2009, CPI(M) hosted 11th International Communist Parties Meeting in New Delhi. The summit was attended by 57 communist parties from 48 countries.[78]

Leadership and organisation

Leadership

First central committee of CPI(M) held in Madurai.
Front row from left: Jagjit Singh Lyallpuri, A. K. Gopalan, Jyoti Basu, Hare Krishna Konar, Muzaffar Ahmad, Puchalapalli Sundarayya, Harkishan Singh Surjeet, E. M. S. Namboodiripad, Makineni Basavapunnaiah, Promode Dasgupta, P. Ramamurthi and others 19 leaders.
Jyoti Basu and other communist leaders in the rally of Food Movement of 1959
Jyoti Basu, Makineni Basavapunnaiah, Hare Krishna Konar, B. T. Ranadive, E. M. S. Namboodiripad and Harkishan Singh Surjeet in a protest of Delhi[79]
First CPI(M) General Secretary, P. Sundarayya with 1st President of Romania, Nicolae Ceaușescu, 1969.
A. K. Gopalan (left), B. T. Ranadive (center), E.M.S. Namboodiripad (right) and Hare Krishna Konar (extreme right) with other CPI(M) leaders in Kolkata, 1966.
Jyoti Basu, B. T. Ranadive, Samar Mukherjee, Makineni Basavapunnaiah and Hare Krishna Konar in Brigade
Harkishan Singh Surjeet and Jyoti Basu
CPI(M) leaders at the 18th party congress
Current General Secretary of CPI(M), Sitaram Yechury with Harkishan Singh Surjeet and Jyoti Basu

The current general secretary of CPI(M) is Sitaram Yechury. The 22nd party congress of CPI(M), held in Hyderabad 18 April 2018, elected a Central Committee with 95 members including two permanent invitees, six invitees and a five-member Central Control Commission. The Central Committee later elected a 17-member Politburo:[80]

Politburo members

Main article: Politburo of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)

No. Portrait Name State From (Year)
1 Sitaram Yechury
(General Secretary)
Andhra Pradesh 1992
2 Prakash Karat
(Former General Secretary)
New Delhi 1992
3 Manik Sarkar
(Former Chief Minister of Tripura)
Tripura 1998
4 Pinarayi Vijayan
(Chief Minister of Kerala)
Kerala 2002
5 Brinda Karat New Delhi 2005
6 B. V. Raghavulu Andhra Pradesh 2005
7 Surjya Kanta Mishra West Bengal 2012
8 M. A. Baby Kerala 2012
9 Mohammed Salim West Bengal 2015
10 Subhashini Ali Uttar Pradesh 2015
11 G. Ramakrishnan Tamil Nadu 2015
12 Tapan Kumar Sen West Bengal 2018
13 Nilotpal Basu West Bengal 2018
14 M. V. Govindan Kerala 2022
15 Ram Chandra Dome West Bengal 2022
16 Ashok Dhawale Maharashtra 2022
17 A. Vijayaraghavan Kerala 2022

The 23rd party congress newly inducts Ramchandra Dome, Ashok Dhawale and A. Vijayraghavan into the Politburo.[80][81][82]

General Secretary

Communist Party of India (Marxist)
AKG Bhavan, the CPI(M) national headquarters in Delhi 28°37′53.6″N 77°12′17.9″E / 28.631556°N 77.204972°E / 28.631556; 77.204972

Article XV, Section 15 of the party constitution says:

"No person can hold the position of the General Secretary for more than three full terms. Full term means the period between two Party Congresses. In a special situation, a person who has completed three full terms as General Secretary may be re-elected for a fourth term provided it is so decided by the Central Committee with a three-fourth majority. But in no case can that person be elected again for another term in addition to the fourth term."[83]

List of General Secretaries[84]
S. No. Term Portrait Name State References
1 1964–1978 Puchalapalli Sundarayya Andhra Pradesh [85][86]
After the split of the Communist Party of India in the 7th General meeting, a new political outfit was formed Communist Party of India (Marxist). Puchalapalli Sundarayya was elected as its General Secretary.
2 1978–1992 E. M. S. Namboodiripad Kerala [87][88]
The two time Chief Minister of Kerala, E. M. S. Namboodiripad was elected as the General Secretary in the 10th party Congress.
3 1992–2005 Harkishan Singh Surjeet Punjab [89]
Harkishan Singh Surjeet came to head the CPI-M as its general secretary in 1992, an influential post he held until 2005 when failing health forced him into virtual retirement.
4 2005–2015 Prakash Karat Kerala [90]
Prakash Karat was elected as the general secretary in the 18th party Congress. He was re-elected again to hold office until 2015.
5 2015–Incumbent Sitaram Yechury Andhra Pradesh [91][92]
Sitaram Yechury was first elected as the party general secretary during the 21st party Congress at Visakhapatnam in April 2015. He was re-elected to the post at the 22nd party Congress at Hyderabad on April 18, 2018. Again re-elected for the third time at 23rd Party Congress held at Kannur, Kerala in April 2022.

State Secretary

States State units State Secretary Took office Ref.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands CPI(M) Andaman and Nicobar Islands D. Ayyappan 27 March 2022
(2 years, 57 days)
[93]
Andhra Pradesh CPI(M) Andhra Pradesh V. Srinivasa Rao 29 December 2021
(2 years, 146 days)
[94]
Assam CPI(M) Assam Suprakash Talukdar 17 February 2022
(2 years, 96 days)
[95]
Bihar CPI(M) Bihar Lalan Chaudhary 8 March 2022
(2 years, 76 days)
[96]
Delhi CPI(M) Delhi K.M. Tiwari 21 December 2014
(9 years, 154 days)
[97][98]
Chhattisgarh CPI(M) Chhattisgarh Sanjay Parate 17 March 2015
(9 years, 67 days)
[99]
Goa CPI(M) Goa Victor Savio Braganca N/A N/A
Gujarat CPI(M) Gujarat Hitendra Bhatt 26 March 2022
(2 years, 58 days)
[100]
Haryana CPI(M) Haryana Surender Singh Malik N/A [101]
Himachal Pradesh CPI(M) Himachal Pradesh Onkar Shad 28 December 2014
(9 years, 147 days)
[102]
Jharkhand CPI(M) Jharkhand Prakash Viplav 31 October 2021
(2 years, 205 days)
[103]
Jammu Kashmir CPI(M) Jammu Kashmir Ghulam Ali Malik 25 March 2022
(2 years, 59 days)
[104]
Karnataka CPI(M) Karnataka U. Basavaraj 20 December 2018
(5 years, 155 days)
[105]
Kerala CPI(M) Kerala M. V. Govindan 28 August 2022
(1 year, 269 days)
[106]
Madhya Pradesh CPI(M) Madhya Pradesh Jaswinder Singh 18 November 2017
(6 years, 187 days)
[107][108]
Maharashtra CPI(M) Maharashtra Uday Narkar 26 March 2022
(2 years, 58 days)
[109]
Manipur CPI(M) Manipur Kshetrimayum Santa 30 October 2021
(2 years, 206 days)
[110]
Odisha CPI(M) Odhisha Ali Kishor Patnaik 7 January 2015
(9 years, 137 days)
[111]
Punjab CPI(M) Punjab Sukhwinder Singh Sekhon 12 April 2018
(6 years, 41 days)
[112][113]
Rajasthan CPI(M) Rajasthan Amra Ram 13 December 2014
(9 years, 162 days)
[114]
Tamil Nadu CPI(M) Tamil Nadu K. Balakrishnan 20 February 2018
(6 years, 93 days)
[115][116]
Telangana CPI(M) Telangana Tammineni Veerabhadram 8 March 2014
(10 years, 76 days)
[117]
Tripura CPI(M) Tripura Jitendra Choudhury 27 February 2022
(2 years, 86 days)
[118][119]
Uttar Pradesh CPI(M) Uttar Pradesh Heera Lal Yadav 12 January 2015
(9 years, 132 days)
[120]
Uttarakhand CPI(M) Uttarakhand Rajendra Negi 26 December 2021
(2 years, 149 days)
[121]
West Bengal CPI(M) West Bengal Mohammed Salim 17 March 2022
(2 years, 67 days)
[122]

Principal mass organisations

CPI(M) 18th Congress rally in Delhi

International affiliation

Communist Party of India Marxist is internationally affiliated to IMCWP and Unity for Peace and Socialism. Its members in Great Britain are in the electoral front Unity for Peace and Socialism, with the Communist Party of Britain and the British-domiciled sections of the Communist Party of Bangladesh and the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). It stood 13 candidates in the London-wide list section of the London Assembly elections in May 2008.[123]

Presence in states and politics

As of 2022, the CPI(M) heads the state government in Kerala. Pinarayi Vijayan is Chief Minister of Kerala. In Tamil Nadu it has 2 MLAs and in the Government with SPA coalition led by M. K. Stalin. The Left Front under CPI(M) governed West Bengal for an uninterrupted 34 years (1977–2011) and Tripura for 30 years, including 25 uninterrupted years between 1993 and 2018. The 34 years of Left Front rule in West Bengal is the longest-serving democratically elected communist-led government in the world.[124] CPI(M) currently has three MPs in Lok Sabha. CPI(M)'s highest tally was in 2004 when it got 5.66% of votes polled in and it had 43 MPs. It won 42.31% on an average in the 69 seats it contested. It supported the new Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government, but without becoming a part of it. On 9 July 2008, it formally withdrew support from the UPA government explaining this by differences about the Indo-US nuclear deal and the IAEA Safeguards Agreement in particular.[125]

Current government in State legislative assemblies

Sr No. State Govt Since Chief Minister Alliance Name Parties in Alliance Seats in Assembly
Name Party Party seats
CPI(M) Government
1 Kerala 26 May 2016 Pinarayi Vijayan CPI(M) 62 Left Democratic Front (Kerala) CPI (17)
99 / 140
KC(M) (5)
JD(S) (2)
NCP (2)
KC(B) (1)
INL (1)
LJD (1)
C(S) (1)
JKC (1)
IND (6)
Alliance Government
2 Tamil Nadu 7 May 2021 M. K. Stalin DMK 133 Secular Progressive Alliance INC(18)
159 / 234
VCK (4)
CPI (2)
CPI(M) (2)

Current seats in State legislative assemblies

Seats won by CPI(M) in state legislative assemblies
State legislative assembly Last election Contested
seats
Seats won Alliance Result Ref.
Assam Legislative Assembly 2021 2
1 / 126
United Opposition Forum Opposition [e 2]
Bihar Legislative Assembly 2020 4
2 / 243
Mahagathbandhan Opposition [126]
Kerala Legislative Assembly 2021 77
62 / 140
Left Democratic Front Government [e 3]
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly 2019 8
1 / 288
Maha Vikas Aghadi Opposition [127]
Odisha Legislative Assembly 2019 5
1 / 147
Others [128]
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly 2021 6
2 / 234
Secular Progressive Alliance Government [e 4]
Tripura Legislative Assembly 2023 43
11 / 60
Left Front Opposition [e 5]

Presence in Legislatures, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and local bodies by states or union territories

Andhra Pradesh

See also: List of Rajya Sabha members from Andhra Pradesh § CPI/CPM Rajya Sabha members from Andhra Pradesh state

Chennamaneni Rajeshwara Rao in an election rally in 1957.

After formation of CPIM, CPIM came victorious in nine seats in 1967, one seat in 1972, eight seats in 1978, five seats in 1983, 11 seats in 1985, in six seats in 1989, 15 seats in 1994, two seats in 1999, nine seats in 2004 and one seat in 2009. In 2014, CPIM won in one seat, which subsequently went to Telangana state. However, in 2019 CPIM won no seats. CPIM came victorious for many times in local body elections.[129] During the 1988 Lok Sabha election, Tammineni Veerabhadram, one of prominent politicians of CPIM, gathered 352,083 votes (39.01%), finishing in second place, becoming the most voted CPI(M) candidate up to then outside of the left strongholds like West Bengal and Kerala.[130]

CPIM had MPs in Andhra Pradesh rajyasabha multiple times including M. Hanumantha Rao from 1988 to 1994, Yalamanchili Radhakrishna Murthy from 1996 to 2002 and Penumalli Madhu from 2004 to 2010.

Assam

CPIM has a moderate presence in Assam and had run Government in the state once. CPIM first time entered Assam Legislative Assembly in 1978 by winning 11 seats followed by two seats in 1983, two seats in 1985 and two seats in 1991. In the 1996 elections, CPIM won two seats with 1,76,721 votes.[131] and along with Asom Gana Parishad they were in coalition government headed by Prafulla Kumar Mahanta for 1996–2001.[132] But in 2001 elections, it drew blanks. In 2006, the CPI (M) had won two seats. Ananta Deka, Uddhav Barman represented CPIM from Rangia and Sorbhog seats. In 2011 and in 2016, CPIM drew blanks.[132] In 2021, CPIM made a comeback with Mahajot winning one seat from Sorbhog by a margin of around 10,000 votes.[132] Sorbhog is considered as a left bastion in the state.

In lok sabha from Assam, CPIM first won in 1974 when Nurul Huda was elected in a by-election in Cachar lok sabha constituency in early 1974 by-elections. He defeated the Indian National Congress candidate and former Minister Mahitosh Purkayastha by a margin of 19,944 votes.[133] CPIM had also won one seat in 1980, one seat in 1991 and one seat in 1996.

Bihar

CPIM Bihar has its large roots in the peasant movements by undivided CPI in the state. Communists were actively involved in various movements from the 1920s. All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was founded in 1936, which predominantly became active in Bihar. By 1942, AIKS and communists dominated the peasant movement in the country. The members of AIKS or Kisan Sabha were mostly communists. This created a political and social base for communists in Bihar. Sahajanand Saraswati, Karyanand Sharma, Bhogendra Jha were most notable leaders of the movement.[134] Afterwards Bakasht movement (1946–1952), Madhubani movement, Darbhanga movement mobilised Left politics in the state. Though after 1967, neither CPIM nor CPI(ML), which was formed in 1969, grew as an alternative to CPI until the 2000s.[135]

CPIM won four seats in 1967, three seats in 1969, 18 seats in 1972, four seats in 1977, seats in 1980, one seat in 1985, six seats in 1990, two seats in 1995, two seats in 2000, one seat in February 2005, and a seat in October 2005. The party drew blanks in 2010 and 2015; howeverm it did come back in 2020 elections by winning two seats.[136][137] CPIM fought election in alliance with Rastriya Janata Dal and fared well. It is also speculated that if more seats were given to the left parties, the election could be won with majority.[138]

CPIM had representatives in Lok Sabha from Bihar only for three times: 1999, 1991 and 1989; each year, it won only one Lok Sabha seat. CPIM also has good presence in the panchayats.

CPIM supported JD(U), RJD and INC to form coalition government in Bihar in August, 2022. However, it did not take part in the government.

Chhattisgarh

CPIM registered its first victory in polls in the Chhattisgarh state in the 2019 municipal corporation elections, in which it bagged two wards. Surthi Kuldeep won Bairotil ward and Rajkumari won in Monkre ward.[139]

Gujarat

CPIM has a limited presence in Gujarat. The party never won any Vidhan Sabha or Lok Sabha seat from Gujarat, though a bit number of panchayat seats are often won. But in 2020, CPIM's student wing SFI historically won the elections of Central University of Gujarat, which is considered as a right-wing bastion in India.[140]

Himachal Pradesh

CPIM has the presence in Himachal Pradesh in areas like Summer Hill,[141] Shimla city, Theog etc. CPIM's student wing SFI has considerably presence in the Himachal Pradesh University.[142] CPIM had representatives in the Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1967 and 1993. In 1993, Rakesh Singha won from Shimla seat.[143] However, CPIM managed to win many seats in the municipal and panchayat elections.[142]

In 2012, Shimla Municipal Corporation election, CPI(M) won the posts of Mayor and Deputy Mayor in Shimla Municipal Corporation with a huge majority with a total of 3 seats.[144]

In 2016, CPIM won 42 seats out of 331 seats contested and received only two district panchayats. In the 2017 Shimla Municipal Corporation election, CPI(M) managed to win only one seat despite being a kingmaker in previous elections.

In 2017, CPIM made a comeback in Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly after 24 years by winning Theog assembly seat. Rakesh Singha, a former CPIM Central Committee member won the seat by a margin of 1,983 seats.[141] CPIM contested for 14 seats in the election. After the election, the presence in state started to increase.[145]

In 2021, panchayat elections, CPIM increased its tally by jumping to 337 seats. 12 zila parishad (ZP) members, 25 panchayat samiti members, 28 panchayat pradhans, 30 vice-pradhans and 242 ward members got elected from CPIM. Also, CPIM candidates got elected for president in 25 panchayats and vice-president in 30 panchayats.[146][147]

Karnataka

CPIM has not won any seat in Karnataka since 2004. In 2004, CPIM won 1 seat; in 1994, it won 1 seat; in 1985, it won two seats and in 1983, it won two seats in the Karnataka Legislative Assembly.

Kerala

Further information: Communism in Kerala

See also: Left Democratic Front and Communist Party of India (Marxist), Kerala

Kerala has a strong presence of CPIM and left parties in its politics and society.[148] CPIM had the most of its electoral success from Kerala after 2011. After 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, it historically formed Government twice breaking the 40 year old political practice of the state. CPIM currently has 62 seats in the assembly.

A Child from Kerala holding Communist Party of India (Marxist) Flag

In Kerala, the CPIM has pursued a policy of massive investment in poverty alleviation, including the distribution of procurement cards that provide almost free access to basic foodstuffs and the introduction of a minimum wage twice the national average, as well as in education and health. According to geographer Srikumar Chattopadhyay, "The communists also strongly developed the panchayat system, the village councils that allow everyone to participate in the development of the state."[149]

Madhya Pradesh

CPIM has entered in Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly only once. In 1993 CPIM won 1 seat.[150]

Maharashtra

Currently the party has one representative in Maharashtra Legislative Assembly. CPI(M) candidate Comrade Vinod Nikole, an Adivasi leader and CPI(M) Maharashtra State Committee member won the Dahanu by a margin of 4,742 votes. As of 2020, he is also the State Secretary and Thane-Palghar District Secretary of the Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU). Notably, the seat was won by CPIM simultaneously from 1978 with just a single exception of 2014.[151]

Manipur

CPIM never won a single seat in Manipur since the party participated in 1995 Legislative Assembly election for the first time in the state. Currently, CPIM is a part of Manipur Progressive Secular Alliance, an alliance led by Indian National Congress.

Odisha

Presently, CPIM has only one representative in Odisha Legislative Assembly from Bonai.[152]

Punjab

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Punjab has an eventful history, connected with the state's socio-political landscape and its struggle for workers' rights, agrarian reforms, and social justice.[153] The roots of the CPI(M) in Punjab can be traced back to the early 20th century with the emergence of various revolutionary movements. Two significant organizations that played a crucial role in shaping the communist movement in Punjab were the Gaddar Party, formed in 1913, and the Lal Communist Party, established in 1928. While the Gaddar Party aimed at seeking India's independence from British colonial rule through armed resistance, the Lal Communist Party focused on empowering peasants and labourers through revolutionary means.

After India gained independence in 1947, the Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed through the amalgamation of various leftist groups, including the Lal Communist Party. However, ideological differences within the CPI led to a split, resulting in the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI(M) in 1964. The CPI(M) in Punjab has consistently advocated for land reforms, workers' rights, and social equality. It has garnered support among the rural and urban poor, particularly in areas with a strong agrarian base. The party actively participated in various social and political movements, aiming to uplift the marginalized sections of society and improve their living conditions.[154]

During the 1980s, Punjab faced a crisis with the rise of the Khalistan movement, seeking a separate Sikh state. The Khalistan movement posed a significant challenge to not only the Indian state but also to Punjab. During this period, the CPI(M) opposed the Khalistan movement and stood for a united India. In the late 1990s, the CPI(M) faced internal divisions, leading to a significant split. One prominent faction led by Mangat Ram Pasla formed a new party called the Communist Party of Marxist (CPM) in Punjab, pursuing its own ideological path. This internal rift had an impact on the party's organizational structure and electoral presence.[155]

Over the years, the CPI(M) experienced a waning presence on the electoral front in Punjab.[156] The changing political dynamics, rise of regional parties, and the diminishing appeal of communist ideology in a globalized world contributed to its reduced influence in electoral politics. Despite the challenges, the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Punjab continues to be active in advocating for workers' and peasants' rights and participating in social and political movements. Its history reflects the complexities of Punjab's political landscape and its contribution to the larger communist movement in India.

Rajasthan

In the 2008 Rajasthan Legislative Assembly election, CPIM secured three seats from Anupgarh, Dhod and Danta Ramgarh.[157] Along with six other parties, CPIM formed Loktantrik Morcha in 2013. However, CPIM could not win any seats in the 2013 Legislative Assembly election. The party made a comeback in the state by winning two seats out 28 seats they contested in the 2018 Legislative Assembly election.[158]

Tamil Nadu

Members of CPI(M) Tamil Nadu during an inauguration ceremony of a building

CPIM, as a part of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam front in 1989 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election, won 15 seats.[159] In 2006, CPIM was the part of the alliance led by DMK. The party contested in 13 seats and won 9 seats. In the next election, CPIM joined All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam coalition and won 10 seats out of the 12 seats they contested. But the party was unable to secure any seat in 2016.[160] In 2019 Indian general election, CPIM won two seats from Coimbatore and Madurai in Tamil Nadu.[161] In 2021 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election, CPIM made a comeback by winning two seats. In 2022, CPI(M) won many seats in the municipal corporation elections. T. Nagarajan of CPI(M) got the post of Deputy Mayor in Madurai Municipal Corporation.[162]

Telangana

In 2014, CPIM won in one seat in Andhra Pradesh, which subsequently went to Telangana state. However, in 2018 CPIM won no seats. In 2022 Munugode by-election, CPIM supported the candidate fielded by Bharat Rashtra Samithi. In 2023, CPIM will contest the election in alliance with BRS.[163]

Tripura

See also: Left Front (Tripura)

West Bengal

See also: Communist Party of India (Marxist), West Bengal

State legislative assembly election results

Election Year Overall votes % of overall votes Total seats seats won/
seats contensted
+/- in seats +/- in vote share Sitting side
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly
2019
1,01,071 0.32% 175
0 / 7
Decrease1 Steady
2014
4,07,376 0.84% 175
1 / 68
Steady Decrease0.59
2009
6,03,407 1.43% 294
1 / 18
Decrease 8 Decrease 0.49
2004
6,56,721 1.84% 294
9 / 14
Increase 7 Increase 0.14
1999
5,67,761 1.70% 294
2 / 48
Decrease 14 Decrease 1.26
1994
9,23,204 2.96% 294
15 / 16
Increase 9 Increase 0.50
1989
7,07,686 2.96% 294
6 / 15
Decrease 5 Increase 0.15
1985
5,30,349 2.69% 294
11 / 11
Increase 6 Increase 0.20
Assam Legislative Assembly
2021
160,758 0.84% 126
1 / 2
Increase 1 Increase 0.29 Opposition
2016
93,506 0.55% 126
0 / 19
Steady Steady
Bihar Legislative Assembly
2020
274,155 0.65% 243
2 / 4
Increase 2 Increase0.04% Government
2015
232,149 0.61% 243
0 / 43
Steady Decrease 0.21
Gujarat Legislative Assembly
2022
10,647 0.03% 182
0 / 9
Steady Decrease 0.01%
Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly
2022
27,812 0.66% 68
0 / 11
Decrease 1 Decrease 0.81% Steady
2017
55,558 1.5% 68
1 / 14
Increase 1 Decrease 0.1%
Kerala Legislative Assembly
2021
5,288,502 25.38% 140
62 / 77
Increase 4 Decrease 1.14% Government
2016
5,365,472 26.7% 140
59 / 84
Increase 14 Decrease 1.48 Government
2011
4,921,354 28.18% 140
45 / 84
Decrease 16 Decrease 2.27 Opposition
2006
4,732,381 30.45% 140
61 / 84
Increase 37 Increase 6.60 Government
2001
3,752,976 23.85% 140
24 / 74
Decrease 16 Increase 2.26 Opposition
1996
3,078,723 21.59% 140
40 / 62
Increase 12 Increase 0.15 Government
1991
3,082,354 21.74% 140
28 / 64
Decrease 10 Decrease 2.12 Opposition
1987
2,912,999 22.86% 140
38 / 70
Increase 12 Increase 4.06 Government
1982
1,798,198 18.80% 140
26 / 51
Decrease 9 Decrease 0.55 Opposition
1980
1,846,312 19.35% 140
35 / 50
Increase 18 Decrease 2.83 Government
1977
1,946,051 22.18% 140
17 / 68
Decrease 12 Decrease 1.65 Opposition
1970
1,794,213 23.83% 140
29 / 73
Decrease 23 Increase 0.32 Opposition
1967
1,476,456 23.51% 140
52 / 59
Increase 12 Increase 3.64 Government
1965
1,257,869 19.87% 140
40 / 73
New New
Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
2019
204,933 0.37% 288
1 / 8
Steady Decrease 0.02% Opposition
2014
207,933 0.39% 288
1 / 20
Steady Decrease 0.21%
2009
270,052 0.60% 288
1 / 20
Decrease2 Decrease 0.02%
Odisha Legislative Assembly
2019
70,119 0.32% 147
1 / 8
Steady
2014
80,274 0.40% 147
1 / 8
Steady
Punjab Legislative Assembly
2022
9,503 0.06% 117
0 / 14
Rajasthan Legislative Assembly
2023
382,387 0.96% 200
0 / 17
Decrease 2 Decrease 0.24
2018
434,210 1.2% 200
2 / 28
Increase 2 Increase 0.33
2013
629,002 0.9% 200
0 / 38
Decrease 3 Decrease 0.7
Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly
2021
3,90,819 0.85% 234
2 / 6
Increase 2 Increase 0.13 Government
2016
3,07,303 0.72% 234
0 / 25
Decrease 10 Decrease 1.58
2011
8,88,364 2.40% 234
10 / 12
Increase 1 Decrease 0.3 Government
2006
8,72,674 2.70% 234
9 / 13
Decrease 10 Increase 0.33 Government
Telangana Legislative Assembly
2023
52,364 0.22% 119
0 / 19
Decrease 2 Decrease 0.18%
2018
91,099 0.40% 119
2 / 28
Decrease 1
Tripura Legislative Assembly
2023
6,22,829 24.62% 60
11 / 43
Decrease 5 Decrease 17.6 Opposition
2018
9,93,605 42.22% 60
16 / 57
Decrease 33 Decrease 5.51 Opposition
2013
10,59,327 48.11% 60
49 / 57
Increase 3 Increase 0.01 Government
2008
9,03,009 48.01% 60
46 / 56
Increase 8 Increase 1.10 Government
2003
7,11,119 46.82% 60
38 / 55
Steady Increase 1.30 Government
1998
6,21,804 45.49% 60
38 / 55
Increase 6 Increase 0.80 Government
1993
5,99,943 44.78% 60
44 / 51
Increase 18 Decrease 0.40 Government
1988
5,20,697 45.82% 60
26 / 55
Decrease 11 Increase 0.10 Opposition
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly
2022
5617 0.01% 403
0 / 1
Decrease 0.03
West Bengal Legislative Assembly
2021
2,837,276 4.73% 294
0 / 136
Decrease 26 Decrease 15.02
2016
10,802,058 19.75% 294
26 / 148
Decrease 14 Decrease 10.35 Opposition
2011
14,330,061 30.08% 294
40 / 213
Decrease 136 Decrease 7.05 Opposition
2006
14,652,200 37.13% 294
176 / 212
Increase 33 Increase 0.54 Government
2001
13,402,603 36.59% 294
143 / 211
Decrease 14 Decrease 1.33 Government
1996
13,670,198 37.16% 294
153 / 213
Decrease 32 Increase 1.05 Government
1991
11,418,822 36.87% 294
182 / 204
Increase 2 Decrease 2.43 Government
1987
10,285,723 39.12% 294
187 / 212
Increase 13 Increase 0.89 Government
1982
8,655,371 38.49% 294
174 / 209
Decrease 4 Increase 3.03 Government
1977
5,080,828 35.46% 294
178 / 224
Increase 164 Increase 8.01 Government

Indian general elections results

Main article: Electoral history of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Performance of Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Loksabha elections
Year Legislature Party Secretary Total constituencies Seats won / contested Change in seats Total votes Per. of votes Change in vote % Party Rank Outcome Ref.
1967 4th Lok Sabha Puchalapalli Sundarayya 520
19 / 59
New 6,246,522 4.28 % New 6th Opposition [e 6]
1971 5th Lok Sabha 518
25 / 85
Increase 6 7,510,089 5.12 % Increase 0.84% Increase 2nd Main Opposition [e 7]
1977 6th Lok Sabha 542
22 / 53
Decrease 3 8,113,659 4.29 % Decrease 0.83% Decrease 3rd Opposition [e 8]
1980 7th Lok Sabha E. M. S. Namboodiripad 529(542*)
37 / 64
Increase 15 12,352,331 6.24 % Increase 1.95% Steady 3rd Opposition [e 9]
1984 8th Lok Sabha 541
22 / 64
Decrease 15 14,272,526 5.72 % Decrease 0.52% Steady 3rd Opposition [e 10][e 11]
1989 9th Lok Sabha 529
33 / 64
Increase 11 19,691,309 6.55 % Increase 0.83 Decrease 4th Outside Support [e 12]
1991 10th Lok Sabha 534
35 / 63
Increase 2 17,074,699 6.14 % Decrease 0.41% Steady 4th Opposition [e 13][e 14]
1996 11th Lok Sabha Harkishan Singh Surjeet 543
32 / 75
Decrease 3 20,496,810 6.12 % Decrease 0.02% Steady 4th Outside Support [e 15]
1998 12th Lok Sabha 543
32 / 71
Steady 18,991,867 5.16 % Decrease 0.96% Increase 3rd Opposition [e 16]
1999 13th Lok Sabha 543
33 / 72
Increase 1 19,695,767 5.40 % Increase 0.24% Steady 3rd Opposition [e 17]
2004 14th Lok Sabha 543
43 / 69
Increase 10 22,070,614 5.66 % Increase 0.26% Steady 3rd Outside Support [e 18]
2009 15th Lok Sabha Prakash Karat 543
16 / 82
Decrease 27 22,219,111 5.33 % Decrease 0.33% Decrease 8th Opposition [e 19]
2014 16th Lok Sabha 543
9 / 93
Decrease 7 17,986,773 3.24 % Decrease 2.09% Decrease 9th Opposition [e 20]
2019 17th Lok Sabha Sitaram Yechury 543
3 / 69
Decrease 6 10,744,908 1.75 % Decrease 1.49% Decrease 16th Opposition [e 21]

1967 general election

In the 1967 Lok Sabha elections, the CPI(M) nominated 59 candidates. In total 19 of them were elected. The party received 6.2 million votes (4.28% of the nationwide vote). By comparison, CPI won 23 seats and got 5.11% of the nationwide vote. In the state legislative elections held simultaneously, the CPI(M) emerged as a major party in Kerala and West Bengal. In Kerala, a United Front government led by E.M.S. Namboodiripad was formed.[k] In West Bengal, the CPI(M) was the main force behind the United Front government formed. The Chief Ministership was given to Ajoy Mukherjee of the Bangla Congress (a regional splinter group of the Indian National Congress).

1971 general election

With the backdrop of the Bangladesh War and the emerging role of Indira Gandhi as a populist national leader, the 1971 election to the Lok Sabha was held. The CPI(M) contested 85 seats and won in 25. In total the party mustered 7510089 votes (5.12% of the national vote). 20 of the seats came from West Bengal (including Somnath Chatterjee, elected from Burdwan), two from Kerala (including A.K. Gopalan, elected from Palakkad), two from Tripura (Biren Dutta and Dasarath Deb) and one from Andhra Pradesh.[e 22]

In the same year, state legislative elections were held in three states; West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Odisha. In West Bengal CPI(M), had 241 candidates, winning 113 seats. In total the party mustered 4241557 votes (32.86% of the statewide vote). In Tamil Nadu CPI(M), contested 37 seats but won none of them, obtaining 259298 votes (1.65% of the statewide vote). In Odisha, the party contested 11 seats and won in two. The CPI(M) vote in the state was 52785 (1.2% of the statewide vote).[e 23]

1977 general election

In the 1977 Lok Sabha election, the CPI(M) fielded its candidates on 53 seats scattered around in 14 states and union territories of India. It won 4.29% of the average votes polled in this election. The party had won 17 seats from West Bengal, three from Maharashtra, and one each from Odisha and Punjab. This election was done shortly after the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi and reflected a wide uproar of masses against her draconian rule. A coalition of Opposition parties was formed against the Congress regime; CPI(M) too supported this coalition by not fielding its candidates against the Janta Party.[e 24]

1980 general elections

The Janta Party coalition did not last long, and two years after its formation India faced the 1980 Lok Sabha election. This election saw an increase in the vote percentage of CPI(M) and the party secured more seats than the previous elections. The Party had contested elections in the 15 states and union territories of India and fielded its candidates on 64 seats. The party had won 37 seats in total. It won 28 seats in West Bengal, seven in Kerala, and two seats in Tripura. The party emerged out as the whole sole representative of the people of Tripura in this election.[e 25]

2014 Lok Sabha election

Further information: List of Communist Party of India (Marxist) candidates in the 2014 Indian general election

Nine CPI(M) candidates were elected in the 2014 Indian general election, as well as two CPI(M)-supported independents.[165] This is further down from the previous number of 16. The national vote share of CPI(M) has also shrunk from 5.33% in 2009 to mere 3.28% in 2014. This is a significant 38.5% reduction within a span of five years which is consistent with the overall decline of the left in India.[166][167][168] CPI(M) did not win a single seat in Tamil Nadu and its seats went down from 9 to 2 in West Bengal where it is being heavily eroded by Mamata Banerjee governed AITC. Kerala is the only state where CPI(M) gained one more seat but this is mainly attributed to the splitting of anti-LDF votes between the UDF and emerging NDA. The NDA saw a sharp spike in vote share in decades which came coupled with a sharp decline in UDF votes.[169] Thus, it is assumed that the NDA cut into UDF votes thereby facilitating victory for LDF. This was again mirrored during the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, which saw the NDA getting entry into the State Assembly for the first time as BJP veteran O. Rajagopal wins the Nemom seat and CPI(M)'s Pinarayi Vijayan forming the LDF-ruled government.[170]

2019 general election

Mural for CPI(M) candidate Sujan Chakraborty in Jadavpur

The CPI(M) contested 65 seats nationwide and won three in the 2019 general election. One seat was won in Kerala, where the CPI(M) is leading the state government. Two other seats were won in Tamil Nadu, where the CPI(M) contested within the DMK-led coalition.[171]

Indian Presidential elections

2002 presidential election

In the 2002 Presidential election, Left Front announced Captain Lakshmi Sehgal as its presidential candidate. Against her was the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party's candidate A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.[172] CPI(M)'s leadership announced that in form of Captain Lakshmi, they were fielding an 'Alternative Candidate'. They said that though it was clear that Captain Lakshmi could not become president because of the opposition of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and the Indian National Congress to her, yet through this Presidential Election, the Left wished to raise key national issues and make them heard by the masses.[173] Captain Lakshmi herself pointed out that this Presidential election reflected the opposition of the Indian Left to the communal-sectarian politics of BJP, and the Left's solidarity with the religious minorities who had suffered greatly under the NDA's leadership.[174]

2012 Presidential election

While CPI(M) supported Pranab Mukherjee as presidential candidate in 2012 presidential election, it was in favour of a non-Congress candidate for the post of the Vice-President.[175]

List of chief ministers from CPI(M)

Main article: List of chief ministers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Key
Denotes the person is the incumbent chief minister
No. Name Portrait Term of office Days in office
Kerala
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad A portrait of E.M.S. Namboodiripad 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years 240 days
2 E. K. Nayanar 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 10 years 353 days
26 March 1987 23 June 1991
20 May 1996 16 May 2001
3 V. S. Achuthanandan A photograph of V.S. Achutanandan 18 May 2006 17 May 2011 4 years 364 days
4 Pinarayi Vijayan 25 May 2016 20 May 2021 7 years, 364 days
20 May 2021 Incumbent
Tripura
1 Nripen Chakraborty 5 January 1978 4 February 1983 10 years 31 days
5 February 1983 5 February 1988
2 Dasarath Deb 10 April 1993 11 March 1998 4 years, 335 days
3 Manik Sarkar 11 March 1998 26 February 2003 19 years 363 days
27 February 2003 23 February 2008
24 February 2008 14 February 2013
15 February 2013 8 March 2018
West Bengal
1 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 23 May 1982 23 years 137 days
24 May 1982 29 March 1987
30 March 1987 18 June 1991
19 June 1991 15 May 1996
16 May 1996 5 November 2000
2 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 14 May 2001 10 years 188 days
15 May 2001 17 May 2006
18 May 2006 13 May 2011

List of Rajya Sabha members

See also: List of Rajya Sabha members

Current Rajya Sabha members from CPI(M)
Name State Appointment date Retirement date
John Brittas Kerala 4 April 2021 23 April 2027
V. Sivadasan Kerala 24 April 2021 23 April 2027
Elamaram Kareem Kerala 2 July 2018 1 July 2024
A.A. Rahim Kerala 3 April 2022 2 April 2028
Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya West Bengal 3 April 2020 2 April 2026

List of Lok Sabha members

See also: List of members of the 17th Lok Sabha

Current Lok Sabha (17th) members from CPI(M)
Name Constituency State
A. M. Ariff Alappuzha Kerala
P. R. Natarajan Coimbatore Tamil Nadu
S. Venkatesan Madurai Tamil Nadu

Splits and offshoots

A large number of parties have been formed as a result of splits from the CPI(M), such as

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The bulk of the detainees came from the left-wing of the CPI. However, cadres of the Socialist Unity Centre of India and the Workers Party of India were also targeted.[21]
  2. ^ The 32 were P. Sundarayya, M. Basavapunniah, T. Nagi Reddy, M. Hanumantha Rao, D.V. Rao, N. Prasad Rao, G. Bapanayya, E.M.S. Namboodiripad, A.K. Gopalan, A.V. Kunhambu, C.H. Kanaran, E.K. Nayanar, V.S. Achuthanandan, E.K. Imbichibava, Promode Das Gupta, Muzaffar Ahmad, Jyoti Basu, Abdul Halim, Hare Krishna Konar, Saroj Mukherjee, P. Ramamurthi, M.R. Venkataraman, N. Sankariah, K. Ramani, Harkishan Singh Surjeet, Jagjit Singh Lyallpuri, D.S. Tapiala, Bhag Singh, Sheo Kumar Mishra, R.N. Upadhyaya, Mohan Punamiya, and R.P. Saraf.[23]
  3. ^ Suniti Kumar Ghosh was a member of the group that presented this alternative draft proposal. His grouping was one of several left tendencies in the Bengali party branch.[25]
  4. ^ The jailed members of the new CC, at the time of the Calcutta Congress, were B.T. Ranadive, Muzaffar Ahmed, Hare Krishna Konar, and Promode Dasgupta.[32]
  5. ^ According to Basu,[34] there were two nuclei of radicals in the party organization in West Bengal. One "theorist" section around Parimal Das Gupta in Calcutta, which wanted to persuade the party leadership to correct revisionist mistakes through inner-party debate, and one "actionist" section led by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal in North Bengal. The 'actionists' were impatient and strived to organize armed uprisings. According to Basu, due to the prevailing political climate of youth and student rebellion, it was the 'actionists' who came to dominate the new Maoist movement in India, instead of the more theoretically advanced sections. This dichotomy is however rebuffed by followers of the radical stream, for example, the CPI(ML) Liberation.[34][35]
  6. ^ On 1 July, People's Daily carried an article titled "Spring Thunder Over India",[36] expressing the support of CPC to the Naxalbari rebels. At its meeting in Madurai on 18–27 August 1967, the Central Committee of CPI(M) adopted a resolution titled "Resolution on Divergent Views Between Our Party and the Communist Party of China on Certain Fundamental Issues of Programme and Policy".[37]
  7. ^ This press statement was reproduced in full in the central CPI(M) publication, People's Democracy, on 30 June. P. Sundarayya and M. Basavapunniah, acting on behalf of the Polit Bureau of CPI(M), formulated a response to the statement on 16 June, titled 'Rebuff the Rebels, Uphold Party Unity'.[41]
  8. ^ Some perceive that the Chinese leadership severely misjudged the actual conditions of different Indian factions at the time, giving their full support to the Majumdar-Sanyal group whilst keeping the Andhra Pradesh radicals (that had a considerable mass following) at distance.
  9. ^ Indian National Congress had won 23 seats, Bangla Congress 33, and CPI 30. CPI(M) allies also won several seats.[e 1]
  10. ^ The same is also true for the Workers Party of Bangladesh, which was formed in 1980 when BCP(L) merged with other groups. Although politically close, WPB can be said to have a more Maoist-oriented profile than CPI(M).
  11. ^ In Kerala the United Front consisted, at the time of the election, of Communist Party of India (Marxist), the Communist Party of India, the Muslim League, the Revolutionary Socialist Party, the Karshaka Thozhilali Party and the Kerala Socialist Party.[164]

References

Citations
  1. ^ "CPI (M) report raises concerns over dwindling party membership and laxity of top leadership". 6 April 2022.
  2. ^ "Cpim: സിപിഎം ദേശീയതല അംഗത്വത്തിൽ വൻ കുറവ്; കേരളത്തിൽ മുന്നേറ്റം". 7 April 2022.
  3. ^ "കഴിഞ്ഞ പാർട്ടി കോൺഗ്രസിനേക്കാൾ അംഗങ്ങൾ കുറഞ്ഞു; പ്രതീക്ഷ കേരളത്തിൽ മാത്രം!". ManoramaOnline.
  4. ^ "নতুন সদস্যের হার বাড়ল বঙ্গ সিপিএমে". Anandabazar Patrika Online.
  5. ^ a b c Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2014). Communism in India: Events, Processes and Ideologies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1999-7489-4. LCCN 2014003207.
  6. ^ a b "Constitution & The Rules Under the Constitution". Communist Party of India (Marxist). 18 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  7. ^ "India's election results were more than a 'Modi wave'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
    Withnall, Adam (2 January 2019). "Protesters form 620km 'women's wall' in India as female devotees pray at Hindu temple for first time". The Independent.
    "Manipur: CPI State Secretary, Blogger Arrested over CAA Protests". The Wire. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
    Choudhury, Shubhadeep (4 May 2020). "West Bengal has the highest mortality rate of COVID-19 patients: IMCT". The Tribune.
    Nandi, Proshanta (2005). "Communism through the Ballot Box: Over a Quarter Century of Uninterrupted Rule in West Bengal". Sociological Bulletin. 54 (2): 171–194. doi:10.1177/0038022920050202. ISSN 0038-0229. JSTOR 23620496. S2CID 157014751.
    Fernandes, Leela (1996). "Review of Development Policy of a Communist Government: West Bengal since 1977, ; Indian Communism: Opposition, Collaboration and Institutionalization, Ross Mallick". The Journal of Asian Studies. 55 (4): 1041–1043. doi:10.2307/2646581. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR 2646581. S2CID 236090170.
    Moodie, Deonnie (August 2019). "On Blood, Power and Public Interest: The Concealment of Hindu Sacrificial rites under Indian Law". Journal of Law and Religion. 34 (2): 165–182. doi:10.1017/jlr.2019.24. ISSN 0748-0814. S2CID 202333308.
  8. ^ a b "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18 January 2013". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  9. ^ "2004 Indian general election", Wikipedia, 1 October 2023, retrieved 5 October 2023
  10. ^ a b c d "Party Constitution | Communist Party of India (Marxist)". 18 March 2009. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  11. ^ Joy, Shemin (1 March 2023). "BJP's income rose by 154.82% in 2021-22: ADR Report". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  12. ^ "BJP declares highest income for 2021-22; Trinamool's income sees staggering jump: ADR report". The Hindu. 1 March 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  13. ^ Basu 1999, p. 189.
  14. ^ "Brief History of CPI". Archived from the original on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  15. ^ "Coalition Provisional Government". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  16. ^ "left parties in India" (PDF). Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  17. ^ "E.M.S. Namboodiripad | Indian politician". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  18. ^ a b c d "CIA papers trace split of Indian Communists". The Times of India. 30 June 2007.
  19. ^ a b "ഇന്ത്യ – ചൈന സംഘർഷം : 1962 ൻ്റെ പാഠങ്ങൾ". www.leftclicknews.com/.
  20. ^ "Communist Party in Kerala". CPI(M). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
  21. ^ [1] Archived 17 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ https://indianapolitics.in/communist-party-of-india-marxist-deals/ workers' welfare
  23. ^ Bose 2005, p. 37.
  24. ^ a b Basu 2000, p. 51.
  25. ^ Basu 2000, p. 32.
  26. ^ a b c Basu 2000, pp. 52–54.
  27. ^ "50th Anniversary of CPI(M)". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  28. ^ "Seventh Party Congress: A Milestone in Our Movement and Struggle". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  29. ^ Peking Review. Peking review. 1965. p. 17.
  30. ^ a b Basu 2000, p. 54.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Rao 2003, pp. 17–18.
  32. ^ Bose 2005, pp. 44–45.
  33. ^ Rao 2003, pp. 234–235.
  34. ^ a b Basu 2000.[page needed]
  35. ^ "Untitled Document". www.archive.cpiml.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
  36. ^ "Spring Thunder Over India". People's Daily. 1 July 1967. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007.
  37. ^ Bose 2005, p. 46.
  38. ^ "Naxalbari: How a peasant uprising triggered a pan-India political movement". Retrieved 22 March 2024.
  39. ^ "History of Naxalism". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 15 December 2005. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  40. ^ "Half a century of India's Maoist insurgency: An appraisal of state response". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  41. ^ Bose 2005, p. 48.
  42. ^ "Bengal: A long history of Governor-state govt conflict". Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  43. ^ "THE ROLE OF GOVERNOR IN INDIAN POLITICS SINCE 1967". Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  44. ^ "The left movement in West Bengal" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  45. ^ "1967: Naxalbari movement". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  46. ^ "Latest Volume17-Issue12 News, Photos, Latest News Headlines about Volume17-Issue12". Frontline. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008.
  47. ^ "Untitled-1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  48. ^ "Home – Government of Kerala, India". kerala.gov.in. Archived from the original on 5 August 2006.
  49. ^ Operation Barga – report by Theorie Et Applications en Microeconomie et Macroeconomie (TEAM) (Read online).
  50. ^ Paramjit Singh, Gurpreet Bal, Strategies of Social Change in India, pp. 148, M.D. Publications, 1996. ISBN 81-7533-006-6, ISBN 978-81-7533-006-1.
  51. ^ Pranava K. Chaudhary, Operation Barga ends in a whimper, Times of India, 14 September 2002.
  52. ^ "Centre of Indian Trade Unions". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  53. ^ "CITU plans to expand its base in IT sector". The Hindu. 26 March 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  54. ^ "A first: Woman elected CITU president". The Pioneer. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  55. ^ World Federation of Trade Unions. Indian Trade Union Delegation visits Venezuelan Embassy in New Delhi
  56. ^ "Remembering the war of 1971 in East Pakistan". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  57. ^ "Treatment of the 1971 East Bengali refugees: A forgotten experience". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  58. ^ a b Prashad, Vijay (1996). "Emergency Assessments". Social Scientist. 24 (9/10): 36–68. doi:10.2307/3520142. ISSN 0970-0293. JSTOR 3520142.
  59. ^ C G, Manoj (13 June 2015). "S S Ray to Indira Gandhi six months before Emergency: Crack down, get law ready". The Indian Express.
  60. ^ Narayan, S. (25 June 2020). "Why Did Indira Gandhi Impose Emergency In 1975?". The Hans India.
  61. ^ Jacob, Jack Farj Rafael (2012). An Odyssey in War and Peace: An Autobiography of Lt. Gen JFR Jacob. Roli Books. p. 189. ISBN 9788174369338.
  62. ^ DeSouza, Peter Ronald (3 October 2006). India's Political Parties. SAGE Publishing India. pp. 217–221. ISBN 978-93-5280-534-1.
  63. ^ a b c d Ruparelia, Sanjay (2015). Divided We Govern: Coalition Politics in Modern India. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-0-19-026491-8.
  64. ^ Prakash, Gyan (8 December 2018). Emergency Chronicles: Indira Gandhi and Democracy's Turning Point. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-93-5305-351-2.
  65. ^ Blair, Harry W. (April 1980). "Mrs Gandhi's Emergency, The Indian Elections of 1977, Pluralism and Marxism: Problems with Paradigms". Modern Asian Studies. 14 (2). Cambridge University Press: 237–271. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00007320. ISSN 1469-8099. S2CID 144182647.
  66. ^ Mahaprashasta, Ajoy Ashirwad (4 May 2016). "Why Has Nobody Called It Yet? An Analysis of the West Bengal Elections". The Wire.
  67. ^ "Jyoti Basu pulls in the crowds – one last time". Hindustan Times. 19 January 2010.
  68. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (13 May 2011). "Defeat rocks India's elected communists - Features". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  69. ^ "Result | Home". results.eci.gov.in.
  70. ^ "India: Mamata Banerjee routs communists in West Bengal". BBC News. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  71. ^ "History of Kerala Legislature". Kerala Government. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  72. ^ "STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 1965 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF KERALA" (PDF). www.ceo.kerala.gov.in. ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA NEW DELHI.
  73. ^ Koshi, Luke; Balan, Saritha S. (19 June 2017). "Kerala Chronicles: When a Coalition of Seven Political Parties Came Together Only to Fall Apart". The News Minute.
  74. ^ "LDF shatters Kerala's 40-year record, Pinarayi Vijayan now the Marxist Helmsman". The Economic Times. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  75. ^ a b Bidyut Chakrabarty (13 November 2014). Left Radicalism in India. Routledge. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-1-317-66805-3.
  76. ^ Hamlet Bareh (2001). Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Tripura. Mittal Publications. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-7099-795-5.
  77. ^ Mahendra Singh Rana (2006). India Votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha Elections 2001–2005. Sarup & Sons. pp. 420–421. ISBN 978-81-7625-647-6.
  78. ^ "11 IMCWP, Press Communique". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  79. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Punjab". www.tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  80. ^ a b "New Central Committee Elected at the 22nd Congress". 22 April 2018. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  81. ^ "List of State Secretaries". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010.
  82. ^ BS Reporter (13 March 2015). "Surya Kanta Mishra replaces Biman Bose as CPI(M) Bengal unit secretary". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  83. ^ "Party Constitution". Communist Party of India (Marxist). 18 March 2009. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
  84. ^ "CPI (M) Website". Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  85. ^ "Members of PB - 7th to 19th Congress | Communist Party of India (Marxist)". 25 November 2012. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  86. ^ "Putchalapalli Sundarayya (An Autobiography) | Exotic India Art". www.exoticindiaart.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  87. ^ "From the archives: E.M.S. Namboodiripad, a very contemporary Marxist". India Today. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  88. ^ Singh, Nandita (19 March 2019). "EMS Namboodiripad, the communist CM who laid foundation of 'Kerala model'". ThePrint. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  89. ^ "archive.ph". archive.ph. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  90. ^ "Prakash Karat in CPI-M general secretary". Rediff. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  91. ^ IANS (10 April 2022). "Sitaram Yechury gets re-elected as CPI-M general secretary for third time". www.business-standard.com. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  92. ^ "Sitaram Yechury re-elected as CPI(M) general secretary for third term". Deccan Herald. 10 April 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  93. ^ "Andaman & Nicobar State Conference of CPI (M)". 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  94. ^ "V Srinivasa Rao CPM's new Andhra Pradesh state secretary". The New Indian Express. 30 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  95. ^ "Assam State Conference Calls for Rejuvenating the Party and the Left". 6 March 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  96. ^ "Bihar: CPI(M) State Conference Calls for Strengthening the Party". 26 March 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  97. ^ "Delhi State Conference concludes". Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  98. ^ "संघर्ष और संगठन की मजबूती के आह्वान के साथ संपन्न हुआ सीपीआई(एम) दिल्ली का 16 वां राज्य सम्मेलन". 26 September 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  99. ^ "5th Chhattisgarh State Conference Calls for Intensified Fight against RSS-BJP Combine". Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  100. ^ "CPI(M) Gujarat State Conference Concludes". 26 March 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  101. ^ "Haryana: Comrade Surendra Malik Re-elected as State Secretary". 16 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  102. ^ "HP: CPI(M) Conference Vows to Provide an Alternative". 3 October 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  103. ^ "Jharkhand: CPI(M) State Conference Vows to Strengthen the Party". 16 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  104. ^ "Ghulam Ali Malik Is CPI(M) State Secretary For Jammu Kashmir". Deshabhimani. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  105. ^ Correspondent, Special (20 December 2018). "U. Basavaraj becomes CPI(M) Karnataka secretary". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  106. ^ Bureau, The Hindu (28 August 2022). "CPI(M) elects Excise Minister M.V. Govindan as party's State secretary in Kerala". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  107. ^ "MADHYA PRADESH: CPI(M) Holds 15th State Conference | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  108. ^ "MP: CPI(M) 16th State Conference Held". Communist Party of India (Marxist). 30 January 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  109. ^ "CPI(M) Maharashtra State Conference Concludes". Communist Party of India (Marxist). 26 March 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  110. ^ "Manipur State Conference of CPI(M)". 14 November 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  111. ^ "After 24 years, Odisha CPI (M) gets new chief". The Hindu. 7 January 2015. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  112. ^ "The CPI(M) Punjab State Conference Concludes". 14 January 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  113. ^ "Punjab: CPI(M) State Conference Strengthens Unity". 16 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  114. ^ "CPI(M) State Conferences Begin | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  115. ^ Staff Reporter (20 February 2018). "Balakrishnan appointed State CPI(M) secretary". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  116. ^ Correspondent, Special (1 April 2022). "Balakrishnan re-elected CPI(M) State secretary". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  117. ^ "CPI (M) constitutes separate committees for Telangana, A.P." The Hindu. 9 March 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  118. ^ "Jitendra Choudhury elected CPI(M)'s Tripura state secretary". EastMojo. Press Trust of India. 27 February 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  119. ^ "Tripura CPI(M) names former minister Jitendra Chaudhury as party secretary after Goutam Das' demise". The Indian Express. 19 September 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  120. ^ "CPI(M) Uttar Pradesh State Conference Held | Peoples Democracy". peoplesdemocracy.in.
  121. ^ "Uttarakahand: 7th State Conference Resolves to Defeat Communal Forces". 16 January 2022. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  122. ^ Singh, Shiv Sahay (17 March 2022). "Md Salim appointed West Bengal State Secretary of CPI(M)". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  123. ^ "Unity For Peace and Socialism homepage". Archived from the original on 18 February 2010.
  124. ^ "Communists Lead Kolkata's Capitalist Makeover". Los Angeles Times. 12 May 2006.
  125. ^ "Left meets President, hands over letter of withdrawal". The Hindu. 9 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2008.
  126. ^ Radhakrishnan, Vignesh; Sen, Sumant; Singaravelu, Naresh (17 November 2020). "Data | Bihar Assembly election 2020 was the closest in State's history". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  127. ^ "GENERAL ELECTION TO VIDHAN SABHA TRENDS & RESULT OCT-2019". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 21 November 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  128. ^ "Odisha Legislative Assembly Election, 2019 - Orissa". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  129. ^ Gilai, Harish (October 2021). "CPI(M) takes novel route to highlight condition of roads". The Hindu.
  130. ^ "STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTIONS, 1998 TO THE 12th LOK SABHA" (PDF). eci.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2023.
  131. ^ "IndiaVotes AC: Party-wise performance for 1996". IndiaVotes.
  132. ^ a b c "Assam Assembly election | CPI(M) rides 'Mahajot' for comeback in State after 15 years". The Hindu. 3 May 2021.
  133. ^ Shiv Lal (1978). Elections Under the Janata Rule. Election Archives. p. 29.
  134. ^ Pandey, S. N. (1979). "Peasant Movements and Emergence of Left Politics in Bihar (1920—1945)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 40: 642–652. JSTOR 44142005.
  135. ^ Chaudhry, Vandhana; Chaudhry, Vandana (2003). "Peasant Movement and Communist Mobilization in Bihar: A Case Study of Darbhanga (1950–70)". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 64: 1074–1082. JSTOR 44145534.
  136. ^ "Bihar Vidhan Sabha result: Left scores in 16 out of 29 seats in Bihar, CPI-ML wins 12 of 19 | – Times of India". M.timesofindia.com. 11 November 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  137. ^ "Grassroot presence and a 'natural' alliance — why the embattled Left did well in Bihar". 14 November 2020.
  138. ^ "Grassroot presence and a 'natural' alliance — why the embattled Left did well in Bihar". 14 November 2020.
  139. ^ "CPI(M) Opens Account in Chhattisgarh : Municipal Corporation Elections". Deshabhimani.
  140. ^ "Left-Dalit unity wins Gujarat Central University student polls as ABVP loses all seats". The New Indian Express.
  141. ^ a b Nair, Sobhana K. (18 December 2017). "CPI (M) wins Theog assembly seat in Himachal after 24 years". The Hindu.
  142. ^ a b "CPI(M) to fight on 30 Assembly seats in Himachal Pradesh, says party leader". Indianexpress.com. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  143. ^ "CPM scores first win in Himachal Pradesh in 24 years". Livemint.com. 19 December 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  144. ^ "Shimla municipal poll: CPI(M) scripts history". The Hindu. 28 May 2012.
  145. ^ "CPI(M) offers pro-people alternative in HP". The Hindu. 2 November 2017.
  146. ^ "HP: Local Body Elections 2021, CPI(M) Wins More Seats than Last Time | Peoples Democracy".
  147. ^ "42 seats in 2016 and 337 seats in 2021: CPI (M) wins in Himachal Pradesh – News8Plus-Realtime Updates on Breaking News & Headlines". February 2021.
  148. ^ "One of the few places where a communist can still dream". The Washington Post. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  149. ^ Pierre Daum (March 2022). "Kerala: a state of hope for India's Muslims". justicenews.
  150. ^ "Madhya Pradesh Assembly Election Results in 1993". elections.in. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  151. ^ "CPI(M) holds ground in 1 seat; tall leader sees defeat". 25 October 2019.
  152. ^ "List of Contesting Candidates(Phase-II) (AC)" (PDF). ceoorissa.nic.in. Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Odisha. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  153. ^ "Once thriving, Left struggling for survival in Punjab assembly". Retrieved 22 March 2024.
  154. ^ "Che, Lenin, Bhagat Singh: How One Man Is Taking Punjab Down Revolutionary Road". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  155. ^ "Left out". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  156. ^ "Once thriving, Left struggling for survival in Punjab assembly polls". The Times of India. 21 January 2022.
  157. ^ "CPM betters performance, wins three seats". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  158. ^ "Rajasthan assembly election results 2018: CPI(M) set to win two seats in Rajasthan". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  159. ^ Election Commission of India. "1989 Election Statistical Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
  160. ^ "General Election to Legislative Assembly Trends & Results 2016". Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  161. ^ "Coimbatore Election Result 2019: P R Natarajan of CPI (M) wins the LS seat". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  162. ^ "T. Nagarajan is CPI (M) candidate for Madurai Deputy Mayor". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  163. ^ "Left, TRS will contest next polls together: Telangana CPM secretary Tammineni". The New Indian Express. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 14 November 2022.
  164. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2006.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  165. ^ "Election Results 2014: Left's performance in Lok Sabha polls sees drastic decline". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  166. ^ Archive of GE 2009 – Performance of National Parties (PDF). Election Commission of India (Report). Vol. 1. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  167. ^ Archive of GE 2014 – Performance of National Parties (PDF) (Report). Election Commission of India. 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
  168. ^ "Left Out: The Rapid Decline of India's Communist Parties Continues". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  169. ^ "Sharp fall in the UDF vote share marks a turning point in Kerala politics". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  170. ^ "CPI(M)-led LDF regains power in Kerala, BJP opens account". Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  171. ^ "All but one Left Front candidates lose security deposit in West Bengal". The Economic Times.
  172. ^ "Left parties to field Lakshmi Sahgal". The Hindu. New Delhi. 15 June 2002. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  173. ^ "question & answer on the election". cpim.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  174. ^ "interview with lakshmi sahgal". cpim.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
  175. ^ "CPI(M) favours non-Congress candidate for VP post: Prakash Karat". 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
Election reports
  1. ^ Statistical Report on General Election, 1969 to the Legislative Assembly of West Bengal (PDF). Election Commission of India (Report). New Delhi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2007.[page needed]
  2. ^ "Assam General Legislative Election 2021". Election Commission of India. 6 July 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Kerala General Legislative Election 2016". eci.gov.in. Election Commission of India. 20 August 2018. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  4. ^ "Detailed Result, Tamil Nadu Assembly Election 2021" (PDF). eci.gov.in.
  5. ^ "2023 Tripura assembly elections - Results". Election Commission of India.
  6. ^ Statistical Report on General Elections, 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha (PDF). Election Commission of India (Report). Vol. 1. New Delhi. 1968. p. 78. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  7. ^ Statistical Report on General Elections, 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha (PDF). Election Commission of India (Report). Vol. 1. New Delhi. 1968. p. 79. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  8. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1977 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 89. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  9. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1980 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 86. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  10. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1984 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 81. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  11. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1985 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 15. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  12. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1989 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 88. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  13. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1991 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 58. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  14. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1992 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 13. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  15. ^ "LS Statistical Report: 1996 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 93. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  16. ^ "LS Statistical Report: 1998 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 92. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  17. ^ "LS Statistical Report : 1999 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 92. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  18. ^ "LS Statistical Report: 2004 Vol. 1" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 101. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  19. ^ "LS 2009: Performance of National Parties" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  20. ^ "LS 2014: List of successful candidates" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 93. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  21. ^ "LS 2019: List of successful candidates". Election Commission of India. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  22. ^ "ECI: Statistical Report on the 1971 Lok Sabha Election" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007.
  23. ^ ECI: Statistical Report on the 1971 Orissa Legislative Election Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, ECI: Statistical Report on the 1971 Tamil Nadu Legislative Election Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, ECI: Statistical Report on the 1971 West Bengal Legislative Election Archived 16 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ "1977 general elections ECI Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  25. ^ "1980 General Elections ECI Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015.

Sources

  • Basu, Jyoti (1999). Memoirs – A Political Autobiography. Calcutta: National Book Agency.
  • Basu, Pradip (2000). Towards Naxalbari (1953–1967) – An Account of Inner-Party Ideological Struggle. Calcutta: Progressive Publishers.
  • Bose, Shanti Shekar (2005). A Brief Note on the Contents of Documents of the Communist Movement in India. Kolkata: National Book Agency.
  • Rao, M.V.S. Koteswara (2003). Communist Parties and United Front – Experience in Kerala and West Bengal. Hyderabad, India: Prajasakti Book House..