1998 Indian general election

← 1996 16, 22 and 28 February 1998 1999 →

543 of the 545 seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Turnout61.97% (Increase 4.03%)[1]
  First party Second party Third party
Leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee Sitaram Kesri Harkishan Singh Surjeet
Seats won 182 141 32
Seat change Increase 21 Increase 1 Steady
Popular vote 94,266,188 95,111,131 18,991,867
Percentage 25.59% 25.82% 5.16%
Swing Increase 5.30pp Decrease 2.98pp Decrease 0.96pp

Prime Minister before election

Inder Kumar Gujral
Janata Dal

Prime Minister after election

Atal Bihari Vajpayee

General elections were held in India on 16, 22 and 28 February 1998 to elect the members of the 12th Lok Sabha. The elections were held three years ahead of schedule after the government led by Inder Kumar Gujral collapsed when the Indian National Congress (INC) withdrew its support in November 1997.[2]

The result was another hung parliament, with no party or alliance able to muster a majority. However, Atal Bihari Vajpayee of the Bharatiya Janata Party was able to form a coalition government led by the National Democratic Alliance with the support of the Telugu Desam Party. He was sworn in as Prime Minister with support from 272 of 543 MPs. However, his government collapsed on 17 April 1999 when the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam withdrew their support.[3] This led to fresh elections in 1999.[4]


Indian National Congress95,111,13125.82141
Bharatiya Janata Party94,266,18825.59182
Communist Party of India (Marxist)18,991,8675.1632
Samajwadi Party18,167,6404.9320
Bahujan Samaj Party17,186,7794.675
Janata Dal11,930,2093.246
Rashtriya Janata Dal10,229,9712.7817
Telugu Desam Party10,199,4632.7712
West Bengal Trinamool Congress8,920,5832.427
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam6,731,5501.8318
Shiv Sena6,528,5661.776
Samata Party6,491,6391.7612
Communist Party of India6,429,5691.759
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam5,308,3881.446
Tamil Maanila Congress5,169,1831.403
Biju Janata Dal3,669,8251.009
Shiromani Akali Dal3,001,7690.818
Lok Shakti2,548,7250.693
All India Rashtriya Janata Party2,071,6430.561
Revolutionary Socialist Party2,032,5850.555
Haryana Lok Dal (Rashtriya)1,956,0870.534
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam1,602,5040.443
Pattali Makkal Katchi1,548,9760.424
Republican Party of India1,351,0190.374
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha1,324,5480.360
All India Forward Bloc1,213,9650.332
Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)1,181,0830.321
Asom Gana Parishad1,064,9770.290
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation912,6980.250
Haryana Vikas Party875,8030.241
Muslim League Kerala State Committee800,7650.222
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference784,6690.213
Bharatiya Kisan Kamgar Party711,0800.190
Apna Dal562,9460.150
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen485,7850.131
All India Indira Congress (Secular)457,5100.121
Puthiya Tamilagam446,5830.120
Janata Party444,3050.121
NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi)384,2110.100
Karnataka Vikas Party371,3460.100
United Minorities Front, Assam357,7590.101
Kerala Congress (M)356,1680.101
Kerala Congress327,6490.090
MGR Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam278,3240.080
Forward Bloc (Socialist)272,9740.070
Peasants and Workers Party of India269,6090.071
Marxist Co-ordination Committee263,9010.070
Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann)248,5290.070
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (Mardi)240,8970.070
Bihar Jana Congress222,3710.060
United Democratic Party213,9240.060
Gondwana Ganatantra Party196,6620.050
Manipur State Congress Party190,3580.051
Autonomous State Demand Committee184,2410.051
Jharkhand Party (Naren)181,0180.050
Arunachal Congress172,4960.052
Ajeya Bharat Party157,8540.040
United Reservation Movement Council of Assam151,5430.040
National Loktantrik Party147,7060.040
United Goans Democratic Party132,5580.040
Mahabharat People's Party115,7850.030
Sikkim Democratic Front102,4400.031
Peoples Democratic Party92,0830.020
Akhil Bharatiya Sena90,0350.020
Indian National League86,6970.020
Himachal Vikas Congress85,0460.020
Mizo National Front82,0470.020
Savarn Samaj Party76,9800.020
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party70,1910.020
Jharkhand Party63,8360.020
Hill State People's Democratic Party62,1440.020
Loktantrik Samajwadi Party43,7700.010
Bahujan Samaj Party (Ambedkar)43,4020.010
Indian Congress (Socialist)36,6770.010
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal30,6540.010
Akhil Bartiya Manav Seva Dal26,0270.010
National Panthers Party24,6380.010
Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava)24,4170.010
Shoshit Samaj Dal24,3030.010
Proutist Sarva Samaj Samiti23,0290.010
Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha20,9280.010
Jammu and Kashmir Awami League20,8430.010
Amra Bangali20,3720.010
Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha19,2020.010
Garo National Council16,2800.000
Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh14,2840.000
Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha14,1600.000
Plain Tribals Council of Assam12,9520.000
Bharatiya Vikash Party11,8810.000
United Tribal Nationalist Liberation Front11,2870.000
Rajasthan Vikas Party11,2670.000
Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha10,0640.000
United Communist Party of India10,0180.000
Bharti Lok Lehar Party9,9590.000
Samajwadi Jan Parishad9,8480.000
Hindustan Janata Party9,4760.000
Bharatiya Jantantrik Parishad9,3670.000
Maharashtra Rashtravadi Congress8,6230.000
Jharkhand People's Party7,1110.000
Sarvadharam Party (Madhya Pradesh)6,6710.000
Akhil Bharatiya Rajivwadi Congress (Dubey)6,4550.000
Bharatiya Rajiv Congress6,1220.000
Kisan Vikas Party5,9050.000
Jai Telengana Party5,8470.000
Akhil Bharatiya Bhrastachar Normoolan Sena5,7180.000
All India Rajiv Krantikari Congress5,5880.000
Pragtisheel Manav Samaj Party5,4950.000
Bharatiya Krantikari Kammand Party4,8520.000
Shoshit Samaj Party4,7220.000
Rashtriya Aikta Manch4,5960.000
Bahujan Kranti Dal (JAI)4,5250.000
The Humanist Party of India4,4390.000
Revolutionary Communist Party of India (Rasik Bhatt)4,4200.000
Rashtriya Ali Sena4,3710.000
Sanatan Samaj Party4,2380.000
Orissa Congress4,0480.000
Indian Union Muslim League (IUML)3,7630.000
Rastreeya Praja Parishat3,6880.000
Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh3,0300.000
Golden India Party3,0020.000
Adarsh Lok Dal2,9090.000
Manava Party2,9030.000
Krantikari Manuwadi Morcha2,7230.000
Religion of Man Revolving Political Party of India2,5030.000
All India Minorities Front2,4800.000
Bahujan Kranti Dal2,4660.000
Akhil Bharatiya Ashok Sena2,3920.000
Republican Party of India (Khobragade)2,1670.000
Gareebjan Samaj Party2,0090.000
Andhra Nadu Party1,9150.000
All India Muslim Forum1,8660.000
Bahujan Vikas Party1,8330.000
Pragati Sheel Party1,8280.000
Rashtriya Janandholan Paksha1,7080.000
Tamilaga Janata1,6970.000
Akhil Bharatiya Berozgaar Party1,6090.000
United Citizens Party1,5910.000
Bharatiya Jan Sabha1,4250.000
Rashtriya Unnatsheel Das1,3940.000
Socialist Party (Lohia)1,3210.000
Akhil Bharatiya Revolutionary Shoshit Samaj Dal1,2770.000
Agrajan Party1,2690.000
Ekta Krandi Dal U.P.1,2460.000
All India Gareeb Congress1,2220.000
Republican Presidium Party of India1,2150.000
Akhil Bharatiya Garib Mazdoor Kisan Party1,1990.000
Indian Bahujan Samajwadi Party1,1620.000
Bharatiya Parivartan Morcha1,1110.000
Nagaland Peoples Party1,0660.000
Bharatiya Momin Front1,0450.000
Manav Samaj Party1,0360.000
Rashtriya Mazdoor Ekta Party9460.000
Hindustan Inqualab Party8830.000
Jan Samanta Party8280.000
Bhrishtachar Virodhi Dal7540.000
Akhil Bharatiya Janata Congress7510.000
Ambedkarbadi Party7360.000
Rashtriya Muslim Mujhahid Party7100.000
Akhil Bharatiya Shivsena Rashtrawadi7030.000
National Republican Party6940.000
Hind Kisan Mazdoor Party6140.000
Akhil Bhartiya Loktantra Party6090.000
Hind Morcha5900.000
Punjab Pradesh Vikash Party5760.000
Uttar Pradesh Republican Party5520.000
Kranti Dal5010.000
Bharatiya Jan Jagruti Party4940.000
Akhil Bharatiya General Labour Party4120.000
Bharatiya Asht Jan Party3630.000
Telangana Praja Party3440.000
Rashtriya Rajdhani Congress Delhi3430.000
Akhil Bharatiya Rashtriya Azad Hind Party3060.000
Rashtriya Janta Congress2970.000
Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad (Prem Vallabh Vyas)1500.000
Indian Republican Front1180.000
Nominated Anglo-Indians2
Valid votes368,376,70098.12
Invalid/blank votes7,065,0391.88
Total votes375,441,739100.00
Registered voters/turnout605,880,19261.97
Source: ECI

By state

State Party Acronym Alliance Seats
Andhra Pradesh Indian National Congress INC INC+ 22
Telugu Desam Party TDP NDA 12
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 4
Others 4
Total 42
Assam Indian National Congress INC INC+ 10
Others 3
Total 13
Bihar Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 19
Samata Party NDA 10
Rashtriya Janata Dal 17
Indian National Congress INC INC+ 4
Others 4
Total 54
Gujarat Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 19
Indian National Congress INC INC+ 7
Total 26
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir National Conference JKNC 3
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP 2
Indian National Congress INC 1
Total 6
Karnataka Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 13
Indian National Congress INC INC+ 9
Others 6
Total 28
Madhya Pradesh Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 30
Indian National Congress INC INC+ 10
Total 40
Maharashtra Indian National Congress INC INC+ 31
Republican Party of India RPI INC+ 6
Shiv Sena SS NDA 6
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 4
Total 48
Orissa Indian National Congress INC INC+ 4
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 7
Biju Janata Dal BJD NDA 9
Others 1
Total 21
Rajasthan Indian National Congress INC INC+ 19
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 5
Others 1
Total 25
Tamil Nadu All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK NDA 18
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK 5
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 3
Tamil Manila Congress 3
Others 10
Total 39
Uttar Pradesh Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 58
Samajwadi Party SP 19
Bahujan Samaj Party BSP 4
Total 85
West Bengal Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPM LF 24
Trinamool Congress TMC 7
Revolutionary Socialist Party RSP LF 4
Communist party of India CPI LF 3
All India Forward Block AIFB 2
Bhartiya Janata Party BJP NDA 1
Others 1
Total 42

See also


  1. ^ "Election Commission of India". Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Government Falls, Indian Premier Quits; Coalition Splits Amid Gandhi Assassination Debate - The Washington Post - HighBeam Research". 3 November 2012. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  3. ^ "BJP's one-vote defeat in 1999 was narrowest in history". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  4. ^ "The 1999 No-Trust Motion That Former PM Vajpayee Lost by One Vote". The Quint. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2019.