Droupadi Murmu
President Droupadi Murmu official portrait higher version.jpg
Official portrait, 2022
15th President of India
Assumed office
25 July 2022
Prime MinisterNarendra Modi
Vice PresidentVenkaiah Naidu
Jagdeep Dhankhar
Preceded byRam Nath Kovind
9th Governor of Jharkhand
In office
18 May 2015 – 12 July 2021
Chief MinistersRaghubar Das
Hemant Soren
Preceded bySyed Ahmed
Succeeded byRamesh Bais
Minister of State, Odisha
Independent Charge
In office
6 August 2002 – 16 May 2004
Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik
MinistryFisheries and Animal Resources Development
In office
6 March 2000 – 6 August 2002
Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik
MinistryCommerce and Transport
Member of Odisha Legislative Assembly
In office
5 March 2000 – 21 May 2009
Preceded byLaxman Majhi
Succeeded byShyam Charan Hansdah
ConstituencyRairangpur
Personal details
Born
Puti Biranchi Tudu

(1958-06-20) 20 June 1958 (age 64)
Uparbeda, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, India
Political partyBharatiya Janata Party
Spouse
Shyam Charan Murmu
(m. 1980; died 2014)
Children1 (Itishri Murmu)[1]
ResidenceRashtrapati Bhawan (primary)
Alma materRama Devi Women's University (BA)
OccupationPolitician
ProfessionTeacher

Droupadi Murmu (née Puti Biranchi Tudu, born 20 June 1958) is an Indian politician who is serving as the 15th and current President of India since 25 July 2022. She is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party. She is the first person belonging to the tribal community and also the second woman after Pratibha Patil to hold the office. She is also the youngest person to occupy the post of President.[2] Prior to her presidency she served as the ninth governor of Jharkhand between 2015 and 2021, and held various portfolios in the cabinet of Government of Odisha between 2000 and 2004.[3]

Before entering politics, she worked as a clerk in the State Irrigation and Power Department from 1979 to 1983, and then as a teacher in Rairangpur until 1997.[4]

Personal life

Droupadi Murmu was born to a Santali family on 20 June 1958, in Uparbeda village[5] in the Baidaposi area of Rairangpur, Odisha.[6] Her father Biranchi Narayan Tudu was a farmer.[7] Her father and grandfather were traditional heads (designated Sarpanch) of the village council (Gram Panchayat).[5] Her family named her Puti Tudu. She was renamed by her school teacher to Droupadi, and her name was changed several times to those including Durpadi and Dorpdi in the past.[8]

Murmu studied elementary education at the local primary school in Uparbeda. At age five, she moved to Bhubaneswar for higher studies.[9] She completed secondary education from Girl's High School Unit-2, and graduated in B.A. from Rama Devi Women's College.[10]

She married Shyam Charan Murmu,[7] a banker,[9] in 1980[11][12] with whom she had two sons and a daughter. Her husband, two sons, mother, and a brother all died in a span of 7 years, from 2009 to 2015.[13][14][15] She is a follower of the Brahma Kumaris spiritual movement.[16]

Early career

From 1979 to 1983, Murmu worked as a junior assistant at the irrigation department of the Government of Odisha. From 1994 to 1997, she then worked as a teacher at the school Sri Aurobindo Integral Education and Research Centre in Rairangpur, where she taught Hindi, Odia, Maths and Geography.[17][18] She never claimed for a full salary at the school.[9]

Political career

In 1997, Droupadi Murmu was elected as the councillor of the Rairangpur Nagar Panchayat[18] as an independent candidate from a reserved seat for women.[9] She then joined the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).[17]

She won the 2000 Odisha Legislative Assembly election from Rairangpur Assembly constituency and served two terms in the Odisha Legislative Assembly between 2000 and 2009.[2] During the BJP and BJD coalition government in Odisha, she was the Minister of State with Independent Charge for Commerce and Transportation from 6 March 2000 to 6 August 2002, and Fisheries and Animal Resources Development from 6 August 2002 to 16 May 2004.[18][19]

In 2007, she received the Nilkanth Award for the Best MLA of the Odisha Legislative Assembly.[20] In 2009, she lost the Lok Sabha election from Mayurbhanj Lok Sabha constituency as the BJD and BJP alliance had ended.[18] She was elected to the BJP National Executive (ST Morcha) in 2013, and was the district president until 2015.[20]

Governor of Jharkhand (2015–2021)

Governor Murmu with Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015
Governor Murmu with Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015

Murmu was sworn in as the Governor of Jharkhand on 18 May 2015, becoming the first woman to hold the position.[21] The BJP was in power in the Jharkhand Government for most of her six-year tenure as a governor and was also in power in the Union Government throughout her tenure.[22]

Ratan Tirkey, a former BJP politician and activist, said that Murmu had not done enough to make sure that the self-governance rights granted to tribal communities were properly implemented. These rights were granted under the Fifth Schedule and the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 or PESA. Tirkey said, "Despite several requests, the then governor never exercised her powers to implement the Fifth Schedule provisions and Pesa in letter and spirit".[22]

Her six-year tenure as Governor began in May 2015 and ended in July 2021.[18]

Pathalgadi movement

Main article: Pathalgadi movement

In 2016–2017, the Raghubar Das ministry was seeking amendments to the Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908, and the Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949. These two original laws had safeguarded the rights of tribal communities on their land. According to the existing laws, land transactions could only be done between tribal communities. The new amendments gave the tribals the right to allow the government to make commercial use of tribal land and to take tribal land on lease. The proposed bill amending the existing law had been approved by the Jharkhand Legislative Assembly. The bills were sent to Murmu for approval in November 2016.[22][23]

The tribal people had strongly objected to the proposed law. During the Pathalgadi movement, protests were held against the proposed amendments to the tenancy acts.[24] In one incident, the protest turned violent and the tribals abducted the security detail of the BJP Member of Parliament Karia Munda. Police responded with a violent crack-down on tribal communities, that caused the death of a tribal man. Criminal cases were filed against more than 200 people including the tribal rights activist Stan Swamy. Murmu was criticized for her soft stand on police aggression against tribal communities during the movement.[22] According to woman tribal rights activist Aloka Kujur she was expected to speak up to the government in support of the tribals but this did not happen, and instead she appealed to the Pathalgarhi agitation leaders to repose faith in the constitution.[22]

Murmu with Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu in New Delhi in 2017
Murmu with Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu in New Delhi in 2017

Murmu had received total of 192 memorandums against the amendments in the bill.[22] Then opposition leader Hemant Soren had said that the BJP government wanted to acquire tribal land through the two amendment Bills for the benefit of corporates. Opposition parties Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, the Indian National Congress, the Jharkhand Vikas Morcha and others had put intense pressure against the bill.[24] On 24 May 2017, Murmu relented and refused to give assent to the bills and returned the bill to the state government along with the memorandums she had received. The bill was later withdrawn in August 2017.[22]

Religion and land bill

In 2017, she approved the Freedom of Religion Bill, 2017, and the bill to amend the Land Acquisition 2013 Act passed by the Jharkhand Assembly.[25]

The new religion bill makes it an offence subject to a penalty of three years in prison, to coerce or lure a person to convert their religion. If the person coerced is a member of a Scheduled Caste or tribe, a minor, or female, the prison term increases to four years. Fines can be levied in any case. The bill also made it mandatory for voluntary converts, to inform the Deputy Commissioner about their conversion, and to give full details about the circumstances.[25]

The amendments in the Land Acquisition Act, 2013, involved changes in the compensation duration and requirements for social impacts assessment. According to the passed law, monetary compensation for government acquisition of tribal land must be paid within six months of acquisition. The requirement for social impact assessments was dropped for some types of infrastructure projects.[25]

Presidential campaign

Main article: 2022 Indian presidential election

In June 2022, the BJP nominated Murmu as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA)'s candidate for President of India for the 2022 election the following month. Yashwant Sinha, was nominated as the candidate for president by the opposition parties.[4] During her election campaign, Murmu visited various states seeking support for her candidature. Several opposition parties like BJD, YSRCP, JMM, BSP, SS, JD(S) among others had announced support for her candidature prior to polling.[26][27] On 21 July 2022, Murmu secured a clear majority in the 2022 Presidential election defeating common opposition candidate Yashwant Sinha with 676,803 electoral votes (64.03% of total) in 21 of the 28 states (including in the union territory of Puducherry) to become the 15th President of India.[28]

She was elected as the President of India and assumed office on 25 July 2022. She took oath of office on the Central Hall of Parliament by the Chief Justice N. V. Ramana.[29]

Presidency (2022–present)

Main article: Presidency of Droupadi Murmu

Chief Justice N. V. Ramana administering the oath of the office to President-elect Murmu.
Chief Justice N. V. Ramana administering the oath of the office to President-elect Murmu.

She is the first person from India's designated tribal communities to be elected president.[30][31][2][32] She is the youngest and first individual born after India's independence in 1947 to have been elected president.[33] Murmu is only the second woman after Pratibha Patil to serve as President of India.[3]

President Murmu addressing the Nation on the eve of 75th Independence Day on August 14, 2022.
President Murmu addressing the Nation on the eve of 75th Independence Day on August 14, 2022.

Murmu addressed the nation for the first time as the President of India, on 14 August 2022, Independence day eve. She greeted the citizens of the country on the 75th Independence.[34]

In September 2022, she launched a government program 'Pradhanmantri TB mukht Bharat' - an initiative to eradicate Tuberculosis from the country.[35] She became the first ever President of India, to inaugurate the 'Mysuru Dasara' a 10 day state festival in Karnataka.[36]

The Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Ms. Sheikh Hasina calling on the President Murmu at Rashtrapati Bhavan, in New Delhi on September 06, 2022
The Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Ms. Sheikh Hasina calling on the President Murmu at Rashtrapati Bhavan, in New Delhi on September 06, 2022

Political positions

She follows the BJP party line on making Hindi the national language of India and their support of Hindu nationalism (Hindutva). She supports BJP's 2020 Indian agriculture acts (commonly known as the farm laws).[18][37]

Murmu has expressed admiration for India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. She has hailed Mahatma Gandhi and also B. R. Ambedkar for his contributions in making the Constitution of India.[18]

Electoral performance

This section is transcluded from Rairangpur Assembly constituency. (edit | history)

Odisha Assembly election, 2000:
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJP Droupadi Murmu 25,110 34.15
INC Laxman Majhi 20542 27.93
JMM Braja Mohan Hansdah 10485 14.26
Majority 4568 6.21
Turnout 74997 59.81
Registered electors 125,385 [38]
BJP gain from INC Swing


Odisha Assembly election, 2004:
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJP Droupadi Murmu 29,295
JMM Ram Chandra Murmu 29253
INC Laxman Majhi 22551
Majority 42 0.05
Turnout 89689
Registered electors 131,315 [39]
BJP hold Swing

This section is transcluded from Mayurbhanj (Lok Sabha constituency). (edit | history)

2009 Indian general elections: Mayurbhanj
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJD Laxman Tudu 256,648 31.08
JMM Sudam Marndi 1,90,470 23.06
BJP Droupadi Murmu 1,50,827 18.26
INC Laxman Majhi 1,40,770 17.04
IND. Rameswar Majhi 25,603 3.10
Majority 66,178 8.02
Turnout 8,24,754 70.27
BJD gain from JMM Swing

This section is transcluded from Rairangpur Assembly constituency. (edit | history)

2014 Odisha Legislative Assembly election: Rairangpur
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
BJD Saiba Sushil Kumar Hansdah 51,062 5.23
BJP Droupadi Murmu 44,679 -9.87
INC Shyam Charan Hansdah 29,006
JMM Purna Chandra Marndi 7,078
BSP Lambodar Murmu 6,082
Independent Biswanath Kisku 3,090
AAP Sudarsan Murmu 1,651
AOP Birsa Kandankel 2,031
NOTA None of the above 2,034
Majority
Turnout
Registered electors [40]
BJD gain from INC Swing

This section is transcluded from 2022 Indian presidential election. (edit | history)

Results of the 2022 Indian presidential election[41][42]
Candidate Coalition Individual
votes
Electoral
College votes
%
Draupadi Murmu National Democratic Alliance 2,824 676,803 64.03
Yashwant Sinha United Opposition 1,877 380,177 35.97
Valid votes 4,701 1,056,980 98.89
Blank and invalid votes 53 15,397 1.11
Total 4,754 1,072,377 100
Registered voters / Turnout 4,809 1,086,431 98.86

See also

References

  1. ^ "When Droupadi Murmu lost her husband, 2 sons | 5 things to know about her family". Hindustan Times. 29 August 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b c "India: Tribal politician Draupadi Murmu wins presidential vote | DW | 21.07.2022". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Droupadi Murmu: India's Youngest President and First to be Born After Independence". MSN. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b "India: BJP backs tribal politician Draupadi Murmu for president against former ally | DW | 18.07.2022". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Draupadi Murmu, to be the first president to be born after Independence". The Statesman. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  6. ^ "Droupadi Murmu may soon be the President of India: Know all about her". India Today. New Delhi. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Draupadi Murmu: Lesser known facts about the 15th President of India". The Times of India. 25 July 2022. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  8. ^ "Name Droupadi was given by my teacher: President Murmu". telegraphindia.com. 25 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d Roy, Suryagni (24 June 2022). "Presidential candidate Droupadi Murmu and Rairangpur connect | IN PICS". India Today. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  10. ^ Hebbar, Nistula (21 June 2022). "Droupadi Murmu | The irresistible rise". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  11. ^ "Draupadi Murmu: Biography, early life, marriage and the story of her dowry". True Scoop News. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  12. ^ "Who was Shyam Charan, Droupadi Murmus husband?". Opoyi. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  13. ^ "Who is Droupadi Murmu?". The Indian Express. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  14. ^ "वियोग से राजयोग तक:बड़े बेटे की मौत से टूट गई थीं द्रौपदी मुर्मू, दो महीने की रोज योग साधना ने डिप्रेशन से उबारा". Dainik Bhaskar. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  15. ^ "Droupadi Murmu is India's Youngest, First Tribal President".
  16. ^ "How Droupadi Murmu dealt with personal tragedies". TheWeek.
  17. ^ a b "Profile:The importance of being Droupadi Murmu". The Hindu.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g "The Sunday Profile | Droupadi Murmu: Raisina Calling". The Indian Express. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  19. ^ "Droupadi Murmu: India's first tribal president takes oath". BBC News. 25 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  20. ^ a b "Know Your President: The life journey of Draupadi Murmu". DT Next. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
  21. ^ "Droupadi Murmu sworn in as first woman Governor of Jharkhand-I News – IBNLive Mobile". IBN Live. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Tribal activists expect Droupadi Murmu to be assertive as President". www.telegraphindia.com. 23 June 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  23. ^ "Explained: What is the Pathalgadi movement, and what is JMM govt's stand on it?". The Indian Express. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  24. ^ a b Tewary, Amarnath (13 April 2018). "The Pathalgadi rebellion". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  25. ^ a b c Pandey, Prashant (6 September 2017). "Jharkhand Guv approves Freedom of Religion bill, land act; BJP welcomes move". The Indian Express. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  26. ^ "Droupadi Murmu to visit Karnataka today, seek support for presidential polls". Hindustan Times. 10 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  27. ^ "Murmu to visit Kolkata today to seek support". The Indian Express. 9 July 2022. Retrieved 19 July 2022.
  28. ^ "Presidential Election 2022 Result Live Updates: Droupadi Murmu makes history, becomes India's first tribal woman President". The Indian Express. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  29. ^ "All About The New President Of India: Draupadi Murmu » Market Place". Market Place. 19 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  30. ^ "Will Droupadi Murmu Remain a BJP Electoral Ploy or Help Unseen Adivasis Be Seen at Last?". The Wire. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Explained: 5 things to know about Droupadi Murmu, President of India". The Indian Express. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  32. ^ See links below
  33. ^ "In Droupadi Murmu, India gets its youngest and first president to be born after Independence". The New Indian Express. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  34. ^ "President Draupadi Murmu delivers her maiden I-Day eve speech | Full text". Hindustan Times. 14 August 2022. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  35. ^ "President of India launches Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan". pib.gov.in. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  36. ^ India, Press Trust of (10 September 2022). "President Draupadi Murmu to open Mysuru Dasara this year: CM Bommai". www.business-standard.com. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  37. ^ "Cow ranch a viable mode of self employment: Jharkhand Governor Droupadi Murmu". The Avenue Mail. 31 January 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  38. ^ "Odisha Election 2000". ECI. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  39. ^ "Odisha Election 2004". ECI. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  40. ^ "Odisha Election 2014". ECI. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  41. ^ "While President-elect #DroupadiMurmu got a vote in all states, Opposition's Presidential candidate Yashwant Sinha drew a blank in Andhra Pradesh, Nagaland, & Sikkim". Twitter.com. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  42. ^ "Number Theory: Comparing Droupadi Murmu's win with her predecessors". Hindustan Times. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.

Further reading

Odisha Legislative Assembly Preceded byLaxman Majhi Member of the Legislative Assembly for Rairangpur 2000–2009 Succeeded byShyam Charan Hansdah Government offices Preceded bySyed Ahmed Governor of Jharkhand 2015–2021 Succeeded byRamesh Bais Party political offices Preceded byRam Nath Kovind National Democratic Alliance nominee for President of India 2022 Most recent Political offices Preceded byRam Nath Kovind President of India 2022–present Incumbent