Alexander Van der Bellen
President of Austria
Assumed office
26 January 2017
ChancellorChristian Kern
Sebastian Kurz
Hartwig Löger
Brigitte Bierlein
Preceded byHeinz Fischer
Spokesman of the Green Party
In office
13 December 1997 – 3 October 2008
Preceded byChristoph Chorherr
Succeeded byEva Glawischnig
Member of the National Council
In office
7 November 1994 – 5 July 2012
Nominated byPeter Pilz
AffiliationGreen Party
Personal details
Born
Alexander Van der Bellen

(1944-01-18) 18 January 1944 (age 75)
Vienna, Austria
Citizenship
Political partyIndependent (2016–present)
Other political
affiliations
Spouse(s)
  • Brigitte Hüttner
    (div. 2015)
  • Doris Schmidauer (m. 2015)
Children2 sons (with Brigitte)
Parents
  • Alma Sieboldt
  • Alexander Van der Bellen
RelativesVan der Bellen family
Residence
Alma materUniversity of Innsbruck (Dr. rer. oec.)
Profession
AwardsList of honours and awards
Signature
Website

Alexander Van der Bellen (German pronunciation: [alɛˈksandɐ fan deːɐ̯ ˈbɛlən]; born 18 January 1944) is the current President of Austria (Bundespräsident),[2] performing the largely ceremonial role of head of state, while the Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler or Bundeskanzlerin)[3] serves as head of the Federal Government (Bundesregierung).

Before entering politics and becoming spokesperson of the Austrian Green Party,[4][5] Van der Bellen was a professor of economics at the University of Vienna.

Van der Bellen is a descendant of the Russian aristocratic von der Bellen (Van der Bellen) family of patrilineal Dutch ancestry. He was born in Austria to Russian and Estonian parents who were refugees from Stalinism. In 1958, he became a naturalized citizen of Austria, together with his parents. From 1994 to 2012 he was a member of the National Council representing the Green Party, and served as party leader and leader of its parliamentary group.[6][7]

Van der Bellen ran as a nominally independent candidate supported by the Greens in the 2016 presidential election, and finished second out of a field of six in the first round, before beating Norbert Hofer, a member of the Freedom Party, in the second round.[8][9] On 1 July, before Van Der Bellen was due to be sworn into office, the results of the second round of voting were annulled by Austria's Constitutional Court on the ground that the absentee ballots had been counted improperly too early, requiring the run-off election to be repeated.[10] On 4 December 2016, he won the repeat election, taking approximately 54% of the vote, and assumed office in January 2017.[11]

Van der Bellen has described himself as a centrist liberal[12] and supports green and social liberal policies. As discussed in his 2015 book,[13] he supports the European Union and is an advocate for European federalism.[14] During the presidential election campaign, he appealed to the political centre and was endorsed by the leaders of both the Social Democratic Party and the conservative People's Party, the two mainstream parties that had dominated the politics of the Second Republic over course of several decades following the end of Allied occupation in 1955.

Van der Bellen is the second green president of a European Union country (after Raimonds Vējonis of Latvia), and the first one to be elected directly by popular vote.[15]

Personal life

Origin and youth

In the 1700s Van der Bellen's patrilineal ancestors emigrated from the Netherlands into the Russian Empire. During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) part of his family escaped from the Bolsheviks and migrated to the newly independent Republic of Estonia. Before this Van der Bellen's grandfather Aleksander von der Bellen served as the head of the civilian regional government of Pskov. Claiming Dutch origins the family changed its name from „von der Bellen“ to „Van der Bellen“. In 1931 Van der Bellen's father, who was also called Alexander, married his Estonian mother Alma (née Sieboldt) in Kihelkonna in Saaremaa, and later on the elder Van der Bellen also obtained citizenship of Estonia. In June 1940, as a result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Estonia was invaded by the Red Army and later annexed by the USSR. Subsequently, in February or March 1941 Van der Bellen's father, mother, and older sister Vivian-Diana moved to the national socialist German Reich; in line with the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty they were accepted as so-called Volksdeutsche.

Via Laugszargen (Memelland) and a German resettlement camp in Werneck at Würzburg, Van der Bellen's parents moved to Vienna, where their son Alexander was born in 1944 and baptized into the Lutheran Church. As the Red Army approached Vienna, the family escaped to the Kaunertal in Tyrol, where his father later became active as a businessman again.

In 1954, after completing primary school in Innsbruck, Van der Bellen started attending the Akademisches Gymnasium Innsbruck where he graduated in 1962 with his Matura. Until this time Van der Bellen had Estonian citizenship like his parents, obtaining Austrian citizenship around 1958. According to Van der Bellen himself, he did not complete the mandatory service in the Bundesheer. He underwent a Musterung (military fitness check) twice, the first one resulting in his being rated as unfit (untauglich). However, he successfully passed the second one. Later, he received several respites during his studies and after his marriage. After that, Van der Bellen was no long summoned for service, due to his subsequent professorship.

Education

After receiving his Matura Van der Bellen started studying economics at the University of Innsbruck. He completed his studies in 1966 as Diplom-Volkswirt. With his dissertation Kollektive Haushalte und gemeinwirtschaftliche Unternehmungen: Probleme ihrer Koordination ("Collective households and public-service enterprises: Problems of their coordination") he was awarded the title of Dr. rer. oec (doctor rerum oeconomicarum) in December 1966. From 1968 to 1971 he served as a scientific assistant of Clemens August Andreae at the public finance institution of the University of Innsbruck, and from 1972 to 1974 as research fellow at the international institution for management and administration of the WZB Berlin Social Science Center. He established a friendship with Turkish economist Murat R. Sertel, with whom he worked on decision and preference theories and later wrote several articles and discussion papers.

In 1976 Van der Bellen was appointed extraordinary university professor at the Innsbruck University, where he remained until 1980. During this time he moved to Vienna to study and research from 1977 to 1980 at the Verwaltungsakademie des Bundes. From 1980 to 1999 he was extraordinary university professor for economics at the University of Vienna. Between 1990 and 1994 he also became dean of the faculty for economics at University of Vienna. In October 1999 he became parliamentary leader of the Greens in the National Council and resigned as university professor in January 2009. Van der Bellen retired in February 2009.

Van der Bellen's research focused on planning and financing procedures in the public sector, infrastructure financing, fiscal policy, public expenditure, government regulation policy, public undertakings, and environmental and transport policy. He has published in professional journals such as the Die Betriebswirtschaft, Econometrica, Journal of Economic Theory, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft, Public Choice, Wirtschaftspolitische Blätter and the Zeitschrift für öffentliche und gemeinwirtschaftliche Unternehmen.

Family

Main article: Van der Bellen family

Van der Bellen married when he was 18 years old and became a father for the first time at 19. His relationship with Brigitte (born Hüttner, 1943–2018) lasted over 50 years, until they divorced in 2015. He had two sons with her. Since December 2015 Van der Bellen has been married to a longtime friend and managing director of the Greens Club, Doris Schmidauer. He lives in Vienna and in Kaunertal, Tyrol.

Religion

As a young man Van der Bellen left the Evangelical Church, because he was upset about his local pastor. According to his own words he does not believe in the one God, but in a "message or vision" ("Botschaft oder Vision"), which in his view the New Testament states. However, in an interview in 2019 he stated, that he re-joined the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession the same year.[16][17]

Freemason

According to his own statement, Van der Bellen joined the only existing Freemason chapter in Innsbruck at the time, although he participated at meetings for a year, which he described as "being active". "After that, as a purely passive member, I paid the membership fee for about 10 years and finally left on my explicit request" ("Danach habe ich als rein passives Mitglied noch etwa 10 Jahre lang den Mitgliedsbeitrag bezahlt und bin schließlich auf meinen expliziten Wunsch hin ausgeschieden"), Van der Bellen in a ZIB 2 elections interview with Armin Wolf (18 May 2016). According to Van der Bellen, he is no longer a Freemason.

Estonian citizenship

After Van der Bellen's victory in the 2016 Austrian presidential elections, President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves congratulated him. The Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that Van der Bellen could get back his Estonian passport at any time. This is possible because Van der Bellen's parents were citizens of Estonia as of 16 June 1940; children of such parents are automatically accepted as citizens. Urmas Paet, former foreign minister of Estonia and MEP said: "the election results are a reason to congratulate Austrians twice. For Estonia and its people, the fact that Austria has elected an Estonian citizen as its president also plays a role."

Nickname

Van der Bellen is sometimes also called "Sascha" (which is an abbreviation of his first name) by his friends, colleagues, and within his party.

Political career

Joining politics

Van der Bellen in 2004
Van der Bellen in 2004

Van der Bellen was a member of the Social Democratic Party from the mid-1970s until the late 1980s, but his interests later turned towards the environmental movement. His former postgraduate Peter Pilz, back then the spokesman of the Green Party, brought Van der Bellen into his party. Van der Bellen later described these changes as a development "from an arrogant anti-capitalist to a generous left-liberal", although the latter self-image in his autobiography of 2015 also changed into a "liberal Anglo-Saxon coinage".

In 1992, Van der Bellen was nominated by the Greens for the office of the President of the Court of Audit; he was defeated by the ÖVP-affiliated Franz Fiedler. After the Greens suffered significant losses in the 1995 legislative elections on 17 December, Van der Bellen took over the party chairmanship from Christoph Chorherr in December 1997 and remained until October 2008. With almost eleven years in this role, he becamed the longest-serving spokesman in the history of the Austrian Greens.

When Van der Bellen assumed the chairmanship of the party, it had only 4.8% approval in the polls. He led the party through three election cycles, each time improving its performance: in the 1999 legislative elections the party received 7.4% of the vote, in the 2002 legislative elections it got 9.5% of the vote, and in the 2006 legislative elections the party the ten-percent mark with 11.05% of the vote. After losses in the 2008 legislative elections, in which the Green Party's vote share dropped to 10.11%, Van der Bellen -- dubbed "the green professor" by the media -- resigned on 3 October 2008 as spokesman of the Green Party. He handed over the office to the Third President of the National Council at the time, Eva Glawischnig. As designated spokesperson she was elected administrative party leader on 24 October and later officially endorsed and sworn in by the party congress (Bundeskongress).

Member of parliament

With the beginning of the XIX. legislative period on 7 November 1994 Van der Bellen functioned as a member of the National Council for the first time and held this position until 2012. During the XXIV. legislative period he dropped out of the National Council on 5 July 2012. From 1999 to 2008 he was parliamentary leader of the Green Party in the National Council.

During his time in the National Council, Van der Bellen also served on several committees: Budget, Main, Science, Financial, Industrial (as deputy chairman), Administrative and Foreign Affairs (as clerk and deputy chairman). He also served on several subcommittees. In 2009/10 he was a substitute member of the Austrian delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, and a regular member from 2010 to 2012.

After the 2008 legislative elections, Van der Bellen was proposed by the Greens, who were no longer the third strongest party, as a counter-candidate to the controversial FPÖ candidate Martin Graf for the postion of Third President of the National Council, but failed to win the vote on 28 October 2008. Graf was elected with 109 out of 156 valid votes, with Van der Bellen receiving only 27. The remaining votes went to other MPs.

University commissioner

On February 2011, Van der Bellen was elected by the red-green Vienna city-state government as Commissioner for Universities and Research (also: Commissioner of the City of Vienna for Universities and Research, denotation in 2013). While he himself served as a volunteer in this capacity, while at the same time performing his duties as a member of the National Council, the new office was funded with an annual budget of 210,000 euros.

As a university commissioner, Van der Bellen campaigned for the improvement of the relationship between the city of Vienna and the educational institutions located in the city, including public universities, colleges, and private universities. At his initiative, regular meetings took place between representatives of the Vienna's universities and the Municipal Department 35 (Municipal Department of the City of Vienna) in order to improve cooperation in immigration and residence matters for foreign students and researchers. The initiative was taken up by the Austrian Universities Conference - The Austrian Conference of Rectors (uniko) and extended from Vienna to the whole of Austria. University Commissioner Van der Bellen also played a key role in launching the Vienna University Circle, an informal advisory board composed of rectors and vice-rectors of Viennese universities, including the research institution "Institute of Science and Technology Austria" (IST Austria).

Vienna state parliament

In the 2010 Viennese state elections on 10 October Van der Bellen stood as a candidate for the Vienna Greens. He was placed 29th on his party's list. With the campaign slogan "Go Professor go!" he was able to garner 11,952 preference votes and thus moved up to the first position. Although Van der Bellen stated in multiple interviews: "Should I get the preferential votes and it comes to a red-green government, I will definitely move into the Landtag", he still did not accept the Gemeinderat mandate after the elections and remained in the National Council til 5 July 2012.

On 14 June 2012, Van der Bellen announced in a press conference that he would swap his seat in the National Council for one in the Vienna Gemeinderat and Landtag. On 5 July 2012 he left the National Council. The inauguration took place in September 2012 at the first Gemeinderat meeting after the summer break. In January 2015, it was announced that Van der Bellen would retreat from Vienna's municipal politics at the end of the legislative period. He did not compete in an internal list election of the Vienna Greens on 14 February and was no longer a viable Green Party candidate in the 2015 Viennese state elections.

Political views

In 2001, Van der Bellen said that he turned from an "arrogant anti-capitalist" into a "broad-minded left-liberal" over the course of his political career.[12] In his 2015 autobiography, Van der Bellen described himself as a liberal positioned in the political centre while downplaying his earlier description as left-liberal,[13] and said he was inspired by the Anglo-Saxon liberal tradition, particularly John Stuart Mill.[12] He is strongly supportive of the European Union, and advocates European federalism.[13][14] During the 2016 presidential election, he appealed to the political centre and used "Unser Präsident der Mitte" (literally, Our President of the Middle) as his campaign slogan.[18]

Van der Bellen has argued that Europe should accept refugees who have fled to Europe from war zones in Syria and elsewhere,[19] and has often mentioned his own background as the son of refugees in debates.[20] He has opposed the government's decision to impose a limit on how many asylum-seekers would be granted entry by Austria.[21]

Van der Bellen has commented that due to emerging Islamophobia and prejudice against women wearing headscarves, he could foresee a day when all non-Muslim women might also be asked to wear headscarves as a sign of solidarity with women who wear them on religious grounds.[22] The remarks were criticized widely, especially on the political right.[23]

Van der Bellen has criticized U.S. President Donald Trump.[24] He has opined that the British withdrawal from the European Union is damaging to the economies of both the United Kingdom and Europe.[25] He is opposed to recognising the Russian annexation of Crimea.[25] He has stated that the Austrian embassy in Israel should remain in Tel Aviv.[25]

Van der Bellen has criticized Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his supporters after mass pro-Erdoğan protests by Turks in Austria, saying: "In Austria there is freedom to demonstrate as long as it is peaceful. [...] Everyone that accepts the right to demonstrate, has to see that the same rights – such as freedom of speech, press freedom, independent justice system, and freedom to demonstrate are being denied in Turkey by President Erdogan."[26][27]

Presidential election

Before the election

Since August 2014 Van der Bellen has already been regarded as a presidential candidate. The Green Party reserved the domain "vdb2016.at" through the media agency Media Brothers for a possible presidential candidacy of Van der Bellen in November 2014.[28] Following its registration, the party delegated the domain to the Association "Together for Van der Bellen" as of 6 January 2016.[29]

Campaign

On 8 January 2016, Van der Bellen officially announced his candidacy for the 2016 presidential election by video message.[30] Unlike legislative elections, presidential elections are nominally nonpartisan. In these elections, Austrians vote for a named candidate on their ballot papers, rather than for a party or a list. In order to win, a candidate must obtain a majority of votes, rather than merely a plurality, which may thus require a second round (run-off election) if none of the candidates receives more than 50% of the valid votes cast nationwide.

Van der Bellen ran as an independent candidate and thus non-party nominee for the office of President. As the longest-serving leader of the Green party (from 1997 to 2008) and as an afterwards still active party member, Van der Bellen's claimed nonpartisanism was questioned and challenged throughout his presidential campaign.[31] However, Van der Bellen officially suspended his party membership with the Greens as of 23 May 2016, thereby demonstrating his professed desire to stand above partisan politics and serve as a president for all Austrians.[32]

The Green Party nevertheless supported him during his campaign, establishing the Association "Together for Van der Bellen – Independent Initiative for the 2016 Presidential Election" which comprised six employees and premises as well as 1.2 million euros financial aid.[33] The association was headquartered within the Green Party's head office, with Van der Bellen's campaign manager Lothar Lockl serving as its executive director.[34] For the repetition of the second ballot, the association received a total of 18,398 private donations, which added up to about 2.7 million euros.[35] By comparison, Van der Bellen's run-off opponent Norbert Hofer received 3.4 million euros in support from his party. The Greens however, suspected that this sum only encompassed monetary and no material donations.[36]

By running as a non-partisan candidate, Van der Bellen could also avoid an official requirement for approval of the Green Party Congress, therefore discussions about the party basis as well as a possible non-unanimous voting result were obviated. As an independent candidate, it would legally not have been necessary for him to disclose the campaign donations. Nevertheless, the Association "Together for Van der Bellen" still published them on their website.[35]

Election

Main article: 2016 Austrian presidential election

In the first round of the 2016 presidential election, Van der Bellen came in second with 21.34% of the votes, while Norbert Hofer led with 35.05%.

In the second round of voting (the runoff election) on 22 May 2016, the provisional result -- excluding postal votes -- was as follows: Norbert Hofer with 51.93% and Alexander Van der Bellen with 48.07%. No winner was declared on election night. On the following day (23 May 2016), Interior Minister Wolfgang Sobotka announced the final results including postal votes, according to which Van der Bellen received 50.35% and Hofer 49.64% of all valid votes. Numerically, Van der Bellen had a lead of only 31,026 votes over Hofer. The voter turnout was 72.7%.[37]

The final result including all ballots was announced with an error correction (in a constituency votes were counted twice), which reduced the difference between Van der Bellen and Hofer to 31,000 valid votes, but had little effect on the total percentage share. The correction only affected the third decimal place.

Following the election, the designated President Van der Bellen reaffirmed his views on the Freedom Party and stated that he would not charge them with the task to form a government, even if they became the largest party.[38] This would have been a novelty in the history of the Second Republic, since so far all Presidents had charged the leader of the largest party with government formation.

On 8 June, Freedom Party chairman Heinz-Christian Strache submitted a 150-page notice of appeal to the Constitutional Court, which was intended to highlight deficiencies in the conduct of the second round of voting.[39] On 1 July 2016, the Constitutional Court sustained the electoral appeal of the Freedom Party. Because of irregularities that had occurred in the counting of postal votes, the election had to be repeated in the whole of Austria.[40]

Van der Bellen also won the second (repeat) runoff election, which was held on 4 December 2016, receiving 53.8% of valid votes, with a turnout of 74.2%. While Van der Bellen's lead in the run-off vote on May 2016 amounted to barely less than 31,000 votes, he was able to expand his lead in the second run-off vote on December 2016 to over 348,000 valid votes.[41][42]

Inauguration

Alexander Van der Bellen was official inaugurated as President of Austria on 26 January 2017.[43] After his inaugural speech[44] he met with the Kern government and was greeted with a military ceremony as the new commander-in-chief of the Bundesheer.

Honours and awards

Austrian honours

Foreign honours

Other awards

References

  1. ^ "Die 10 wichtigsten Antworten zu Alexander Van der Bellen". www.heute.at (in German). Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  2. ^ "Bundespräsident". www.oesterreich.gv.at. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Bundesministerinnen und Bundesminister - Bundeskanzleramt Österreich". www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  4. ^ "Austria far-right candidate Norbert Hofer defeated in presidential poll". BBC Online. 4 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  5. ^ Renon, Danielle (4 December 2016). "Autriche. Van der Bellen président: un soulagement face au populisme" [Austria. Van der Bellen President: A relief from populism]. Courrier International (in French). Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  6. ^ "Bundessprecher und Klubobmann, Abgeordneter zum Nationalrat – Univ. Prof. Dr. Alexander Van der Bellen" (in German). Die Grünen. 14 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008.
  7. ^ "Van der Bellen sichtlich bewegt" (in German). ORF. September 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  8. ^ Smale, Alison (23 May 2016). "Austrian Far-Right Candidate Norbert Hofer Narrowly Loses Presidential Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  9. ^ Osborne, Samuel (23 May 2016). "Austria presidential election result: Alexander Van der Bellelosess over far-right candidate Norbert Hofer". The Independent. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  10. ^ Oltermann, Philip (1 July 2016). "Austrian presidential election result overturned and must be held again". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  11. ^ "Österreich - Bundespräsidentenwahl 2016".
  12. ^ a b c Pink, Oliver (14 May 2016). "Wie links ist Van der Bellen?" [How left is Van der Bellen?]. Die Presse (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  13. ^ a b c Van der Bellen, Alexander (2015). Die Kunst der Freiheit: In Zeiten zunehmender Unfreiheit (in German). Brandstätter Verlag. ISBN 9783850339223.
  14. ^ a b ""Wenn es die EU nicht gäbe, müsste man sie erfinden"" (in German). Die Grünen. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  15. ^ Connolly, Kate; Oltermann, Philip; Henley, Jon (23 May 2016). "Austria elects Green candidate as president in narrow defeat for far right". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  16. ^ Van der Bellen, Alexander (30 April 2019). "„Die Botschaft des Neuen Testaments ist mir wichtig"". Sonntagsblatt (Interview) (in German). Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  17. ^ "Van der Bellen wieder in Evangelische Kirche eingetreten" (in German). Der Standard.
  18. ^ "Van der Bellen als "Unser Präsident der Mitte" im Finale" [Van der Bellen as "Our President of the Centre" in the final]. Wiener Zeitung (in German). 18 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  19. ^ "Divided Austria votes in rerun of presidential contest". Al-Jazeera. 4 December 2016.
  20. ^ correspondent, Jon Henley European affairs (23 May 2016). "Who are the two men who competed to be Austria's next president?" – via The Guardian.
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  22. ^ "Van der Bellens Tag an dem alle Frauen Kopftuch tragen".
  23. ^ "Austria's president suggested that every woman should wear a headscarf to fight Islamophobia". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  24. ^ EpochTimes.de (12 November 2016). "Van der Bellen poltert gegen US-Präsident Trump und warnt vor FPÖ-Mann Hofer".
  25. ^ a b c "Bundespräsidentenwahl: Wie Hofer und Van der Bellen ihre Außenpolitik anlegen würden".
  26. ^ "Erdoğan supporters told to keep politics out of Austria". The Local. 19 July 2016.
  27. ^ "EU darf vor Erdogan nicht in die Knie gehen". Kronen Zeitung. 3 August 2016.
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  30. ^ "Mutig in die neuen Zeiten! Van der Bellen kandidiert als Bundespräsident". www.youtube.com (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Macht und Ohnmacht des Präsidenten". www.nzz.ch (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  32. ^ "Van der Bellen ist Bundespräsident - news.ORF.at". news.ORF.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
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  34. ^ "Medieninhaber & Herausgeber: ‚Gemeinsam für Van der Bellen – Unabhängige Initiative für die Bundespräsidentschaftswahl 2016', Rooseveltplatz 4-5, 1090 Wien". „Mag. Lothar Lockl, Vorsitzender des Vorstands". www.archive.is (in German). Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  35. ^ a b "Offenlegung der Zuwendungen". www.archive.is (in German). Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  36. ^ "Van der Bellen: "Lösen die Probleme nicht mit Extremen"". www.diepresse.com (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Wahlkarten ausgezählt: Alexander Van der Bellen ist Bundespräsident - derstandard.at/2000037495444/Der-Sieger-der-Bundespraesidentenwahl-heisst". www.derstandard.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  38. ^ "Van der Bellen in CNN: Sieg "trotz Migrationshintergrunds"". news.orf.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  39. ^ "FPÖ-Wahlanfechtung eingebracht - HC Strache: Hofer hätte Präsident werden können" (in German). Archived from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  40. ^ "Wahlanfechtung: Höchstgericht hebt Stichwahl vollständig auf". www.derstandard.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  41. ^ "Endergebnis mit Briefwahl: Van der Bellen kommt auf 53,79 Prozent". www.derstandard.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  42. ^ "Stimmenstärkste Kandidaten pro BundeslandHoferVan der Bellen". www.bmi.gv.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  43. ^ "Alexander Van der Bellen als Bundespräsident angelobt". www.derstandard.at (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  44. ^ "Ein Flüchtling, der in Österreich Präsident wurde". www.sueddeutsche.de (in German). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  45. ^ "Ehrenzeichen für verdiente Mandatarinnen – Silhavy, Spindelegger, Steibl, Trunk und Van der Bellen geehrt" [Honours Earned – Silhavy, Spindelegger, Steibl, Trunk and Van der Bellen] (in German). Österreichisches Parlament. 4 May 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  46. ^ "Bundeskanzler Anfragebeantwortung an die Präsidentin des Nationalrats Barbara PRAMMER schriftliche parlamentarische Anfrage betreffend Orden und Ehrenzeichen" [Federal Chancellor's Reply to National Council President Barbara PRAMMER Regarding a Written Parliamentary Question Concerning Orders and Honours] (PDF) (in German). Österreichisches Parlament. 23 April 2012. p. 1644. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  47. ^ Sito web del Quirinale: dettaglio decorato.
  48. ^ Luxarazzi
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