The Austria Portal

Topographical map of Austria
Topographical map of Austria
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital Vienna, the largest city and state by population. The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. It occupies a landlocked area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of 9 million people.

Austria emerged from the remnants of the Eastern and Hungarian March at the end of the first millennium. Originally a margraviate of Bavaria, it later developed into a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1156, and then an archduchy in 1453. As of the 16th century, Vienna began serving as the administrative imperial capital and Austria thus became the heartland of the House of Habsburg. Following the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the dominant member of the German Confederation. The Austrian Empire's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 lead to the end of the Confederation and paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary a year later.

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The Empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and later the First Austrian Republic in 1919. During the interwar period, anti-parliamentarian sentiments culminated in the formation of an Austrofascist dictatorship under Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. Following its liberation in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, the country regained its sovereignty and declared its perpetual neutrality in 1955.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a popularly elected president as head of state and a chancellor as head of government and chief executive. Major urban areas include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently listed as one of the richest countries in the world by GDP per capita, one of the countries with the highest standard of living, and was ranked 18th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2020. (Full article...)

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  • Prussian and Austrian cavalry fighting at the Battle of Mollwitz, by August Heinrich Ferdinand Tegetmeyer
    Prussian and Austrian cavalry fighting at the Battle of Mollwitz, by August Heinrich Ferdinand Tegetmeyer
  • Present-day view of the battlefield
    Present-day view of the battlefield
  • Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
    Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
  • A Haflinger mare and foal
    A Haflinger mare and foal
  • The Central European borders of Brandenburg–Prussia (blue-green) and the Habsburg Monarchy (red) in 1756, after Prussia's seizure of Silesia in the First Silesian War
    The Central European borders of Brandenburg–Prussia (blue-green) and the Habsburg Monarchy (red) in 1756, after Prussia's seizure of Silesia in the First Silesian War
  • Prussian grenadiers advancing at the Battle of Leuthen, as depicted by Carl Röchling
    Prussian grenadiers advancing at the Battle of Leuthen, as depicted by Carl Röchling
  • August Meyszner wearing the rankof SS-Oberführer in 1938
    August Meyszner wearing the rank
    of SS-Oberführer in 1938
  • Friedrich der Grosse und der Feldscher, Bernhard Rode
    Friedrich der Grosse und der Feldscher, Bernhard Rode
  • Battle of Rossbach, unknown artist
    Battle of Rossbach, unknown artist
  • Johann, Count von Klenau, 1801.
    Johann, Count von Klenau, 1801.
  • Durenstein
    Durenstein
  • Topographic map of the battle
    Topographic map of the battle
  • Miniature depicting Matilda, c. 1188
    Miniature depicting Matilda, c. 1188

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The Austrian business cycle theory (or ABCT) attempts to explain business cycles through a set of ideas held by the Austrian School of economics. The theory views business cycles as the inevitable consequence of excessive growth in bank credit, exacerbated by inherently damaging and ineffective central bank policies, which cause interest rates to remain too low for too long, resulting in excessive credit creation, speculative economic bubbles and lowered savings. The creators of the Austrian business cycle theory were Austrian School economists Ludwig von Mises and nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek. Hayek won a Nobel Prize in economics in 1974 (shared with Gunnar Myrdal) in part for his work on this theory.

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Rathaus (City Hall) in Graz
Rathaus (City Hall) in Graz

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Statue of Athena outside the Austrian Parliament

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Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (1873)
Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (1873)

Baroness Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (September 13, 1830 - March 12, 1916) was a writer. Noted for her excellent psychological novels, she is regarded—together with Ferdinand von Saar—as one of the most important German-language writers of the latter portion of the 19th century.

After 1880 she had her story Lotti die Uhrmacherin (Lotte the Watchmaker) published. In 1887 her novel Das Gemeindekind, became one of great importance in literature.

All her life she fought against the "normal" thoughts of their time. She did not write to make a living, but out of conviction and inspiration. Her intention was to convey moral behaviour and humanism.

Starting in 1890 did she find her own dramatic style of writing. Her 1888 work Ohne Liebe (Without Love) and 1895 Am Ende (In the end) achieved great success. In 1898 she was awarded the highest Austrian civilian medal, the Honorary Cross for Art and Literature. In 1900 she became the first female honorary doctor of the University of Vienna.

After 1899 she made several trips to Italy and in 1906 published her memoir. She is credited with the famous aphorism "even a stopped clock is right twice a day."

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