The Austria Portal

Topographical map of Austria
Topographical map of Austria
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine states, one of which is the capital Vienna, the largest city and state by population. The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. It occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of 9 million people.

Austria emerged from the remnants of the Eastern and Hungarian March at the end of the first millennium. Originally a margraviate of Bavaria, it later developed into a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1156, and then an archduchy in 1453. As of the 16th century, Vienna began serving as the administrative imperial capital and Austria thus became the heartland of the House of Habsburg. Following the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the dominant member of the German Confederation. The Austrian Empire's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 led to the end of the Confederation and paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary a year later.

Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The Empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and later the First Austrian Republic in 1919. During the interwar period, anti-parliamentarian sentiments culminated in the formation of an Austrofascist dictatorship under Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. Following its liberation in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, the country regained its sovereignty and declared its perpetual neutrality in 1955.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a popularly elected president as head of state and a chancellor as head of government and chief executive. Major urban areas include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently listed as one of the richest countries in the world by GDP per capita, one of the countries with the highest standard of living, and was ranked 18th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2020. (Full article...)

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  • Marshal Mortier at the battle of Durenstein in 1805, Auguste Sandoz
    Marshal Mortier at the battle of Durenstein in 1805, Auguste Sandoz
  • August Meyszner wearing the rankof SS-Oberführer in 1938
    August Meyszner wearing the rank
    of SS-Oberführer in 1938
  • Storming of the breach by Prussian grenadiers, Carl Röchling
    Storming of the breach by Prussian grenadiers, Carl Röchling
  • Image 4 SMS Körös (pronounced [ˈkørøʃ]) was the name ship of the Körös-class river monitors built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Completed in 1892, the ship was part of the Danube Flotilla, and fought various Allied forces from Belgrade down the Danube to the Black Sea during World War I. After brief service with the Hungarian People
  • Moser, c. 1980s
    Moser, c. 1980s
  • Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
    Henry in full regalia (depicted in the 11th-century Evangelion of Saint Emmeram's Abbey)
  • Image 7 Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg (26 June 1760 – 25 March 1799) was an Austrian military commander. He achieved the rank of Field Marshal and died at the Battle of Stockach. The third son of a cadet branch of the House of Fürstenberg, at his birth his chances of inheriting the family title of Fürst zu Fürstenberg were slight; he was prepared instead for a military career, and a tutor was hired to teach him the military sciences. He entered the Habsburg military in 1777, at the age of seventeen years, and was a member of the field army in the short War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–79). His career progressed steadily during the Habsburg War with the Ottoman Empire. In particular he distinguished himself at Šabac in 1790, when he led his troops in storming the fortress on the Sava river. (Full article...)
  • Der Überfall bei Hochkirch am 14. Oktober 1758, Hyacinthe de la Pegna
    Der Überfall bei Hochkirch am 14. Oktober 1758, Hyacinthe de la Pegna
  • A Prussian infantry advance during the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, as depicted by Carl Röchling
    A Prussian infantry advance during the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, as depicted by Carl Röchling
  • Taking one of the redoubts of Kehl by throwing rocks, 24 June 1796, Frédéric Regamey
    Taking one of the redoubts of Kehl by throwing rocks, 24 June 1796, Frédéric Regamey
  • Friedrich der Grosse und der Feldscher, Bernhard Rode
    Friedrich der Grosse und der Feldscher, Bernhard Rode
  • Topographic map of the battle
    Topographic map of the battle
  • Gustav Mahler, photographed in 1907 by Moritz Nähr at the end of his period as director of the Vienna Hofoper
    Gustav Mahler, photographed in 1907 by Moritz Nähr at the end of his period as director of the Vienna Hofoper
  • Miniature, c. 1188
    Miniature, c. 1188

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Gardens of Mirabell in Salzburg
Gardens of Mirabell in Salzburg

Salzburg  (Bavarian: Såizburg; literally: "Salt Fortress") is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.

Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) with its world famous baroque architecture is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The city is noted for its Alpine setting. Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid-20th century, the city was the setting for parts of the musical and film The Sound of Music, which also features famous landmarks in Austria. With three universities, Salzburg is the capital city of the State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg), and is home to a large student population.

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Palace and gardens of Schönbrunn
Palace and gardens of Schönbrunn

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Statue of Athena outside the Austrian Parliament

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Bertha von Suttner (1906)
Bertha von Suttner (1906)

Baroness Bertha von Suttner (9 June 1843 – 21 June 1914) was a novelist, radical (organizational) pacifist, and the first woman to be a Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Suttner became a leading figure in the peace movement with the publication of her novel, Die Waffen nieder! ("Lay Down Your Arms!") in 1889 and founded an Austrian pacifist organization in 1891. She gained international repute as editor of the international pacifist journal Die Waffen nieder!, named after her book, from 1892 to 1899. Her pacifism was influenced by the writings of Henry Thomas Buckle, Herbert Spencer, and Charles Darwin. Though her personal contact with Alfred Nobel had been brief, she corresponded with him until his death in 1896, and it is believed that she was a major influence in his decision to include a peace prize among those prizes provided in his will, which she won in 1905.

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