Linz
Clockwise from top: general view with the New Cathedral, pedestrian area in the city centre, Landstraße, Altstadt
Flag of Linz
Coat of arms of Linz
Linz is located in Upper Austria
Linz
Linz
Location within Austria
Linz is located in Austria
Linz
Linz
Linz (Austria)
Coordinates: 48°18′21″N 14°17′11″E / 48.30583°N 14.28639°E / 48.30583; 14.28639
CountryAustria
StateUpper Austria
DistrictStatutory city
Government
 • MayorKlaus Luger (SPÖ)
Elevation
266 m (873 ft)
Population
 • Metro
271,234
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
4010, 402x, 4030, 404x
Area code0732, (also 070 until 12 May 2014)
Vehicle registrationL
Websitehttps://www.linztourismus.at/en/leisure

Linz (/lɪnts/ LINTS,[1] German: [ˈlɪnts] ; Czech: Linec) is the capital of Upper Austria and third-largest city in Austria. Sitting on the river Danube, the city is located in the far north of Austria, 30 km (19 mi) south of the border with the Czech Republic. In 2018, the city had a population of 204,846 within its administrative urban area.[2]

Districts

Since January 2014 the city has been divided into 16 statistical districts:[3]

no. district inhabitants area in ha
1. Innere Stadt 24,785 278.9
2. Urfahr 23,581 426.8
3. Pöstlingberg 4,527 851.1
4. St. Magdalena [de] 11,890 655.3
5. Dornach-Auhof [de] 7,283 682.6
6. Kaplanhof [de] 9,753 243.2
7. Franckviertel [de] 7,216 120.7
8. Bulgariplatz [de] 14,993 260.3
9. Froschberg [de] 11,654 452.8
10. Bindermichl-Keferfeld [de] 19,875 412.0
11. Spallerhof [de] 12,021 297.1
12. Neue Heimat [de] 13,095 413.2
13. Kleinmünchen-Auwiesen [de] 22,209 645.1
14. Industriegebiet-Hafen [de] 138 1,277.4
15. Ebelsberg [de] 10,763 1,291.2
16. Pichling [de] 7,812 1,290.0

Before 2014 Linz was divided into nine districts and 36 statistical quarters. They were:

  1. Ebelsberg
  2. Innenstadt: Altstadtviertel, Rathausviertel, Kaplanhofviertel, Neustadtviertel, Volksgartenviertel, Römerberg-Margarethen
  3. Kleinmünchen: Kleinmünchen, Neue Welt, Scharlinz, Bergern, Neue Heimat, Wegscheid, Schörgenhub
  4. Lustenau: Makartviertel, Franckviertel, Hafenviertel
  5. Pöstlingberg: Pöstlingberg, Bachl-Gründberg
  6. St. Magdalena: St. Magdalena, Katzbach, Elmberg
  7. St. Peter
  8. Urfahr: Alt-Urfahr, Heilham, Hartmayrsiedlung, Harbachsiedlung, Karlhofsiedlung, Auberg
  9. Waldegg: Freinberg, Froschberg, Keferfeld, Bindermichl, Spallerhof, Wankmüllerhofviertel, Andreas-Hofer-Platz-Viertel

History

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A depiction of the town in 1594
The central part of the town
View from Pöstlingberg

The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia.[4]

Johannes Kepler spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics.[5] On 15 May 1618 he discovered Kepler's laws of planetary motion. The local public university Johannes Kepler University Linz is named for him.[6]

Anton Bruckner spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a local composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz. The Brucknerhaus is named for him.[7]

Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn (an Austrian town near the German border) and moved to Linz during his childhood. The notorious Holocaust bureaucrat Adolf Eichmann also spent his youth in Linz. Until the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his hometown.[8] Hitler effected the founding of the Bruckner Symphony Orchestra, which began presenting concerts in autumn 1943. His plan for one of the bell towers in Linz to play a theme from Bruckner's Fourth Symphony never came to pass.[9]

During World War II Linz was a giant industrial complex in support of the Nazi war effort. Hermann Göring supervised the construction of the Voest complex, ultimately a gigantic construction site built by slave labour. The Mauthausen concentration camp was established to the east of Linz, but three Mauthausen sub-camps were within the Voest complex.[10]

In addition to an ordnance depot Linz had a benzol plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II.[11] The city's confrontation with its Nazi past resulted in the renaming of many streets. In 1945, immediately after the end of the Nazi dictatorship, 39 streets in Linz were renamed, but from 1946 to 1987, only two streets were renamed. However, since 1988, 17 new traffic areas were named after victims of National Socialism or resistance fighters.[citation needed]

Economy

The container terminal at the harbour.

Linz is one of the main economic centres of Austria. Voestalpine is a large technology and capital goods group, founded as the "Reichswerke Hermann Göring" during World War II. It is now known for basic oxygen steelmaking technique. The former "Chemie Linz" chemical group has been split up into several companies.

The Meeting Industry Report Austria (mira) ranks Linz as the third most important destination for congresses in Austria, with a share of 7.4 percent in the total number of congresses, conferences and seminars held in Austria.[12] Linz has more than 60 congress and event venues. With the Blue Meeting concept, the local tourism association has developed a conference format which focuses on individual needs of participants and adapts to the idea of green meetings, therefore supporting waste minimisation, energy efficiency, climate-neutral travel, as well as regional added value.[13]

Donau-Harbor

Furthermore, due to the fact that one of the four Donau-Harbors (Donauhäfen) in Austria is located in Linz, it constitutes an attractive location in regards to logistic and trading enterprises. Manufacturing plants can be found along the waterfront. The economic importance of Linz was founded over centuries in trade. Large industrial enterprises are still located in Linz nowadays. Important examples are the Voestalpine AG.

Shopping

Landstraße, Taubenmarkt

Thirteen shopping malls can be found in Linz, three of which are situated in the city centre. Shopping centres include: Arkade, Atrium City Center, Shopping Mall Auwiesen, Shopping Mall Biesenfeld, Shopping Mall Industriezeile, Shopping Mall Kleinmünchen, Shopping Mall Muldenstraße, EuroCenter Oed, Shopping Mall Wegscheid, Infra Center, Lentia City, Passage, and PRO-Kaufland.

According to a study by Infrapool in Oktober 2010, the Linzer Landstraße is the busiest shopping street outside of Vienna. The weekly frequency is noted between 240,500 (Monday-Saturday, 8 a.m. until 7 p.m.) and 228,400 (8 a.m. until 6 p.m.) passers-by, which is the second highest value – only in 2005 more passers-by were detected.

Markets

There are eleven farmer's markets as well as one weekly flea market, and two Christmas markets in Linz. One of these markets, the "Urfahraner Markt", takes place in spring and fall every year. Furthermore, there are annually Christmas and New Year's Markets. The aim of the market administration is to provide the population with a wide range of products, as well as operating the markets in an economical, suitable and customer oriented manner. Additionally, the annual market called "Linzer Marktfrühling" sets further accents and lures new customers with attractive offers.

Transport

The central Nibelungenbrücke
The Pöstlingbergbahn, a part of the trams in Linz

Linz Airport lies about 14 km (8.7 mi) southwest of the town centre, in the municipality of Hörsching. The airport can be reached easily via federal highways B139 and B1. The bus line 601 connects the airport within 20 minutes with the centre of Linz. There is also a free shuttle service from Hörsching railway station. Direct flights include Frankfurt, Düsseldorf and Vienna with additional seasonal routes added during the summer and winter months, like for example Mallorca, Ibiza, Tenerife, several Greek islands (like Kos, Rhodes, Crete or Corfu) or Hurghada. Ryanair also flies to London Stansted Airport.

The city also has a central railway station (German: Hauptbahnhof) on Austria's main rail axis, the West railway, linking Vienna with western Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The Linz central station has been awarded eight times (from 2005 to 2011 and 2014) by Austrian Traffic Club as the most beautiful train station in Austria.[14]

Local public transport comprises the city tram network, the city trolleybus network and the city bus network, all operated by the Linz Linien division of Linz AG.[15] The city tram network includes the Pöstlingbergbahn, a steeply graded tramway which climbs a small mountain at the northwest edge of the town.

Population

The urban area includes (parts of) 13 other municipalities with together 271,000 inhabitants. Linz is also part of the Linz-Wels-Steyr metropolitan area of Upper Austria, home to around one third of the state's population (460,000 people) and second-largest urban area in Austria.[16][17]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
190083,356—    
1951184,685+121.6%
1961195,978+6.1%
1971204,889+4.5%
1981199,910−2.4%
1991203,044+1.6%
2001183,504−9.6%
2006188,968+3.0%
2011189,845+0.5%
2016200,843+5.8%
Largest groups of foreign residents[18]
Nationality Population (1 January 2022)
 Romania 6,049
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,505
 Turkey 4,072
 Germany 3,725
 Croatia 3,634
 Afghanistan 2,746
 Syria 2,650
 Kosovo 2,608
 Hungary 2,581
 Serbia 2,376
 North Macedonia 1,501
 Russia 1,370

Climate

Linz has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), with warm summers and quite cold winters.

Climate data for Linz (1991–2020, extremes 1939–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
18.6
(65.5)
24.4
(75.9)
29.8
(85.6)
33.1
(91.6)
35.4
(95.7)
37.4
(99.3)
37.8
(100.0)
34.9
(94.8)
26.1
(79.0)
23.9
(75.0)
14.8
(58.6)
37.8
(100.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
5.8
(42.4)
10.4
(50.7)
16.7
(62.1)
20.2
(68.4)
24.3
(75.7)
25.2
(77.4)
24.9
(76.8)
20.2
(68.4)
14.0
(57.2)
8.1
(46.6)
3.5
(38.3)
14.7
(58.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5
(32.9)
2.2
(36.0)
6.6
(43.9)
11.6
(52.9)
15.9
(60.6)
19.2
(66.6)
20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
15.9
(60.6)
10.8
(51.4)
5.6
(42.1)
1.5
(34.7)
10.9
(51.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.3
(36.1)
6.4
(43.5)
10.4
(50.7)
14.2
(57.6)
15.2
(59.4)
15.0
(59.0)
11.5
(52.7)
7.0
(44.6)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.8
(44.2)
Record low °C (°F) −30.0
(−22.0)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−4.0
(24.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.7
(33.3)
5.7
(42.3)
4.9
(40.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−14.5
(5.9)
−27.2
(−17.0)
−30.0
(−22.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.6
(2.23)
48.5
(1.91)
65.8
(2.59)
51.3
(2.02)
88.9
(3.50)
89.2
(3.51)
105.1
(4.14)
95.3
(3.75)
69.4
(2.73)
58.5
(2.30)
54.6
(2.15)
56.5
(2.22)
839.7
(33.06)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 18
(7.1)
17
(6.7)
7
(2.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2.0)
14
(5.5)
61
(24)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.0 9.0 10.1 8.1 11.2 10.8 12.3 10.1 9.3 8.9 9.3 10.9 120.0
Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00) 77.9 69.1 59.8 52.5 53.9 55.6 54.9 55.2 61.4 68.3 77.2 80.6 63.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.3 93.5 119.3 171.4 234.7 222.6 238.6 236.2 172.6 110.3 49.2 43.4 1,741.1
Percent possible sunshine 20.2 36.0 35.5 46.4 54.9 51.0 53.8 57.0 49.8 37.4 20.2 18.6 40.1
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (snow 1981–2010, sun 1971–2000)[19][20][21][22]

Tourism

In 2018, Germans were the most frequent guests from other countries, followed by tourists from China (including Hong Kong and Macao), making Italians 3rd in comparison with the years before – the ranking is nearly equal to the overnight stays ranking which is listed in the following.[23] Most of restaurants and cafés are closed on Sundays.

Overnight stay
Rank State Number of overnight stays
1.  Germany 170,518
2.  Italy 24,534
3.  China 23,256
4.  Switzerland,
 Liechtenstein
17,063
5.  United States 13,800
6.  United Kingdom 12,414
7.  Netherlands 11,409
8.  France 10,984
9.  Czech Republic 10,749
10.  Hungary 9,240

Destinations of interest

The new cathedral.
A close up of the neogothic new cathedral.
Part of main square with trinity column.
Old quarter scene.

The main street "Landstraße" leads from the "Blumauerplatz" to "Taubenmarkt" (Pigeonmarket) near the main square. The main square (built in 1230), with an area of 13,200 m2 (142,000 sq ft), is one of the largest converted squares in Europe. In the middle of the main square the high "Pestsäule" ("plague column", also known as "Dreifaltigkeitssäule" (Dreifaltigkeit means Holy Trinity)) was built to remember the people who died in the plague epidemics.[24][25]

Around the main square are many historically relevant and architecturally interesting houses, such as the Old Town Hall, the Feichtinger House with its carillon, which changes the melody de pending on the season, the Kirchmayr House, the Schmidtberger House or the bridgehead buildings, which house a part of the Linz Art University.

West of the main square there is the old quarter with many other historic buildings, such as Renaissance houses or older houses with a baroque face.

Near the Schloss/castle, being the former residence of emperor Friedrich the III—the oldest Austrian church is located: Sankt/Saint Martins church. It was built during early medieval Carolingian times.[26]

Architecture

The former townhouse of Kremsmünster Abbey.
A historic suburban villa at Freinberg
The old town hall

As many central European cities, the cityscape of Linz is characterised by small and several sacred buildings. The Mariä Empfängnis Dom or New Cathedral is the biggest church in Austria, not by height (it is roughly 2 metres shorter than the St. Stephen's Cathedral (Stephansdom) in Vienna), but by capacity.

The historic centre is characterised by its medieval architectural style, whereas in those parts of the city that border with the historic centre the architecture is of neoclassical, neo-baroque and neo-renaissance styles. Even further from the historic centre there are living areas, such as Franckviertel, Froschberg, Bindermichl and Kleinmünchen southern of the Danube and Alt-Urfahr northern of the Danube. These areas are where residential buildings can be found that are still referred to as "Hitlerbauten" or "Hitler buildings", because they were built during the interwar period and the time of Nazi dictatorship. The residential area called Gugl became a well liked living area among the wealthy at around 1900, which is why there are numerous villas still there today.

Amongst the newer buildings is the Linz Hauptbahnhof station, which was designed by Wilhelm Holzbauer and added the Terminal Tower skyscraper as part of a mixed-use complex. Between 2005 und 2011 it was voted Austria's most beautiful railway station seven times in a row by the Verkehrsclub Österreich. The Wissensturm ("Tower of knowledge") with a height of about 63 metres, houses the public library and the Volkshochschule, an adult education centre. It was designed by Franz Kneidinger and Heinz Stögmüller and opened in 2007. Lentos Art Museum, which opened in 2003, was designed by Zürich-based architects Weber & Hofer and the Musiktheater (music theatre), which opened in 2013, was designed by Terry Pawson.

Culture

The city is now home to a vibrant music and arts scene that is well-funded by the city and the state of Upper Austria. Between Lentos Art Museum and the "Brucknerhaus", is the "Donaulände", which is also referred to as "Kulturmeile" ("culture mile"). This is a park alongside the river, which is used mainly by young people to relax and meet in summer. It is also used for the Ars Electronica Festival in early September and the "Stream Festival", which takes place annually. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.

Linz has other culture institutions, such as the Posthof, which is near the harbour,[34] and the Stadtwerkstatt, which is by the river Danube.[35] The Pflasterspektakel, an international street art festival, takes place each year in July in and around the Landstraße and the main square.[36] Linz was the European Capital of Culture in 2009, along with Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.[37]

The aim is to maintain and represent the cultural diversity.[38]

The Ars Electronica Center can be considered as the centre of media art and attracts every year during its festival national and international guests to Linz.

The latest project developed by Linz in the context of the City of Media Arts project is the Valie Export Center, which is located in the Tabakfabrik (tobacco factory) and carried out in cooperation with the University of Art and Design Linz. It serves as an international research hub for media and performance art. Beyond that, it comprises the legacy as well as the archives of the most renowned media artist coming from Linz, Valie Export, who has received numerous national as well as international prizes.[39] Along with the Ars Electronica archives, Linz hosts two internationally renowned archives for media art.[40]

Since 2009, the Open Commons Linz initiative has made available a wide variety of "free" data: geo-data and statistical information having to do with city life, local government, recreation and tourism. An associated effort is the Hotspot initiative that has installed 202 hotspots providing free WLAN, as well as Public Server, the municipal cloud available to all citizens registered in Linz. Linz is thus at the forefront in Europe when it comes to universal access to open data.[41]

Linz houses 43 galleries and exhibit rooms, 13 cultural centres, one club centre, as well as four educational institutes.

Museums

Lentos museum
Regional gallery

Music

Brucknerhaus
Musiktheater Linz

The Brucknerhaus, a famous concert hall in Linz is named after Anton Bruckner. It is situated just some 200 metres away from the "Lentos". It is home to the "Bruckner Orchestra", and is frequently used for concerts, as well as balls and other events. It is also the venue of the "Linz Fest" which takes place annually in May as well as one of the venues during the Ars Electronica Festival in early September. In June, July and August the "Musikpavillon" is placed in the park where musical groups of different styles perform on Thursdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays free of charge.[43]

The Musiktheater (music theatre) was opened in April 2013 and is considered to be one of the most modern opera houses in Europe. It offers five stages of varying sizes; the big hall ("Großer Saal") with 1,200 seats, the BlackBox with up to 270 seats, the BlackBoxLounge with up to 150 seats, the orchestra hall ("Orchestersaal") with up to 200 seats and another stage in the foyer ("FoyerBühne"). Performances at the Musiktheater include operas and typically Austrian operettas, ballets and musicals.[44]

The ensemble of the Landestheater (regional theatre) Linz used to perform musical productions as well as theatre productions at a venue located on the "Promenade" in the inner city of Linz (this venue is still referred to simply as "Landestheater"). Since the opening of the new Musiktheater, only theatre performances take place at the "Promenade" venue, whereas musical productions are shown in the Musiktheater. The Landestheater Linz is especially renowned for its theatre for young audiences called u\hof:.

The Posthof is one of the biggest event centres in Linz with three rooms offering up to 630 seats or standing room for about 1,200 people respectively in the big hall. The programme focuses on contemporary art and covers concerts, theatre, cabaret, dance and literature. Artists from Linz are regularly invited to improve the local cultural scene; e.g. bands from Linz get the opportunity to play as pre-bands alongside nationally and internationally known artists. Altogether a total of about 250 events take place at the Posthof each year with a total number of visitors of about 80.000.[45]

The Stadtwerkstatt is an independent association for culture and was founded in 1979. Its headquarters is located in the Urfahr district on the north bank of the Danube close to the Ars Electronica Centre and serves as venue for music events and other artistic and cultural activities. Situated at the same address is the Stadtwerkstatt's own Café Strom café/bar.[46]

Cinema

The history of cinema and film begins in Linz in September 1896, when, as part of a variety programme, a film programme was shown in "Roithner's vaudeville" for the first time in Upper Austria. Until the next screening of a film it took until 20 March 1897, when Johann Bläser's travelling cinema guested in the "Hotel of the Golden Ship".

Until the opening of the first cinemas with regular programme, it took till the end of the year 1908. At that time, Karl Lifka opened his "Lifka's Grand Théâtre électrique" in that building, where already the very first film showing took place. Subsequently, the second cinema of Linz was opened a few months later.

As the owner of travelling cinemas, Johann Bläser, got settled in Linz, he bought the "Hotel of the Golden Ship", and installed a cinema in it, the "Bio-Kinematograph". The third stationary cinema, called "Kino Kolloseum", in town was founded around 1910 by the vaudeville operator Karl Roithner. Its first location was the former festival hall at Hessenplatz.

The Linz International Short Film Festival is the first film festival in Upper Austria to focus on international short films. It launched in October 2018 at the Moviemento in Linz, showing 114 films over four days. The concept goes back to the festival director Parisa Ghasemi.[47]

Culinary specialties

In Linz there are both traditional restaurants and old wine taverns, as well as modern and exotic cuisine. The influence of 140 nations can be felt in Linz's culinary offerings. A coalition of over 40 restaurants, cafes and among other locations bars are called "hotspots". Moreover, Linz has several à la carte restaurants and Gault Millau gourmet restaurants.

Typical dishes in Linz include not only the famous Linzer torte but also knödel and strudel in many different kinds of variations. Another specialty is the erdäpfelkäs, a spread made from mashed potatoes and cream. Some well-known chefs from Linz are Lukas Erich, who cooks in the Verdi and Georg Essig from the Der neue Vogelkäfig.[48]

Regular events

Archives

Commemorative year 2018

The project "Linz 1938/1918", which started on 29 June 2018, commemorates the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic (1918) and 80 years of "political union" (1938). With this installation in the public space, presented in the city center, Linz fulfills its responsibility and commitment to maintaining peace with its declaration, making a contribution to dealing with the past. The idea is to reach people who have little relation to the years of 1918 or 1938.[65]

Colleges and universities

Parks and gardens

Donaulände

Donausteig

The Donausteig is a non-Alpine Austrian-Bavarian long-distance hiking trail, which is 450 km (280 mi) long and is divided into 23 stages. Since the summer of 2010 it mainly leads alongside both banks of the Danube, from Passau through Linz and St. Nikola to Grein. The trail mainly runs through nature and leads to a number of viewpoints.[citation needed]

Harbour tour

From the end of April until the beginning of October, the Design-Ship MS Linzerin offers a harbour tour of 100 minutes, three times a day (Tuesday until Sunday). The starting point of the tour is the Linzer Donaupark, and the tour goes along the Linzer Kulturmeile, passes the Brucknerhaus and ends at the waterfront mouth of ÖSWAG Schiffswerft Linz.[citation needed]

Linzer Stadt-Wald

Linz is in the urban forest area ranking in front of Graz, even if only 500 hectares are owned by the city itself. These are sustainably managed and maintained, with 87 hectares of usable, 46 hectares of protection, 30 hectares of recreational and 353 hectares of welfare function. The latter represents the main function of the Linzer Wald. 18 percent of the city, which covers a total of 96 km2 (37 sq mi), is forested and occupies up to 1,724 ha (4,260 acres) of forest, 74 ha (180 acres) more than in 2004. This is the reason why it is called Stadt-Wald, city-forest.[67]

Notable residents

Mary Anne of Austria around 1729
Alois Riegl around 1890

Born in Linz

Living/Lived in Linz

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria

Linz is twinned with:[69]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). "Linz". Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 291. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6.
  2. ^ "Österreich – Größte Städte 2019" (in German). Statista. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Stadtgebiet, Statistische Bezirke". linz.at, City of Linz. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  4. ^ Paul Hofmann (5 April 1987). "Letting Linz Castle cast a spell". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
  5. ^ Love, David (December 2009). "Who Was Johannes Kepler?". Astronomy & Geophysics. 50 (6): 6.15–6.17. Bibcode:2009A&G....50f..15L. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4004.2009.50615.x.
  6. ^ "Meilensteine". www.jku.at (in German). Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  7. ^ "Philosophie & Geschichte". www.brucknerhaus.at. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  8. ^ Ian Kershaw (1998) Hitler: 1889–1936: Hubris. New York: Norton. pg. 15
  9. ^ Richard J. Evans (2008) The Third Reich at War Penguin Books pg.579 ISBN 9780143116714
  10. ^ Raoul Bunschoten (2001). Urban Flotsam: Stirring the City. 010 Publishers. p. 277. ISBN 9789064503870.
  11. ^ Samuel W. Mitcham (2007). Eagles of the Third Reich. Stackpole. p. 261. ISBN 9780811734059.
  12. ^ "LINZ AUCH IM KONGRESSBEREICH AUF ÜBERHOLSPUR" (in German). Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  13. ^ "Tagungshandbuch 2014 web" (in German). Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  14. ^ "VCÖ Bahntest 2014" (in German). Archived from the original on 19 November 2018.
  15. ^ Linz Linien GmbH for Local Transport. Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine Linz AG. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  16. ^ City of Linz Website
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