Clockwise from top: Don River embankment; Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos; Gorky Drama Theatre; Platov Airport; Rostov Arena; and Rostov City Hall
Flag of Rostov-on-Don
Coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don
Location of Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don is located in Rostov Oblast
Location of Rostov-on-Don within Rostov Oblast
Rostov-on-Don is located in European Russia
Location of Rostov-on-Don within Russia
Rostov-on-Don is located in Europe
Location of Rostov-on-Don within Europe
Coordinates: 47°13′21″N 39°42′36″E / 47.22250°N 39.71000°E / 47.22250; 39.71000
Federal subjectRostov Oblast[1]
City status since1796[2]
 • BodyCity Duma[3]
 • Head[3]Zinaida Neyarokhina[4]
 • Total348.5 km2 (134.6 sq mi)
70 m (230 ft)
 • Total1,089,261
 • Estimate 
1,130,305 (+3.8%)
 • Rank10th in 2010
 • Density3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toRostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug[1]
 • Capital ofRostov Oblast,[8] Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug[1]
 • Urban okrugRostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug[9]
 • Capital ofRostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
344000–344002, 344004, 344006, 344007, 344009–344013, 344015, 344016, 344018–344023, 344025, 344029, 344030, 344032–344034, 344037–344039, 344041, 344045, 344048, 344050, 344052, 344055, 344056, 344058, 344064, 344065, 344068, 344069, 344072, 344079, 344082, 344090–344095, 344101, 344103, 344111–344114, 344116, 344700, 344880, 344890, 344899, 344960–344965, 344999, 901078, 995100
Dialing code(s)+7 863
OKTMO ID60701000001
City DayThird Sunday of September[12]

Rostov-on-Don[a] is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the Sea of Azov, directly north of the North Caucasus. The southwestern suburbs of the city lie above the Don river delta. Rostov-on-Don has a population of over one million people and is an important cultural centre of Southern Russia.


See also: Timeline of Rostov-on-Don

Early history

From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes. It was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana under the Genoese, and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of the Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great,[2] in order to control trade with Turkey. It was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don, gradually lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress, but it remains an important historical center.[14]

In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" (Kupecheskaya Sloboda) on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of previously Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post.[14]

In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate.[2] In 1806, it was officially renamed Rostov-on-Don.[2] During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz.

Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began. Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with approximately 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia, especially for the export of wheat, timber, and iron ore.

In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don. The two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged. The former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third-largest city in Russia.

In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon.

20th century

A fountain in the Park of Revolution

During World War I Rostov-on-Don was briefly occupied by the German Empire in 1918.

During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don, then the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.

In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St. George Cathedral (1783–1807).

During World War II, Nazi German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first from 19/20 November to 2 December 1941,[15] after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov, and then for seven months from 24 July 1942 to 14 February 1943. The town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II.

In 1942 up to 30,000 Russian Jews were massacred by the German military in Rostov-on-Don at a site called Zmievskaya Balka.

21st century

On 19 March 2016, Flydubai Flight 981, a Boeing 737-800 operating from Dubai to Rostov-on-Don in Russia, crashed during a go-around in inclement weather at Rostov-on-Don Airport, killing all 62 people (55 passengers and 7 crew) on board.

Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Rostov-on-Don is the location of the Russian Southern Military District, which includes the 58th Combined Arms Army. As such, it was a key logistical hub during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and the 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive.[16]

On 23 June 2023, amid the conflict in Ukraine, the Wagner Group, a private military company fighting on behalf of the Russian Federation, declared a rebellion against the Russian Ministry of Defence and took control of Rostov-on-Don.[17] On June 24, after reaching a negotiated settlement with the Russian government and military, the Wagner Group withdrew from the city.[18]


City Duma building in central Rostov-on-Don

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[9]

City districts

Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts:[19]

No. City District Population Census
1 Voroshilovsky 213,802
2 Zheleznodorozhny 102,044
3 Kirovsky 65,322
4 Leninsky 80,240
5 Oktyabrsky 165,874
6 Pervomaysky 180,061
7 Proletarsky 120,665
8 Sovetsky 175,725


The 2021 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,142,162 making it the 11th most populous city in Russia.[20]

Historical population
Source: Census data

At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (1,066,523) was:[21]

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 960,883 90.1%
Armenians 41,553 3.4%
Ukrainians 16,249 1.5%
Azerbaijanis 6,739 0.6%
Tatars 5,291 0.5%
Georgians 3,960 0.4%
Belarusians 2,874 0.3%
Koreans 2,792 0.3%
Others 26,182 2.5%



Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood:

There were sultry days of brassy sun, but also cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea.[22]

Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfa).[23] The winter is moderately cold, with an average January temperature of −3.0 °C (26.6 °F). The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C (−25.4 °F) occurred in January 1940.

Summers are warm and humid; July temperatures average +23.4 °C (74.1 °F). The city's highest recorded temperature of +40.2 °C (104.4 °F) was reported on 7 July 2020. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters (25.3 in), the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, and the average air humidity is 72%.[24]

Climate data for Rostov-on-Don (1991–2020, extremes 1881–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.2
Record low °C (°F) −31.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 5
Average rainy days 11 10 12 13 14 13 11 9 10 11 15 13 142
Average snowy days 16 15 9 1 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 6 14 62
Average relative humidity (%) 84 81 76 66 63 64 61 59 67 75 84 86 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64 82 128 189 265 286 314 293 240 159 64 38 2,122
Source 1:[25]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[26]


Coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don

In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town. The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was designed in 1811 and approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity are uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents the St. Dimitry Rostovsky Fortress. The ancient Russian arms reference the role Rostov played in the defense of Russia's borders. The coat-of-arms adorns the mayor's decoration but all other cases of its use are first considered for approval by the City Duma.


Flag of Rostov-on-Don

The flag of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Duma on September 20, 1864. At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries the home guard regiments, which defended the Southern borders of Russia, were raised under this flag.[citation needed] The "Flag of Rostov" is kept in the town's municipal building under glass. Its length is 1,370 millimeters (54 in) and width, 850 millimeters (33 in). The flag is taken out of the building only on Victory Day and Rostov-on-Don Day by a guard of honour.[citation needed]

In 1870, an oval-shaped mayoral decoration wrought from precious or semi-precious white metal was introduced. On the front is written "Rostov-on-Don" at the top, the Rostov-on-Don coat-of-arms is in the center and the inscription, "Mayor of the City" is written at the bottom. On its reverse side, the day of its adoption, April 9, 1996, is recorded. The decoration is worn over the suit on a large chain. The mayor returns the decoration to the Duma on his or her retirement from office.[citation needed]

The Emblem of the Don Host Oblast was introduced in July 5 (18), 1878. The flag of the All Great Don Army was introduced in May 1918 on the "Circle of the Don Saving".[citation needed]



Central Market near the Nativity Cathedral


View of Rostov-on-Don, May 2007

Rostov's favourable geographical position at trading crossroads promotes economic development. The Don River is a major shipping lane connecting southwestern Russia with the north. Rostov-on-Don is a trading port for Russian, Italian, Greek and Turkish merchants selling, for example, wool, wheat and oil. It is also an important river port for passengers. The Rostov-on-Don agricultural region produces one-third of Russia's vegetable oil from sunflowers.[citation needed]

Volga–Don Canal

With the construction of the Volga-Don Shipping Canal in 1952, Rostov-on-Don has become known as a "port of five seas" (reachable from the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea, the White Sea, and the Baltic Sea). See the article Port of Rostov-on-Don

Modern industry

In modern times, Rostov-on-Don has experienced economic growth. Numerous start-up companies have established headquarters in the city, the median income is increasing, and the city is being transformed into a modern, industrial and technology-rich hub. For instance, Rostov-on-Don is a center for helicopter and farm machinery manufacturing.[28] The "Tebodin" engineering company opened its fourth office in Rostov-on-Don in June 2010.[29]


North Caucasus Railway Administration Building
Platov International Airport

Public transport in Rostov-on-Don includes buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed minibus, usually a 17-passenger Mercedes Sprinter). The Rostov Metro was planned in the early 1990s and later in the 2000s and 2010s. At the end of 2021, the Government of the Rostov Region and the Sinara company signed an agreement on the creation of a high-speed tramway in Rostov-on-Don on a concession basis. This happened at the international forum Transport Week 2021 in Moscow. By signing this agreement, the regional government put an end to the idea of developing the metro in the city in favour of the tram.

The Rostov-on-Don Airport caters for domestic travel, as well as flights to and from the former C.I.S., Europe, Africa and Asia. Its IATA code is "ROV".[30][31] Donavia airlines (formerly "Aeroflot Don") has its head office in Rostov-on-Don.[32] The Bataysk military aerodrome (which is located 5.0 miles (8.0 km) northwest of the city center) may be developed into a new airport hub for Southern Russia.[needs update] Platov International Airport was opened in late 2017 as part of preparations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[33]

The international river port[34] specializes in the packaging and freighting of minerals and timber. Shipping information is published online.[35][36]

The main railway stations in Rostov-on-Don are "Rostov-Glavny" and "Rostov-Prigorodny". The "St. Petersburg-Rostov-Caucasus" railway crosses the territory of Rostov-on-Don.[37] The North Caucasus Railway Administration Building is in Rostov-on-Don.

Several highways of federal and regional significance cross Rostov. The M-4 “Don” route passes Rostov to the east and crosses the Don River in the Aksay city area. The “Rostov-Novoshakhtinsk” starts from the Northern housing block area of the city running north to connect with the M-4 “Don” route between Shakhty and Novoshakhtinsk.

The Greater Rostov supercity

Rostov (in center) and vicinities: Bataysk to the south, Azov to the south-west, Chaltyr village to the north-west, and Novocherkassk to the northeast (satellite image by Landsat-5, 2010-06-10)

The Ministry of Regional Development of Russia has prepared a program to create eight multimillion conglomerate population centees or 'super cities'. The Rostov Oblast will be one of these. “The Greater Rostov” metropolitan area will include the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Novocherkassk, Taganrog, Aksay, Bataysk, and Azov.[citation needed]


In 1929, the first automatic telephone exchange in Russia with a capacity of 6,000 numbers commenced in Rostov-on-Don.[38] Since 2004, standard telephone numbers in Rostov-on-Don have been seven digits in length. Since 2009, city numbers have begun with "2".[39] The city dialing code is "863".

Financial services

The first commercial bank in the South of Russia, Rostovsoсbank, was opened in Rostov-on-Don. The bank existed from 1989 to 1998,[40] and before the withdrawal of the banking license it made a full return of deposits to all depositors.[41] The largest bank in the Rostov region is Center-Invest. In total, there are about 50 banks and their branches,[42] 17% local banks, 80% representative offices of federal banks, and 4% representative offices of foreign banks.


Rostov-on-Don hosts higher educational establishments, including universities, academies,[43] secondary schools of vocational training including colleges, technical schools, specialized schools,[44] and elementary schools of vocational training including lyceums, professional colleges[45] and schools of general education.[46]

The largest educational establishments in the city include:

There is also a French cultural centre (Alliance Francaise),[48] a British Council and German Goethe Institute (DAAD and Bosch foundation), and a Korean Cultural Centre.


Maxim Gorky Academic Drama Theater
Rostov Regional Academic Theater of the Youth
Rostov Regional Museum of Fine Arts
Museum of Russian & Armenian Friendship

The most conspicuous architectural feature of the central part of the city is the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1860–1887), designed by Konstantin Thon.


Rostov-on-Don's libraries include:


In the Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don.[49]


The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some works by Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan and Aivazovsky as well as modern Rostov artists.

Other facilities

Movie theater in Rostov-on-Don

Other facilities include seven stadiums, a Palace of Sports, a circus, a zoo[50] botanical gardens and parks.[51] Rostov-on-Don hosts the North Caucasian Science Center and research institutes. The city is also home to a Starbucks coffee chain, a true rarity in this geographical area of Russia.[52]


The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church is located in Rostov. Other religious facilities in Rostov-on-Don are the Roman Catholic "Church of the Lord's Supper", the Old Believers' temple, a synagogue,[53] a mosque, and the Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition.[54] There are also several Armenian and Greek Orthodox churches in the city, with one of the Armenian churches being the oldest standing building in Rostov. All of the Armenian churches are in the Nakhichevan-on-Don district of the city.

Russian Orthodox churches

The temple of the Holy Trinity in Rostov-on-Don is made in the style of ancient Russian architecture; its facade is decorated with bright mosaics, and inside is a majestic altar with paintings.

Old Believers churches

Armenian Apostolic Church


See also List of synagogues in Russia and History of the Jews in Rostov-on-Don



Mass media

The construction of the Rostov TV centre began in 1956 and was completed on 26 April 1958. The first television program was broadcast on 30 April 1958. Colour television was first broadcast in 1974. Radio transmission began in Rostov-on-Don on October 17, 1975. In 2009, there were fourteen FM radio stations in Rostov-on-Don. It is also possibly the home of the Squeaky Wheel number station.


Rostov-on-Don is one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Club Sport Founded Current League League
FC Rostov Football 1930 Men's Premier League 1st Rostov Arena
SKA Rostov-on-Don 1937 Men's Professional Football League 3rd SKA SKVO Stadium
Rostov-Don Basketball 2006 Women's Super League 2nd Express CSC
Rostov-Don Handball 1965 Woman's Handball Championship 1st Rostov-on-Don Palace of Sports[58]
HC Rostov Ice hockey 2004 Men's Hockey League 2nd

2018 FIFA World Cup

Uruguay–Saudi Arabia match on 20 June 2018

In 2018, Rostov-on-Don was one of the Russian cities to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Rostov Arena with a capacity of 45,000 spectators was built on the left bank of the Don River, left of the exit from the city via the Voroshilovsky Bridge. The stadium hosted 5 games of the FIFA World Cup.

During the FIFA World Cup, Teatralnaya Square served as a venue for the FIFA Fan Fest. The specially arranged area had a capacity of 25,000 people. Fans were able to watch all World Cup games on a big screen. The venue was serviced by food outlets and had several entertainment areas. In preparation for the FIFA World Cup, the city implemented a large-scale development program. Apart from the new stadium, the city built a camping area for fans arriving for the World Cup, the Southern and Western Bypasses, and new hotels. Reconstruction works were carried out at the bridge crossing over the Don River (expanding the traffic way to 6 lanes), a number of healthcare facilities, and the embankment area. A new airport, Yuzhny, was built.

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Rostov-on-Don

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Notable people include Olga Spessivtseva, a ballet dancer, Alexander Suvorov, a military commander, Rabbi Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn, the 5th Lubavitcher Rebbe,[59] Yelena Produnova, an artistic gymnast,[60] Yulia Belokobylskaya, an artistic gymnast, Andrei Chikatilo (1936–1994), the serial killer, Alexander Pechersky (1909–1990) a leader of the rebellion at the Sobibor extermination camp, and Maria Kharenkova another artistic gymnast.

Writers and poets

Authors of Rostov-on-Don include Anton Chekhov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Zakrutkin, Fadeyev, Safronov, Kalinin, Alexander Pushkin, Maxim Gorky, Sergey Yesenin, Shushanik Kurghinian, Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Yuri Zhdanov, and Mikael Nalbandian. After visiting Rostov in 1831, Pushkin published his poem "The Don". The monument to Pushkin on Pushkin Boulevard is dedicated to these events. Maxim Gorky, worked as a docker in Rostov-on-Don in his youth. Vera Panova (1905–1973) was a Soviet-era writer. The modern era includes such names as Danil Korezky and Tony Vilgotsky. A monument to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who lived in the city for 18 years and studied mathematics at Rostov University, is being planned by city authorities.

A monument to Anton Chekhov (see Chekhov Monument in Rostov-on-Don) was erected in 2010.

Musicians, composers and singers

Musicians from Rostov-on-Don include violinist Efrem Zimbalist,[61] Zaslavsky, Kim Nazaretov, Modest Mussorgsky, composer Andrey Pashchenko (1885–1972),[62] film composer Nadezhda Simonyan, Zinaida Petrovna Ziberova (born 1909), pop music singer Irina Allegrova (1952), classical singer Yuri Bashmet, Sergey Vladimirovich Rodionov, Eva Rivas (1987), Mikhail Puntov (1995), the post-punk rock band Motorama, rapper Basta, and the rap band Kasta.

Actors, directors and playwrights

Actors and playwrights of Rostov-on-Don include Maretskaya, Mikhail Shchepkin, Yevgeniya Glushenko, Alexander Kaidanovsky (1946–1995), Evgeny Shvarts (1896–1958), Nikolai Sorokin (1952–2013), Konstantin Lavronenko (1961), film and theater director Kirill Serebrennikov (1969) winner of the Best Actor award at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival, and Sergey Zhigunov (1963). Marion Gering, noted for his stage and film productions in the United States, was born in the city.

Architects and artists

Architects and artists of the city include Yevgeny Vuchetich, Seyran Khatlamajyan, Ashot Melkonian, Natalia Duritskaya, Martiros Saryan (1880–1972), Roman Chatov (1900–1987), Leonid Eberg (1882–1954), and Lev Eberg (1907–1982).

Scientists and adventurers

Scientists and explorers include, doctors N. Bogoraz and S. Fedosov, scientists Dmitri Mendeleev, A. S. Popov, and I. P. Pavlov, George Sedov, the Arctic Sea explorer, Yakov Frenkel (1894–1952), a solid-state physicist, Svyatoslav Fyodorov (1927–2000), ophthalmologist, Sabina Spielrein (1885–1942), psychoanalyst, and Yuri Oganessian (a nuclear physicist who is the namesake of oganesson (element 118)).


Miss Russia 2006 Tatiana Kotova


Historic buildings

Twin towns/sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Rostov-on-Don is twinned with:[63]



  1. ^ Russian: Ростов-на-Дону, romanizedRostov-na-Donu, IPA: [rɐˈstof dɐˈnu]


  1. ^ a b c d e Law #340-ZS
  2. ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 380. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b Charter of Rostov-on-Don, Article 35.1
  4. ^ Official website of Rostov-on-Don. Biography of Zinaida Vasilyevna Neyarokhina Archived July 3, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, the Head of Rostov-on-Don (in Russian)
  5. ^ "About the City". Official website of Rostov-on-Don (in Russian). Archived from the original on September 12, 2013.
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. ^ Charter of Rostov-on-Don, Article 1
  9. ^ a b c Law #238-ZS
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. ^ Charter of Rostov-on-Don, Article 4
  13. ^ Rostov Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Cities with Populations of 100,000 and Over Archived July 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  14. ^ a b "Rostov-on-Don" (in Russian). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  15. ^ Antony Beevor, Stalingrad (1998) Viking Press ISBN 9780670870950
  16. ^ Michael N., Schmitt (June 16, 2023). "Was Russia at War with the Wagner Group?". Articles of War. Lieber Institute, West Point.
  17. ^ "Mutiny in Russia: Mercenary group Wagner enters Russian city of Rostov, Moscow on high alert". India Today. Archived from the original on June 24, 2023. Retrieved June 24, 2023.
  18. ^ Ynet (June 24, 2023). "Wagner mercenaries pulling out of Rostov-on-Don". Ynetnews. Retrieved June 25, 2023.
  19. ^ "Районы города". April 28, 2008. Archived from the original on November 2, 2002. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  20. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  21. ^ "Итоги::Ростовстат". Archived from the original on December 11, 2014. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
  22. ^ "Rostov-on-Don. Jewish Family History Organisation. Accessed 19 July 2012". March 9, 2006. Archived from the original on May 4, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  23. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  24. ^ "Архив данных о погоде в Ростове-на-Дону. (in Russian)". Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  25. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Ростова-на-Дону" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  26. ^ "Rostov–Na–Donu (Rostov–on–Don) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on October 29, 2021. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  27. ^ "Взгляд". Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
  28. ^ "Rostov-on-Don: Quiet Flows the Don Filatova, Irena. The Moscow Times. Accessed July 19, 2012". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
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