Coordinates: 66°N 94°E / 66°N 94°E / 66; 94

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Anthem: 
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia on the globe, with unrecognised territory shown in light green.[a]
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Russian[3]
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
(2010)[4]
Religion
(2017)[5]
Demonym(s)Russian
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic[6]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
879
1283
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
18 March 2014
Area
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[7] 17,125,191 km2 (including Crimea)[8] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[9] (including swamps)
Population
• 2021 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 146,171,015
  • (including Crimea)[10]
  • Neutral decrease 143,759,445
  • (excluding Crimea)[10]
(9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.328 trillion[11] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $29,485[11] (55th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.710 trillion[11] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $11,654[11] (64th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[12]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[13]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya, pronounced [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[b] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17,125,191 square kilometres (6,612,073 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has the most borders of any country in the world, with sixteen sovereign nations.[c] It has a population of 146.2 million; and is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city entirely within Europe; while Saint Petersburg is the country's second-largest city and cultural centre.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Rus' ultimately disintegrated, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose during the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had vastly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to evolve into the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human in space.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000; during the period Russia has experienced democratic backsliding, and has shifted to an authoritarian state.

Russia is a great power, and a potential superpower. It is ranked 52nd in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system, and a free university education. Russia's economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It is a recognized nuclear-weapons state, possessing the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons; with the second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is among the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, the Council of Europe, BRICS, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU. Russia is also home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Etymology

Main article: Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia

The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated primarily by the East Slavs.[14] However, the proper name became more prominent in later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Rus land".[15] In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus' itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, a group of Norse merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centred on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus'.[16]

A Medieval Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, which was used as one of several designations for East Slavic and Eastern Orthodox regions, and commonly as a designation for the lands of Rus'.[17] The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía – spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.[18]

The standard way to refer to the citizens of Russia is "Russians" in English.[19] There are two words in Russian which are commonly translated into English as "Russians" – one is "русские" (russkiye), which most often refers to ethnic Russians – and the other is "россияне" (rossiyane), which refers to citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity.[20]

History

Main article: History of Russia

Early history

Further information: Scythia, Ancient Greek colonies, Early Slavs, East Slavs, Huns, Turkic expansion, and Prehistory of Siberia

See also: Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Uralic

Flint tools, possibly 1.5 million years old, have been discovered in the North Caucasus.[21] Radiocarbon dated specimens from Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains estimate the oldest Denisovan specimen lived 195-122,700 years ago.[22] Fossils of "Denny", an archaic human hybrid that was half Neanderthal and half Denisovan, and lived some 90,000 years ago, was also found within the latter cave.[23] Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals, from about 45,000 years ago, found in Mezmaiskaya Cave.[24]

The first trace of a early modern human in Russia dates back to 45,000 years, in western Siberia.[25] The discovery of high concentration cultural remains of anatomically modern humans, from at least 40,000 years ago, was found at Kostyonki and Borshchyovo,[26] and at Sungir, dating back to 34,600 years ago—both, respectively in western Russia.[27] Humans reached Arctic Russia at least 40,000 years ago, in Mamontovaya Kurya.[28]

The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.[29]
The Kurgan hypothesis places the Volga-Dnieper region of southern Russia and Ukraine as the urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans.[29]

Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic–Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic.[30] Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in places such as Ipatovo,[30] Sintashta,[31] Arkaim,[32] and Pazyryk,[33] which bear the earliest known traces of horses in warfare.[31] In classical antiquity, the Pontic-Caspian Steppe was known as Scythia.[34]

In late 8th century BCE, Ancient Greek traders brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.[35]

In the 3rd to 4th centuries AD, the Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia, which was later overrun by Huns.[14] Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, which was a Hellenistic polity that succeeded the Greek colonies,[36] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.[37] The Khazars, who were of Turkic origin, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century.[38]

The ancestors of ethnic Russians are the were among the Slavic tribes that separated from the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who appeared in the northeastern part of Europe ca. 1500 years ago.[39] The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov.[38] From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in western Russia,[38] and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finnic peoples, including the Merya,[40] the Muromians,[41] and the Meshchera.[42]

Kievan Rus'

Main articles: Rus' Khaganate, Kievan Rus', and List of early East Slavic states

Kievan Rus' in the 11th century
Kievan Rus' in the 11th century

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the Vikings who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[43] According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from the Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862.[14] In 882, his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev,[44] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars.[38] Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar Khaganate,[45] and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.[46][47]

In the 10th to 11th centuries, Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.[48] The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.[14]

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of the East Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.[49]

The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy Lebedev.

The age of feudalism and decentralization had come, marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurikid Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.[48]

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40, that resulted in the destruction of Kiev, and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[48] The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities and ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over two centuries.[50]

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Novgorod Republic and Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.[14] The Novgorod Republic escaped Mongol occupation and together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke; they were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240,[51] as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242.[52]

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow

Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner
Sergius of Radonezh blessing Dmitry Donskoy in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow, initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal.[53] While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.[54] Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade centre and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League.[55]

Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490. However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene—widespread practicing of banya, a wet steam bath—the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe, and population numbers recovered by 1500.[56]: 62 

Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow and helped by the Russian Orthodox Church, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.[57] Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.[53]

Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde and consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion, and was the first Russian ruler to take the title title "Grand Duke of all Rus'". After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire.[53] Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms.[58]

Tsardom of Russia

Main article: Tsardom of Russia

See also: Moscow, third Rome

Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.
Tsar Ivan the Terrible, in an evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897.

In development of the Third Rome ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Terrible") was officially crowned first Tsar of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor), revamped the military, curbed the influence of the clergy, and reorganized local government.[53]

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga, and the Siberian Khanate in southwestern Siberia. Thus, by the end of the 16th century, Russia expanded east of the Ural Mountains, thus east of Europe, and into Asia, being transformed into a transcontinental state.[53]

However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), the Kingdom of Sweden, and Denmark–Norway for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.[59] At the same time, the southern borders were often raided by the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde.[60] In an effort to restore the Volga khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow in 1571. However, in the following year, the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by the Russians in the crucial Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of an Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia.[61] The slave raids of Crimeans, however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.[62]

Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Polish invaders.
Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Polish invaders.

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the disastrous famine of 1601–03, led to a civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century.[63] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, taking advantage, occupied parts of Russia, extending into the capital Moscow.[64] In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.[65] The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.[66]

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of the Cossacks.[67] In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Khmelnytsky Uprising.[68] In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Ultimately, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper River, leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine, under Polish rule and the eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian rule.[59] Later, in 1670–71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.[69]

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of vast Siberia was led mostly by the Cossacks, hunting for valuable furs and ivory.[67] Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century, there were Russian settlements in eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.[70] In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov, a Russian explorer, became the first European to navigate through the Bering Strait.[71][72]

Imperial Russia

Main article: Russian Empire

Peter the Great, Tsar of All Russia in 1682–1721 and the first Emperor of All Russia in 1721–1725
Peter the Great, Tsar of All Russia in 1682–1721 and the first Emperor of All Russia in 1721–1725

Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721, and became one of the European great powers. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War (1700−1721), forcing it to cede western Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), as well as the Governorate of Estonia and Livonia, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. In 1703, on the Baltic Sea, Peter founded Saint Petersburg as Russia's new capital. Throughout his rule, sweeping reforms were made, which brought significant Western European cultural influences to Russia.[73]

The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). During the conflict, Russian troops overran East Prussia, and even reached the gates of Berlin.[74] However, upon Elizabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia, who during his short rule, remained highly unpopular, and was later deposed.[75]

Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Second Partition of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe, and thus making Russia the most populous country in Europe.[76] In the south, after the successful Russo-Turkish Wars against the Ottoman Empire, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, by defeating the Crimean Khanate, and annexing Crimea.[77] As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century, Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus.[78] Catherine's successor, her son Paul, was unstable and focused predominantly on domestic issues.[79] Following his short reign, Catherine's strategy was continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened Sweden in 1809,[80] and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812.[81] In North America, the Russians became the first Europeans to reach and colonize Alaska.[82]

Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.[83]
Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.[83]

In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages.[84] In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica.[85]

During the Napoleonic Wars, Russia joined alliances with various European powers, and fought against France. The French invasion of Russia at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which the pan-European Grande Armée faced utter destruction. Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly, the Imperial Russian Army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove throughout Europe in the war of the Sixth Coalition, ultimately entering Paris.[86] Alexander I controlled Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna, which defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe.[87]

Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).
Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by Albrecht Adam (1851).

The officers who pursued Napoleon into Western Europe brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the Tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825.[88] At the end of the conservative reign of Nicholas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe, was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War.[89]

Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes throughout the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861.[90] These reforms spurred industrialisation, and modernized the Imperial Russian Army, which liberated much of the Balkans from Ottoman rule in the aftermath of the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War.[91] During most of the 19th and early 20th century, Russia and Britain colluded over Afghanistan and its neighboring territories in Central and South Asia; the rivalry between the two major European empires came to be known as The Great Game.[92]

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists.[93] The reign of his son Alexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful.[94] The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, triggered by the humiliating Russo-Japanese War and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday.[95][96] The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalisation of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma.[97]

February Revolution and Russian Republic

Main articles: February Revolution, Russian Provisional Government, and Russian Republic

See also: 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election and Russian Democratic Federative Republic

Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

In 1914, Russia entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia,[98] and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies.[99] In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive of the Imperial Russian Army almost completely destroyed the Austro-Hungarian Army.[100] However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts.[101]

The February Revolution forced Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg during the Russian Civil War.[102] The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.[103] On 1 September (14), 1917, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed. On 6 January (19), 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly declared Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision). The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.[101]

Russian Civil War

Main articles: October Revolution, Russian Civil War, and White movement

See also: Soviet Russia Constitution of 1918

Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Lev Kamenev motivate troops to fight on the Soviet-Polish War, 1 May 1920.
Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Lev Kamenev motivate troops to fight on the Soviet-Polish War, 1 May 1920.

An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets.[101] The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country instead of resolving it, and eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state.[104]

Following the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army.[105] In the aftermath of signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the first diplomatic treaty ever filmed, that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers of World War I; Bolshevist Russia surrendered most of its western territories, which spanned over 2,600,000 square kilometres (1,000,000 sq mi), and hosted a third of its population—about 55 million.[106] The territory was also home to over 54% of its industries, about 32% of its agricultural land, and roughly 90% of its coal mines.[107]

The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces.[108] In the meantime, both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror.[109] By the end of the violent civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged, and as many as 10 million perished during the war, mostly civilians.[110] Millions became White émigrés,[111] and the Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed up to five million victims.[112]

Soviet Union

Main article: History of the Soviet Union

See also: Treaty on the Creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Joseph Stalin confers with an ailing Lenin at Gorky, September 1922.
Joseph Stalin confers with an ailing Lenin at Gorky, September 1922.

On 30 December 1922, Lenin and his aides formed the Soviet Union, by joining the Russian SFSR into a single state with the Byelorussian, Transcaucasian, and Ukrainian republics. Eventually internal border changes and annexations during World War II created a union of 15 republics; the largest in size and population being the Russian SFSR, which dominated the union for its entire history politically, culturally, and economically.[113]

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to take charge. Eventually Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition factions and consolidate power in his hands to become the country's dictator by the 1930s.[114] Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929,[115] and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the official line.[116] The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members and military leaders forced to confess to nonexistent plots.[117]

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivisation of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts for their suspected or real opposition to Stalin's rule;[118] and millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[119] The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933; which killed over 8.7 million.[120] The Soviet Union, ultimately, made the costly transformation from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse within a short span of time.[121]

World War II

The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
Raising a Flag over the Reichstag, an iconic photograph taken during the Battle of Berlin by Yevgeny Khaldei, 2 May 1945.
Raising a Flag over the Reichstag, an iconic photograph taken during the Battle of Berlin by Yevgeny Khaldei, 2 May 1945.

The Soviet Union joined World War II on 17 September 1939, as the Soviet Army invaded Poland,[122] in accordance with a secret protocol within the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany; that divided Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[123] On 30 November 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Finland, and started the Winter War; after which Finland ceded roughly one-tenth of its territory.[124] In June 1940, the Red Army invaded and occupied the Baltic states; and a month later, the latter were annexed into the Soviet Union as constituent republics.[125] During the same period, the Soviet Union occupied parts of Romania.[126]: 91–95 

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact; and commenced Operation Barbarossa; startling the ill-prepared Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,[127] and opening the Eastern Front, the largest theater of World War II.[128] The invasion's ultimate goal was the eventual extermination, enslavement, Germanization, and mass deportation of Slavs to Siberia, for Lebensraum.[129]: 416 

Eventually, some 5 million Red Army troops were captured by the Nazis;[130]: 272  the latter deliberately starved to death or otherwise killed 3.3 million Soviet POWs, and a vast number of civilians, as the "Hunger Plan" sought to fulfill Generalplan Ost.[129]: 175–186  Although the Wehrmacht had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow.[131] Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–43,[132] and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943.[133] Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.[134] Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces steamrolled through Eastern and Central Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945.[135] In August 1945, the Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's Manchukuo and North Korea, contributing to the Allied victory over Japan.[136]

The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War.[137] The Soviet Union together with the United States, the United Kingdom and China were considered as the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II,[138] and later became the Four Policemen which was the foundation of the United Nations Security Council.[139] During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet civilian and military death were about 26-27 million, accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties.[140] The full demographic loss of Soviet citizens was far greater, as at least 60% of Soviets lost a member of their nuclear family to the war.[141] The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation, which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–47.[142] However, at the expense of a large sacrifice, the Soviet Union emerged as a global superpower.[143]

Cold War

After World War II, parts of Eastern and Central Europe, including East Germany and eastern parts of Austria were occupied by Red Army according to the Potsdam Conference.[144] Dependent communist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states.[145] After becoming the world's second nuclear power,[146] the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact alliance,[147] and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the rivaling United States and NATO.[148]

After Stalin's death in 1953 and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization, releasing many political prisoners from the Gulag labor camps.[149] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw.[150] At the same time, Cold War tensions reached its peak when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.[151]

Sputnik 1 was the world's first artificial satellite.
Sputnik 1 was the world's first artificial satellite.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age.[152] Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961.[153] Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation, a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The 1965 Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralisation of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods.[154] In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces invaded the country, ultimately starting the Soviet–Afghan War.[155] The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Finally, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.[156]

Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.[157]
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.[157]

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratize the government.[158] This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements across the country.[159] Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the world's second-largest, but during its final years, it went into a crisis.[160]

By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over as the Baltic states chose to secede from the Soviet Union.[161] On 17 March, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.[162] In June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first directly elected president in Russian history when he was elected President of the Russian SFSR.[163] In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[164] On 25 December 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, along with contemporary Russia, fourteen other post-Soviet states emerged.[165]

Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present)

Main article: History of Russia (1991–present)

See also: Commonwealth of Independent States, War of Laws, 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, Russia and the United Nations, and 1993 Constitution of Russia

Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.
Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.

The economic and political collapse of the Soviet Union led Russia into a deep and prolonged depression. During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalisation were undertaken, including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy".[166]

The privatisation largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government, which led to the rise of the infamous Russian oligarchs.[167] Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.[168] The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed, and millions plunged into poverty—while extreme corruption and lawlessness, as well as criminal gangs and violent crime rose significantly.[169]

In late 1993, tensions between Yeltsin and the Russian parliament culminated in a constitutional crisis which ended after military force. During the crisis, Yeltsin was backed by Western governments, and over 100 people were killed. In December, a referendum was held and approved, which introduced a new constitution, giving the president enormous powers.[170]

Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama after signing the New START nuclear reduction treaty, 2010.[171]
Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama after signing the New START nuclear reduction treaty, 2010.[171]

The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections. From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war was fought between the rebel groups and Russian forces.[172] Terrorist attacks against civilians were carried out by separatists, claiming thousands of lives.[d]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia took up the responsibility for settling the latter's external debts.[177] In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the ruble.[178] With a devalued ruble, the Russian government struggled to pay back its debts to internal debtors, as well as to international institutions. Despite significant attempts at economic restructuring, Russia's debt outpaced GDP growth. High budget deficits coupled with increasing capital flight and inability to pay back debts, caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis, which resulted in a further GDP decline.[179]

Putin era

Main article: Russia under Vladimir Putin

On 31 December 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed prime minister and his chosen successor, Vladimir Putin.[180] Yeltsin left office widely unpopular, with an approval rating as low as 2% by some estimates.[181] Putin then won the 2000 presidential election,[182] and suppressed the Chechen insurgency.[183] Putin went on to win a second presidential term in 2004.[184] As a result of high oil prices, a rise in foreign investment, and prudent economic and fiscal policies, the Russian economy grew significantly; dramatically improving Russia's standard of living, and increasing its influence in global politics.[185] Putin, meanwhile, expanded his power over Russia's political system, and transformed it into an authoritarian state.[186]

Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014
Vladimir Putin (third, left), Sergey Aksyonov (first, left), Vladimir Konstantinov (second, left) and Aleksei Chalyi (right) sign the Treaty on Accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia in 2014

On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected president while Putin became prime minister, as the constitution barred Putin from serving a third consecutive presidential term.[187] Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections,[188] and Medvedev was appointed prime minister.[189] This four year joint leadership by the two was coined "tandemocracy" by foreign media.[190]

In 2014, when President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution, Putin deployed Russian troops to Ukraine to seize the Crimean parliament, leading to the takeover of Crimea.[191][192] Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favoured by a large majority of voters,[193] the Russian leadership announced the accession of Crimea into Russia, though this and the referendum that preceded it were not accepted internationally.[194] The annexation of Crimea led to sanctions by Western countries,[195] following which the Russian government responded with counter-sanctions against the latter.[196]

In September 2015, Russia started military intervention in the Syrian Civil War in support of the Syrian government, consisting of airstrikes against militant groups of the Islamic State, al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), the Army of Conquest and other rebel groups.[197] In March 2018, Putin was elected for a fourth presidential term overall.[198]

In January 2020, substantial amendments to the constitution were proposed,[199] and the entire Russian government resigned,[200] leading to Mikhail Mishustin becoming the new prime minister.[201] It took effect in July following a national vote, allowing Putin to run for two more six-year presidential terms after his current term ends.[202] In April 2021, Putin signed the constitutional changes into law.[203]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Russia

Topographic map of Russia
Topographic map of Russia

Russia is a transcontinental country stretching vastly over two continents, Europe and Asia.[204] It spans the northernmost edge of Eurasia; and has the world's fourth-longest coastline, of over 37,653 km (23,396 mi).[e][206] Russia lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W; and most of it lies within an area that extends 2,500 to 4,000 km (1,600 to 2,500 mi) from north to south, and some 9,000 km (5,600 mi) east to west.[207][f][g] Even along a geodesic, some non-contiguous parts of Russia are about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) apart from each other.[h] Russia is larger than three continents of the world,[i] and has the same surface area as Pluto.[209]

Russia has nine major mountain ranges, and they are found along the southern regions, which share a significant portion of the Caucasus Mountains (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest peak in Russia and Europe);[6] the Altai and Sayan Mountains in Siberia; and in the East Siberian Mountains and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia).[210][211] The Ural Mountains, running north to south through the country's west, are rich in mineral resources, and form the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia.[212]

Russia, as one of the world's only two countries bordering three oceans,[204] has links with a great number of seas.[j][213] Its major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin.[214][215] The Diomede Islands, administered by Russia and the United States, are just 3.8 km (2.4 mi) apart;[216] and Kunashir Island in the extreme southeast of Russia is just 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.

Russia, home to over 100,000 rivers,[204] has one of the world's largest surface water resources, with its lakes containing approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.[211] Lake Baikal, the largest and most prominent among Russia's fresh water bodies, is the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake, containing over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[217] Ladoga and Onega in northwestern Russia are two of the largest lakes in Europe.[204] Russia is second only to Brazil by total renewable water resources.[218] The Volga in western Russia, widely regarded as Russia's national river, is the longest river in Europe;[219] while the rivers of Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Amur in Siberia are among the longest rivers in the world.[220]

Climate

Main article: Climate of Russia

Köppen climate classification of Russia.[221]

The sheer size of Russia and the remoteness of many of its areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate throughout most of the country, except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Mountain ranges in the south and east obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian and Pacific oceans, while the European Plain spanning its west and north opens it to influence from the Alantic and Arctic oceans.[222] Most of northwest Russia and Siberia have a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of northeast Siberia (mostly Sakha, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F),[214] and more moderate winters elsewhere. Russia's vast coastline along the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.[222]

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably Sochi, and some coastal and interior strips of the North Caucasus possess a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters.[222] In many regions of East Siberia and the Russian Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The westernmost parts of Kaliningrad Oblast and some parts in the south of Krasnodar Krai and the North Caucasus have an oceanic climate.[222] The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some southernmost slivers of Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate.[221]

Throughout much of the territory, there are only two distinct seasons, winter and summer; as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.[222] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[223]

Biodiversity

Main article: Wildlife of Russia

See also: List of ecoregions in Russia

Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.[212]
Yugyd Va National Park in the Komi Republic is the largest national park in Europe.[212]

Russia, owing to its gigantic size, has diverse ecosystems, including polar deserts, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broadleaf forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and subtropics.[224] About half of Russia's territory is forested,[6] and it has the world's largest forest reserves,[225] which are known as the "Lungs of Europe"; coming second only to the Amazon rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.[226]

Russian biodiversity includes 12,500 species of vascular plants, 2,200 species of bryophytes, about 3,000 species of lichens, 7,000-9,000 species of algae, and 20,000-25,000 species of fungi. Russian fauna is composed of 320 species of mammals, over 732 species of birds, 75 species of reptiles, about 30 species of amphibians, 343 species of freshwater fish (high endemism), approximately 1,500 species of saltwater fishes, 9 species of cyclostomata, and approximately 100–150,000 invertebrates (high endemism).[224][227] Approximately 1,100 of rare and endangered plant and animal species are included in the Russian Red Data Book.[224]

Russia's entirely natural ecosystems are conserved in nearly 15,000 specially protected natural territories of various statuses, occupying more than 10% of the country's total area.[224] They include 45 UNESCO biosphere reserves,[228] 64 national parks, and 101 nature reserves.[229] Russia still has many ecosystems which are still untouched by man; mainly in the northern taiga areas, and the subarctic tundra of Siberia. Russia had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 9.02 in 2019, ranking 10th out of 172 countries; and the first ranked major nation globally.[230]

Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Russia

Vladimir Putin
President
Mikhail Mishustin
Prime Minister

Russia, by constitution, is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the president is the head of state,[231] and the prime minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:[232]

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).[233] Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). United Russia is the dominant political party in Russia, and has been described as "big tent".[234]

Political divisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Russia

See also: Oblasts of Russia and Republics of Russia

Further information: Political status of Crimea and Sevastopol and Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

According to the constitution, the Russian Federation is composed of 85 federal subjects.[k] In 1993, when the new constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed, but some were later merged. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly.[235] They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.[236]

Federal subjects Governance
  46 oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
  22 republics
Each is nominally autonomous—home to a specific ethnic minority, and has its own constitution, language, and legislature, but is represented by the federal government in international affairs.[237]
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol).
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[238]

Federal districts

The federal districts of Russia were established by president Vladimir Putin in 2000 to facilitate the federal government's task of controlling the then 89 federal subjects across the country.[239] Originally seven, currently there are eight federal districts,[240] each headed by a presidential envoy appointed by the president. Federal districts are not mentioned in the nation's constitution, and do not have competences of their own and do not manage regional affairs. They exist solely to monitor consistency between the federal and regional bodies of law, and ensuring governmental control over the civil service, judiciary, and federal agencies, operating in the regions.[241]

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Russia

Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.
Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.

Russia had the world's fifth-largest diplomatic network in 2019. It maintains diplomatic relations with 190 United Nations member states, two partially-recognized states, and three United Nations observer states; along with 144 embassies.[242] Russia is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and is a potential superpower. It has historically been a major great power, and a significant regional power. Russia is a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the APEC. It also takes a leading role in organisations such as the CIS, the EAEU, the CSTO, the SCO, and BRICS, as well as forums such as the Arctic Council.

Russia maintains close relations with neighbouring Belarus, which is in the Union State, a supranational confederation of the latter with Russia.[243] Serbia has been a historically close ally of Russia, as both countries share a strong mutual cultural, ethnic, and religious affinity.[244] India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment, and the two countries share a strong strategic and diplomatic relationship since the Soviet era.[245] Russia wields enormous influence across the geopolitically important South Caucasus and Central Asia; and the two regions have been described as Russia's "backyard".[246][247]

In the 21st century, relations between Russia and China have significantly strengthened bilaterally and economically; due to shared political interests.[248] Turkey and Russia share a complex strategic, energy, and defense relationship.[249] Russia maintains cordial relations with Iran, as it is a strategic and economic ally.[250] Russia has also increasingly pushed to expand its influence across the Arctic,[251] Asia-Pacific,[252] Africa,[253] the Middle East,[254] and Latin America.[255] In contrast, Russia's relations with the Western world; especially the United States, the European Union, and NATO—have worsened gradually, mainly due to its ongoing conflict with neighboring Ukraine since 2014.[256]

Military

Main article: Russian Armed Forces

Sukhoi Su-57, a fifth-generation fighter of the Russian Air Force.[257]

The Russian Armed Forces are divided into the Ground Forces, the Navy, and the Aerospace Forces—and there are also two independent arms of service: the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops.[6] As of 2021, the military have around a million active-duty personnel, which is the world's fifth-largest, and about 2-20 million reserve personnel.[258][259] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in the Armed Forces.[6]

Russia boasts the world's second-most powerful military.[260] It is among the five recognized nuclear-weapons states, with the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons; over half of the world's nuclear weapons are owned by Russia.[261] Russia possesses the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines,[262] and is one of the only three countries operating strategic bombers.[263] It has the world's most powerful ground force,[264] and the second-most powerful air force and navy fleet.[265][266] Russia maintains the world's fourth-highest military expenditure, spending $61.7 billion in 2020.[267] It is the world's second-largest arms exporter, and has a large and entirely indigenous defence industry, producing most of its own military equipment.[268]

Human rights and corruption

Main articles: Human rights in Russia and Corruption in Russia

In 2021, Russia saw nationwide protests in support of jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny, which led to at least 1,700 being arrested in the aftermath.[269]
In 2021, Russia saw nationwide protests in support of jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny, which led to at least 1,700 being arrested in the aftermath.[269]

Russia's human rights management has been increasingly criticized by leading democracy and human rights watchdogs. In particular, organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[270][271] Putin, in response, has argued Western liberalism has become "obsolete" in Russia, while maintaining that the country is still democratic.[272]

Since 2004, Freedom House has ranked Russia as "not free" in its Freedom in the World survey.[273] Since 2011, the Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked Russia as an "authoritarian regime" in its Democracy Index, ranking it 124th out of 167 countries for 2020.[274] In regards to media freedom, Russia was ranked 150th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index for 2021.[275] Justly, the Russian government has been widely criticized by political dissidents and human rights activists for unfair elections,[276] crackdowns on opposition political parties and protests,[277][278] persecution of non-governmental organisations and independent journalists,[279][280] and censorship of media and internet.[281] In 2017, Jehovah's Witnesses were labelled as "extremist" and were outlawed in Russia, facing persecution ever since.[282]

Russia has been described as a kleptocracy. It was the lowest rated European country in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2020, ranking 129th out of 180 countries.[283] The phenomenon of corruption in Russia has been strongly established in the historical model of public governance, and is perceived as a significant problem.[284] It impacts various aspects of life, including the economy,[285] business,[286] public administration,[287] law enforcement,[288] healthcare,[289][290] and education.[291]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Russia

See also: Economic history of the Russian Federation and Taxation in Russia

Moscow is a major financial hub in Europe, and has one of the world's largest urban economies.[292]
Moscow is a major financial hub in Europe, and has one of the world's largest urban economies.[292]
A map showing major Russian gas pipelines to Europe. Russia is a major player in the European energy sector, supplying most of the continent's crude oil, natural gas, and solid fossil fuels.[293]
A map showing major Russian gas pipelines to Europe. Russia is a major player in the European energy sector, supplying most of the continent's crude oil, natural gas, and solid fossil fuels.[293]

Russia has a mixed economy,[294] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.[295] It has the world's eleventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. In 2017, the large service sector contributed to 62% of the total GDP, the industrial sector 32%, and the small agricultural sector roughly 5%.[6] Russia has a low unemployment rate of 4.5%,[296] and more than 70% of its population is categorized as middle class officially.[297][l] Russia's foreign exchange reserves are worth $630 billion, and are the world's fifth-largest.[301] It has a labour force of roughly 70 million, which is the world's sixth-largest.[302] Russia's large automotive industry ranks as the world's tenth-largest by production.[303]

Russia is the world's twentieth-largest exporter and importer.[304][305] In 2016, the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 36% of federal budget revenues.[306] In 2019, the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimated the value of natural resources to 60% of the country's GDP.[307] Russia has one of the lowest external debts among major developed countries,[308] and ranked high among the "very easy" countries in the 2019 Ease of Doing Business Index.[309] It has a flat tax rate of 13%, and has the world's second-most attractive personal tax system for single managers after the United Arab Emirates.[310] However, inequality of household income and wealth in the country has also been noted.[311][312]

Transport and energy

Main articles: Transport in Russia and Energy in Russia

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways. The total length of common-used railway tracks is the world's third-longest, and exceeds 87,157 km (54,157 mi).[313] As of 2016, Russia has the world's fifth-largest road network, with some 1,452.2 thousand km of roads,[314] while its road density is among the world's lowest.[315] Russia's inland waterways are the world's second-longest, and total 102,000 km (63,380 mi).[316] Its pipelines total some 251,800 km (156,461 mi), and are the world's third-longest.[317] Among Russia's 1,218 airports,[318] the busiest is Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, which is also the fifth-busiest airport in Europe.

The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.[319]
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.[319]

Russia's largest port is the Port of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai along the Black Sea.[320] It is the world's sole country which constructs nuclear-powered icebreakers; as the latter advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia, and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route.[321]

Russia has been widely described as an energy superpower.[322] It has the world's largest proven gas reserves,[323] the second-largest coal reserves,[324] the eighth-largest oil reserves,[325] and the largest oil shale reserves in Europe.[326] Russia is also the world's leading natural gas exporter,[327] the second-largest natural gas producer,[328] and the second-largest oil producer and exporter.[329][330]

Russia is committed to the Paris Agreement, after joining the pact formally in 2019.[331] It is the world's fourth-largest greenhouse gas emitter.[332] Russia is the world's fourth-largest electricity producer,[333] and the ninth-largest renewable energy producer in 2019.[334] It was also the world's first country to develop civilian nuclear power, and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant.[335] Russia was also the world's fourth-largest nuclear energy producer in 2019,[336] and was the fifth-largest hydroelectric producer in 2021.[337]

Agriculture and fishery

Main articles: Agriculture in Russia and Fishing industry in Russia

A combine harvester in Rostov Oblast

Russia's agriculture sector contributes about 5% of the country's total GDP, although the sector employs about one-eighth of the total labour force.[338] It has the world's third-largest cultivated area, at 1,265,267 square kilometres (488,522 sq mi). However, due to the harshness of its environment, about 13.1% of its land is agricultural,[6] and only 7.4% of its land is arable.[339] The main product of Russian farming has always been grain, which occupies considerably more than half of the cropland.[338] Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat,[340] and is the largest producer of barley,[341] buckwheat, oats,[342] and rye,[343] and the second-largest producer of sunflower seed.[344] Various analysts of climate change adaptation foresee large opportunities for Russian agriculture during the rest of the 21st century as arability increases in Siberia, which would lead to both internal and external migration to the region.[345]

More than one-third of the sown area is devoted to fodder crops, and the remaining farmland is devoted to industrial crops, vegetables, and fruits.[338] Owing to its large coastline along three oceans and twelve marginal seas, Russia maintains the world's sixth-largest fishing industry; capturing 4,773,413 tons of fish in 2018.[346] It is home to the world's finest caviar, the beluga; and produces about one-third of all canned fish, and some one-fourth of the world's total fresh and frozen fish.[338]

Science and technology

Main article: Science and technology in Russia

See also: Timeline of Russian inventions and technology records, List of Russian scientists, and List of Russian inventors

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist
Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist

Russia's research and development budget is the world's ninth-highest, with an expenditure of approximately 422 billion rubles on domestic research and development.[347] In 2019, Russia was ranked tenth worldwide in the number of scientific publications.[348] Russia ranked 45th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.[349] Since 1904, Nobel Prize were awarded to twenty-six Soviets and Russians in physics, chemistry, medicine, economy, literature and peace.[350]

Mikhail Lomonosov proposed the conservation of mass in chemical reactions, discovered the atmosphere of Venus, and founded modern geology.[351] Since the times of Nikolay Lobachevsky, who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry, and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematicians became among the world's most influential.[352] Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry.[353] Sofya Kovalevskaya was a pioneer among women in mathematics in the 19th century.[354] Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians have been awarded with the Fields Medal. Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002, as well as the Fields Medal in 2006, both of which he infamously declined.[355][356]

Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio,[357] while Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of laser and maser.[358] Zhores Alferov contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.[359] Oleg Losev made crucial contributions in the field of semiconductor junctions, and discovered light-emitting diodes.[360] Vladimir Vernadsky is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology.[361] Élie Metchnikoff is known for his groundbreaking research in immunology.[362] Ivan Pavlov is known chiefly for his work in classical conditioning.[363] Lev Landau made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.[364]

Nikolai Vavilov was best known for having identified the centers of origin of cultivated plants.[365] Trofim Lysenko was known mainly for Lysenkoism.[366] Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés. Igor Sikorsky was an aviation pioneer.[367] Vladimir Zworykin was the inventor of the iconoscope and kinescope television systems.[368] Theodosius Dobzhansky was the central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis.[369] George Gamow was one of the foremost advocates of the Big Bang theory.[370] Many foreign scientists lived and worked in Russia for a long period, such as Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel.[371][372]

Space exploration

Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.[373]
Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.[373]

Roscosmos is Russia's national space agency. The country's achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration can be traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics, whose works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond.[374]: 6–7, 333 

In 1957, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. In 1961, the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued. In 1963, Valentina Tereshkova became the first and youngest woman in space, having flown a solo mission on Vostok 6.[375] In 1965, Alexei Leonov became the first human to conduct a spacewalk, exiting the space capsule during Voskhod 2.[376]

In 1957, Laika, a Soviet space dog, became the first animal to orbit the Earth, aboard Sputnik 2.[377] In 1966, Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to achieve a survivable landing on a celestial body, the Moon.[378] In 1968, Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon.[379] In 1970, Venera 7 became the first spacecraft to land on another planet, Venus.[380] In 1971, Mars 3 became the first spacecraft to land on Mars.[381]: 34–60  During the same period, Lunokhod 1 became the first space exploration rover,[382] while Salyut 1 became the world's first space station.[383] Russia had 176 active satellites in space in 2021,[384] the world's third-highest.[385]

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Russia

Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Peterhof Palace in Saint Petersburg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

According to the World Tourism Organization, Russia was the sixteenth-most visited country in the world, and the tenth-most visited country in Europe, in 2018, with over 24.6 million visits.[386] Russia was ranked 39th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019.[387] According to Federal Agency for Tourism, the number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Russia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019.[388] Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion.[386] In 2020, tourism accounted for about 4% of country's total GDP.[389]

Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of Russia, a theme route of ancient Russian cities, cruises on large rivers such as the Volga, hikes on mountain ranges such as the Caucasus Mountains,[390] and journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.[391] Russia's most visited and popular landmarks include Red Square, the Peterhof Palace, the Kazan Kremlin, the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius and Lake Baikal.[392] In the Russian Far East, the Kamchatka Peninsula is famed for its natural landscape and volcanoes.[393] The Republic of Karelia, in northwestern Russia, is home to numerous lakes, and Kizhi Island—which houses Kizhi Pogost, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the republic's petroglyphs, which date back to the Neolithic.[394]

Moscow, the nation's cosmopolitan capital and historic core, is a bustling megacity. It retains its classical and Soviet-era architecture; while boasting high art, world class ballet, and modern skyscrapers.[395] Saint Petersburg, the Imperial capital, is famous for its classical architecture, cathedrals, museums and theatres, white nights, criss-crossing rivers and numerous canals.[396] Russia is famed worldwide for its rich museums, such as the State Russian, the State Hermitage, and the Tretyakov Gallery; and for theatres such as the Bolshoi, and the Mariinsky. The Moscow Kremlin and the Saint Basil's Cathedral are among the cultural landmarks of Russia. Soviet-era metro stations across the country, due to their lavish and ornate architecture, are also a famous tourist spot.[397]

Demographics

Main articles: Demographics of Russia and Russians

Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people according to the 2010 Census.[398]
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people according to the 2010 Census.[398]

Russia is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanized countries,[6] with the vast majority of its population concentrated within its western part.[399] It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census,[400] which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021.[10] Russia is the most populous country in Europe,[401] and the world's ninth-most populous country,[402] with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[403]

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called by analysts as a demographic crisis.[404] In 2019, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.5 children born per woman,[405] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates.[406] Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years.[6] In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[407] However, since 2020, due to excessive deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has underwent its largest peacetime decline in history.[408]

Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities;[398] while roughly 85% of Russia's population was of European descent—of which the vast majority were Slavs,[409] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[410][411] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million;[412] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[413]

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rosstat (2016[414][415]/2017)
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.

Moscow

Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow [416]12,381,000 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov Oblast 1,120,000

Novosibirsk

Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg [416]5,282,000 12 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai [417]1,084,000
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast [418]1,603,000 13 Perm Perm Krai 1,042,000
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast [419]1,456,000 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,032,000
5 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,267,000 15 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,016,000
6 Kazan Tatarstan [420]1,232,000 16 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai [421]881,000
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast [422]1,199,000 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 843,000
8 Omsk Omsk Oblast [423]1,178,000 18 Tolyatti Samara Oblast [424]711,000
9 Samara Samara Oblast [424]1,170,000 19 Izhevsk Udmurtia [425]646,000
10 Ufa Bashkortostan [426]1,126,000 20 Ulyanovsk Ulyanovsk Oblast 622,000

Language

Main articles: Russian language and Languages of Russia

See also: List of endangered languages in Russia

Minority languages across Russia
Altaic and Uralic languages spoken across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia.[3] It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[429] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,[430] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[431] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[429]

Russia is a multilingual nation; approximately 100-150 minority languages are spoken across the country.[432][433] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[434] The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[435] However, various experts have claimed Russia's linguistic diversity is rapidly declining.[436][437]

Religion

Main article: Religion in Russia

Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square of Moscow is the most popular icon of Russia.[438]
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square of Moscow is the most popular icon of Russia.[438]

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population,[439][440] and according to different sociological surveys on religious adherence, between 41% to over 80% of Russia's population adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[441][442][443]

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[5] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[444]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst the bulk of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[445] Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in the three Siberian regions: Buryatia,[446] Tuva,[447] Zabaykalsky Krai; and form the majority of the population in Kalmykia: the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[448]

Education

Main article: Education in Russia

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[449]
Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[449]

Russia has an adult literacy rate of 99.7%.[450] It grants free education to its citizens by constitution.[451] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[452] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia is among the world's most educated countries, and has the third-highest proportion of tertiary-level graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 62%.[453] It spent roughly 4.7% of its GDP on education in 2018.[454]

Russia's pre-school education system is highly developed and optional,[455] some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Primary school is compulsory for eleven years, starting from age 6 to 7, and leads to a basic general education certificate.[452] An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russians continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive: first-degree courses usually take five years.[456] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[457] There are ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. Russia was the world's fifth-leading destination for international students in 2019, hosting roughly 300 thousand.[458]

Health

Main article: Healthcare in Russia

Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.[459]
Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.[459]

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program.[460] The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[461]

Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[462] Its healthcare expenditure is notably lower than other developed nations.[463] Russia has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female,[6] due to its high male mortality rate.[464] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth was 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[465] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[466]

The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[467] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia; 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese in 2016.[468] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[469][470] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[471] Smoking is another health issue in the country.[472] The country's high suicide rate, although on the decline,[473] remains a significant social issue.[474]

Culture

Main article: Russian culture

The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.
The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.

Russian culture has been formed by the nation's history, its geographical location and its vast expanse, religious and social traditions, and Western influence.[475] Russian writers and philosophers have played an important role in the development of European thought.[476][477] The Russians have also greatly influenced classical music,[478] ballet,[479] sport,[480] painting,[481] and cinema.[482] The nation has also made pioneering contributions to science and technology and space exploration.[483][484]

Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 19 out of which are cultural; while 27 more sites lie on the tentative list.[485] The large global Russian diaspora has also played a major role in spreading Russian culture throughout the world. Russia's national symbol, the double-headed eagle, dates back to the Tsardom period, and is featured in its coat of arms and heraldry.[58] The Russian Bear and Mother Russia are often used as national personifications of the country.[486][487] Matryoshka dolls are considered a cultural icon of Russia.[488]

Holidays

Main article: Public holidays in Russia

The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg
The Scarlet Sails being celebrated along the Neva in Saint Petersburg

Russia has eight, diverse—public, patriotic, and religious—official holidays.[489] The year starts with New Year's Day on January 1, soon followed by Russian Orthodox Christmas on January 7; the two are the country's most popular holidays.[490] Defender of the Fatherland Day, dedicated to men, is celebrated on February 23.[491] International Women's Day, dedicated to women, on March 8.[492] Spring and Labor Day, originally a Soviet era holiday dedicated to workers, is celebrated on May 1.[493]

Victory Day, which honors Soviet victory over Nazi Germany and the End of World War II in Europe, is celebrated as an annual large parade in Moscow's Red Square;[494] and marks the famous Immortal Regiment civil event.[495] Other patriotic holidays include Russia Day on June 12, celebrated to commemorate Russia's declaration of sovereignty from the collapsing Soviet Union;[496] and Unity Day on November 4, commemorating the uprising which marked the end of the Polish–Lithuanian occupation of Moscow.[497]

There are many popular non-public holidays. Old New Year is celebrated on 14 January.[498] Tatiana Day on 25 January, dedicated to students.[499] Maslenitsa is an ancient and popular East Slavic folk holiday.[500] Cosmonautics Day on 12 April, in tribute to the first human trip into space.[501] Kupala Night on 6–7 July, a traditional Slavic holiday;[502] and Peter and Fevronia Day. Two major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday.[503] The Scarlet Sails is a famous public event held annually during the White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg.[504]

Art and architecture

Main articles: Russian artists, Russian architecture, and List of Russian architects

Karl Bryullov, The Last Day of Pompeii (1833)

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos. In the early 15th-century, the master icon painter Andrei Rublev created some of Russia's most treasured religious art.[505] The Russian Academy of Arts, which was established in 1757, to train Russian artists, brought Western techniques of secular painting to Russia.[73] In the 18th century, academicians Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky became influential.[506] The early 19th century saw many prominent paintings by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov, both of whom were known for Romantic historical canvases.[507][508] In the 1860s, a group of critical realists (Peredvizhniki), led by Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin and Vasiliy Perov broke with the academy, and portrayed the many-sided aspects of social life in paintings.[509] The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolism; represented by Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich.[510][511] The Russian avant-garde flourished from approximately 1890 to 1930; and globally influential artists from this era were El Lissitzky,[512] Kazimir Malevich, Natalia Goncharova, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marc Chagall.[513]

The Winter Palace, which served as the official residence of the Emperor of Russia, is an architectural symbol of Saint Petersburg.
The Winter Palace, which served as the official residence of the Emperor of Russia, is an architectural symbol of Saint Petersburg.

The history of Russian architecture begins with early woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs, and the church architecture of Kievan Rus'.[514] Following the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries it was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine Empire.[515] Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia.[516] The 16th-century saw the development of the unique tent-like churches; and the onion dome design, which is a distinctive feature of Russian architecture.[517] In the 17th-century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s.

After the reforms of Peter the Great, Russia's architecture became influenced by Western European styles. The 18th-century taste for Rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers. The most influential Russian architects of the eighteenth century; Vasily Bazhenov, Matvey Kazakov, and Ivan Starov, created lasting monuments in Moscow and Saint Petersburg and established a base for the more Russian forms that followed.[505] During the reign of Catherine the Great, Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture.[518] During Alexander I's rule, Empire style became the de facto architectural style,[519] and Nicholas I opened the gate of Eclecticism to Russia. The second half of the 19th-century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival style. In early 20th-century, Russian neoclassical revival became a trend.[520] Prevalent styles of the late 20th-century were the Art Nouveau, Constructivism,[521] and Socialist Classicism.[522]

Music

Main article: Music of Russia

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), composer
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), composer

Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.[523] In the 19th-century, it was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein.[524] The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian and European classical music. World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Glazunov, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Georgy Sviridov and Alfred Schnittke.[525]

Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer,[526][527] cellist Mstislav Rostropovich,[528] pianists Vladimir Horowitz,[529] Sviatoslav Richter,[530] and Emil Gilels,[531] and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya.[532]

During the Soviet times, popular music also produced a number of renowned figures, such as the two balladeersVladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava,[525] and performers such as Alla Pugacheva.[533] Jazz, even with sanctions from Soviet authorities, flourished and evolved into one of the country's most popular musical forms.[525] The Ganelin Trio have been described by critics as the greatest ensemble of free-jazz in continental Europe.[534] By the 1980s, rock music became popular across Russia, and produced bands such as Aria, Aquarium,[535] DDT,[536] and Kino;[537] the latter's leader Viktor Tsoi, was in particular, a gigantic figure.[538] Pop music has continued to flourish in Russia since the 1960s, with globally famous acts such as t.A.T.u..[539] In the recent times, Little Big, a rave band, has gained popularity in Russia and across Europe.[540]

Literature and philosophy

Main articles: Russian literature, Russian philosophy, Russian poets, Russian playwrights, Russian novelists, and Russian science fiction and fantasy

Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, with works such as War and Peace.[541]
Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, with works such as War and Peace.[541]

Russian literature is considered to be among the world's most influential and developed.[542] It can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed.[543] By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, with works from Mikhail Lomonosov, Denis Fonvizin, Gavrila Derzhavin, and Nikolay Karamzin.[544] From the early 1830s, during the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama.[545] Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore.[546] Following Pushkin's footsteps, a new generation of poets were born, including Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet.[544]

Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881), one of the great novelists of all time, whose masterpieces include Crime and Punishment.[547]
Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881), one of the great novelists of all time, whose masterpieces include Crime and Punishment.[547]

The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol.[548] Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels.[549] Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned. Ivan Goncharov is remembered mainly for his novel Oblomov.[550] Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote prose satire,[551] while Nikolai Leskov is best remembered for his shorter fiction.[552] In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist.[553] Other important 19th-century developments included the fabulist Ivan Krylov,[554] non-fiction writers such as the critic Vissarion Belinsky,[555] and playwrights such as Aleksandr Griboyedov and Aleksandr Ostrovsky.[556][557] The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. This era had poets such as Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak, Konstantin Balmont,[558] Marina Tsvetaeva, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Osip Mandelshtam. It also produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.[544]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into Soviet and white émigré parts. In the 1930s, Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky, who laid the foundations of this style.[559] Mikhail Bulgakov was one of the leading writers of the Soviet era.[560] Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Influential émigré writers include Vladimir Nabokov,[561] and Isaac Asimov; who was considered one of the "Big Three" science fiction writers.[562] Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, such as Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the Gulag camps.[563]

Russian philosophy has been greatly influential. Alexander Herzen is known as one of the fathers of agrarian populism.[564] Mikhail Bakunin is referred to as the father of anarchism.[565] Peter Kropotkin was the most important theorist of anarcho-communism.[566] Mikhail Bakhtin's writings have significantly inspired scholars.[567] Helena Blavatsky gained international following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy, and co-founded the Theosophical Society.[568] Vladimir Lenin, a major revolutionary, developed a variant of communism known as Leninism. Leon Trotsky, on the other hand, founded Trotskyism. Alexander Zinoviev was a prominent philosopher in the second half of the 20th century.[569]

Cuisine

See also: Russian cuisine

Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.
Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.

Russian cuisine has been formed by climate, cultural and religious traditions, and the vast geography of the nation; and it shares similarities with the cuisines of its neighbouring countries. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for many drinks. Bread, of many varieties,[570] are very popular across Russia.[571] Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka, and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) and mayonnaise are often added to soups and salads.[572][573] Pirozhki, blini, and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Beef Stroganoff, Chicken Kiev, pelmeni,[574] and shashlyk are popular meat dishes.[575] Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat.[576] Salads include Olivier salad,[577] vinegret,[578] and dressed herring.[579]

Russia's national non-alcoholic drink is kvass,[580] and the national alcoholic drink is vodka; its creation in the nation dates back to the 14th century.[581] The country has the world's highest vodka consumption,[582] while beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.[583] Wine has become increasingly popular in Russia in the 21st century.[584] Tea has also been a historically popular beverage in Russia.[585]

Mass media and cinema

Main articles: Media of Russia and Cinema of Russia

Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe.[586]

Russia has a large and diverse media industry; with over 80 thousand media outlets, and some 22-35 thousand newspapers.[587] There are 1,552 news agencies in Russia, among which the largest internationally operating are TASS, RIA Novosti, Sputnik, and Interfax.[588] Television is the most popular media in Russia,[589] as 99% of the Russian population receives at least one television channel,[587] and roughly 60% of Russians watch television on a daily basis.[590] Among the 3,000 licensed radio stations nationwide, popular ones include Radio Rossii, Vesti FM, Echo of Moscow, Radio Mayak, and Russkoye Radio.[589] Leading newspapers include Argumenty i Fakty, Komsomolskaya Pravda, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Izvestia, and Moskovskij Komsomolets.[591] State-run Channel One and Russia-1 are the leading news channels,[589] while RT is the flagship of Russia's international media operations.[592] Russia has the largest video gaming market in Europe, with over 65 million players nationwide.[593]

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.[594][595] Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would go on to become among of the world's most innovative and influential directors.[596][597] Eisenstein was a student of Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography.[598] Dziga Vertov's "Kino-Eye" theory had a huge impact on the development of documentary filmmaking and cinema realism.[599] Many Soviet socialist realism films were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier.[482]

The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema.[482] The comedies of Eldar Ryazanov and Leonid Gaidai of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catchphrases still in use today.[600][601] In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[482] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.[602] In 2002, Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take.[603] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian cinema industry suffered large losses—however, since the late 2000s, it has seen growth once again, and continues to expand.[604]

Sports

Main article: Sport in Russia

Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.[605]
Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.[605]

Football is the most popular sport in Russia.[606] The Soviet Union national football team became the first European champions by winning Euro 1960,[607] and reached the finals of Euro 1988.[608] Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008.[609][610] The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008.[611] Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup,[612] and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[613]

Ice hockey is very popular in Russia, and the Soviet national ice hockey team dominated the sport internationally throughout its existence.[480] Bandy is Russia's national sport, and it has historically been the highest-achieving country in the sport.[614] The Russian national basketball team won the EuroBasket 2007,[615] and the Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is among the most successful European basketball teams.[616] The annual Formula One Russian Grand Prix is held at the Sochi Autodrom in the Sochi Olympic Park.[617]

Historically, Russian athletes have been one of the most successful contenders in the Olympic Games,[480] ranking second in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.[618] Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics; and Russian synchronized swimming is considered to be the world's best.[619] Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing.[620] Russia has produced numerous prominent tennis players.[621] Chess is also a widely popular pastime in the nation, with many of the world's top chess players being Russian for decades.[622] The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow,[623] and the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics were hosted in Sochi.[624][625] However, Russia has also had 43 Olympic medals stripped from its athletes due to doping violations, which is the most of any country, and nearly a third of the global total.[626]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014, remains internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine.[1][2]
  2. ^ Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]
  3. ^ Russia shares land borders with fourteen sovereign nations: Norway and Finland to the northwest; Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and Ukraine to the west, as well as Lithuania and Poland (with Kaliningrad Oblast); Georgia and Azerbaijan to the southwest; Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the south; China and North Korea to the southeast—while having maritime boundaries with Japan and the United States.

    Russia also shares borders with the two partially recognized breakaway states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

  4. ^ Most notably the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the Russian apartment bombings, the Moscow theater hostage crisis, and the Beslan school siege.[173][174][175][176]
  5. ^ Russia has an additional 850 km (530 mi) of coastline along the Caspian Sea, which is the world's largest inland body of water, and has been variously classified as a sea or a lake.[205]
  6. ^ 2,500km × 9,000km matches with an estimate for the area spanning at least between 50°N and 70°N and approximately from 30°E to 170°W. 4,000km matches with an estimate of about 35 degrees of latitude between the North Caucasus and the north of Novaya Zemlya.
  7. ^ Two examples where these approximative measures are exceeded: about 4,300 km (2,700 mi) along the 46°E meridian from the Caucasus (42.1°N) to Franz Josef Land (80.6°N);(calc.) about 9,600 km (6,000 mi) along latitude 54.5°N from Kamchatka's Shupinskiy peninsula (168.1°E) to Kaliningrad's coast (19.8°E). [Calculated as 40.030km × cos(54.5°) × (168.1-19.8) / 360)].
  8. ^ Over 7,900km from Kaliningrad's coast to an undisputed Kurile Island. More than from Russia's easternmost point to Prague, Varna (Bulgaria) or İnebolu in Turkey.
  9. ^ Russia, by land area, is larger than the continents of Australia, Antarctica,[208] and Europe; although it covers a large part of the latter itself.
  10. ^ Russia borders, clockwise, to its southwest: the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, to its west: the Baltic Sea, to its north: the Barents Sea (White Sea, Pechora Sea), the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, and the East Siberian Sea, to its northeast: the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and to its southeast: the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.
  11. ^ The latter includes the Republic of Crimea, and the federal city of Sevastopol, which are disputed between Russia and Ukraine, since the internationally unrecognised annexation of Crimea in 2014.[2]
  12. ^ The claim has been disputed by many economic experts and official figures.[298][299][300]

References

  1. ^ Taylor & Francis (2020). "Republic of Crimea". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2020. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-003-00706-7. Note: The territories of the Crimean peninsula, comprising Sevastopol City and the Republic of Crimea, remained internationally recognised as constituting part of Ukraine, following their annexation by Russia in March 2014.
  2. ^ a b Pifer, Steven (17 March 2020). "Crimea: Six years after illegal annexation". Brookings Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  3. ^ a b Chevalier, Joan F. (2006). "Russian as the National Language: An Overview of Language Planning in the Russian Federation". Russian Language Journal. American Councils for International Education ACTR / ACCELS. 56: 25–36. JSTOR 43669126.
  4. ^ "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Russia - The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  7. ^ "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Information about availability and distribution of land in the Russian Federation as of 1 January 2017 (by federal subjects of Russia)" Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 January 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации). Rosreestr.
  9. ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  10. ^ a b c Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2021 г. и в среднем за 2020 г. [Estimated population as of 1 January 2021 and on the average for 2020] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  12. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d e Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Early History". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  15. ^ Kuchkin, V. A. (2014). Русская земля [Russian land]. In Melnikova, E. A.; Petrukhina, V. Ya. (eds.). Древняя Русь в средневековом мире [Old Russia in the medieval world] (in Russian). Moscow: Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Ladomir. pp. 697–698.
  16. ^ Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. Brill Publishers. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-90-04-13874-2.
  17. ^ Nazarenko, Aleksandr Vasilevich (2001). "1. Имя "Русь" в древнейшей западноевропейской языковой традиции (XI-XII века)" [The name Rus' in the old tradition of Western European language (XI-XII centuries)]. Древняя Русь на международных путях: междисциплинарные очерки культурных, торговых, политических связей IX-XII веков [Old Rus' on international routes: Interdisciplinary Essays on cultural, trade, and political ties in the 9th-12th centuries] (in Russian). Languages of the Rus' culture. pp. 40, 42–45, 49–50. ISBN 978-5-7859-0085-1. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
  18. ^ Milner-Gulland, R. R. (1997). The Russians: The People of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-631-21849-4.
  19. ^ "Definition of Russian". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  20. ^ Merridale, Catherine (2003). "Redesigning History in Contemporary Russia". Journal of Contemporary History. 38 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1177/0022009403038001961. JSTOR 3180694. S2CID 143597960.
  21. ^ Chepalyga, A.L.; Amirkhanov, Kh.A.; Trubikhin, V.M.; Sadchikova, T.A.; Pirogov, A.N.; Taimazov, A.I. (2011). "Geoarchaeology of the earliest paleolithic sites (Oldowan) in the North Caucasus and the East Europe". Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. Early Paleolithic cultural layers with tools of oldowan type was discovered in East Caucasus (Dagestan, Russia) by Kh. Amirkhanov (2006) [...]
  22. ^ Douka, K. (2019). "Age estimates for hominin fossils and the onset of the Upper Palaeolithic at Denisova Cave". Nature. 565 (7741): 640–644. Bibcode:2019Natur.565..640D. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0870-z. PMID 30700871. S2CID 59525455.
  23. ^ Warren, Matthew (22 August 2018). "Mum's a Neanderthal, Dad's a Denisovan: First discovery of an ancient-human hybrid". Nature. 560 (7719): 417–418. Bibcode:2018Natur.560..417W. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-06004-0. PMID 30135540.
  24. ^ Igor V. Ovchinnikov; Anders Götherström; Galina P. Romanova; Vitaliy M. Kharitonov; Kerstin Lidén; William Goodwin (30 March 2000). "Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus". Nature. 404 (6777): 490–493. Bibcode:2000Natur.404..490O. doi:10.1038/35006625. PMID 10761915. S2CID 3101375.
  25. ^ Qiaomei Fu, Heng Li, Priya Moorjani, Flora Jay, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Aleksei A. Bondarev, Philip L. F. Johnson, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Kay Prüfer, Cesare de Filippo, Matthias Meyer, Nicolas Zwyns, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keates, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Dmitry I. Razhev, Michael P. Richards, Nikolai V. Peristov, Michael Lachmann, Katerina Douka, Thomas F. G. Higham, Montgomery Slatkin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David Reich, Janet Kelso, T. Bence Viola & Svante Pääbo (23 October 2014). "Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia". Nature. 514 (7523): 445–449. Bibcode:2014Natur.514..445F. doi:10.1038/nature13810. hdl:10550/42071. PMC 4753769. PMID 25341783.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Dinnis, Rob; Bessudnov, Alexander; Reynolds, Natasha; Devièse, Thibaut; Pate, Abi; Sablin, Mikhail; Sinitsyn, Andrei; Higham, Thomas (2019). "New data for the Early Upper Paleolithic of Kostenki (Russia)". Journal of Human Evolution. 127: 21–40. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.11.012. PMID 30777356.
  27. ^ Sikora, Martin; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Sousa, Vitor C; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Ko, Amy; Rasmussen, Simon; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Nigst, Philip R; Bosch, Marjolein D; Renaud, Gabriel; Allentoft, Morten E; Margaryan, Ashot; Vasilyev, Sergey V; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta V; Borutskaya, Svetlana B; Deviese, Thibaut; Comeskey, Dan; Higham, Tom; Manica, Andrea; Foley, Robert; Meltzer, David J; Nielsen, Rasmus; Excoffier, Laurent; Mirazon Lahr, Marta; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske (2017). "Ancient genomes show social and reproductive behavior of early Upper Paleolithic foragers". Science. 358 (6363): 659–662. doi:10.1126/science.aao1807. PMID 28982795.
  28. ^ Pavlov, Pavel; John Inge Svendsen; Svein Indrelid (6 September 2001). "Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago". Nature. 413 (6851): 64–67. doi:10.1038/35092552. PMID 11544525.
  29. ^ Anthony, David W.; Ringe, Don (1 January 2015). "The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Linguistics. 1 (1): 199–219. doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812. ISSN 2333-9683.
  30. ^ a b Belinskij, Andrej; Härke, Heinrich (1999). "The 'Princess' of Ipatovo". Archeology. 52 (2). Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  31. ^ a b Drews, Robert (2004). Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-415-32624-7.
  32. ^ Koryakova, L. "Sintashta-Arkaim Culture". The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN). Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  33. ^ "1998 NOVA documentary: "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden"". Transcript. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  34. ^ Sinor, Denis (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9.
  35. ^ Jacobson, E. (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. Brill. p. 38. ISBN 978-90-04-09856-5.
  36. ^ Tsetskhladze, G. R. (1998). The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology. F. Steiner. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-515-07302-8.
  37. ^ Turchin, P. (2003). Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall. Princeton University Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-691-11669-3.
  38. ^ a b c d Christian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 286–288. ISBN 978-0-631-20814-3.
  39. ^ Zhernakova, Daria V.; Brukhin, Vladimir; Malov, Sergey; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Koepfli, Klaus Peter; Zhuk, Anna; Dobrynin, Pavel; Kliver, Sergei; Cherkasov, Nikolay; Tamazian, Tamazian; Rotkevich, Mikhail; Krasheninnikova, Ksenia. "Genome-wide sequence analyses of ethnic populations across Russia". Genomics. Elsevier. 112 (1): 442–458. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.03.007. The ancestors of ethnic Russians were among the Slavic tribes that separated from the early Indo-European Group, which included ancestors of modern Slavic, Germanic and Baltic speakers, who appeared in the northeastern part of Europe ca. 1500 years ago.
  40. ^ Paszkiewicz, H.K. (1963). The Making of the Russian Nation. Darton, Longman & Todd. p. 262.
  41. ^ McKitterick, R. (15 June 1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  42. ^ Mongaĭt, A.L. (1959). Archeology in the U.S.S.R. Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 335.
  43. ^ Obolensky, D. (1994). Byzantium and the Slavs. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
  44. ^ Thompson, J.W.; Johnson, E.N. (1937). An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500. W. W. Norton & Co. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-415-34699-3.
  45. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9..
  46. ^ Obolensky, Dimitri (1971). Byzantium & the Slavs. pp. 75–108. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
  47. ^ Logan, Donald F. (1992). The Vikings in History 2nd Edition. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-08396-6.
  48. ^ a b c Vernadsky, George (1973). Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01647-5.
  49. ^ Klyuchevsky, V. (1987). The course of the Russian history. 1. Myslʹ. ISBN 978-5-244-00072-6.
  50. ^ Halperin, Charles J. (1987). Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5.
  51. ^ "Battle of the Neva". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  52. ^ Ostrowski, Donald (2006). "Alexander Nevskii's "Battle on the Ice": The Creation of a Legend". Russian History. 33 (2/4): 289–312. doi:10.1163/187633106X00186. JSTOR 24664446.
  53. ^ a b c d e Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Muscovy". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  54. ^ Davies, Brian L. (2014). Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500–1700 (PDF). Routledge. p. 4.
  55. ^ Halperin, Charles J. (September 1999). "Novgorod and the "Novgorodian Land"". Cahiers du Monde russe. EHESS. 40 (3): 345–363. JSTOR 20171136.
  56. ^ Patrick Byrne, Joseph (2004). The Black Death. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32492-5.
  57. ^ Galeotti, Mark (2019). Kulikovo 1380: The battle that made Russia. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-4728-3121-7.
  58. ^ a b Hamlin, Cyrus (December 1886). "The Dream of Russia". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  59. ^ a b Frost, Robert I. (2000). The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 - 1721. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-58206-429-4.
  60. ^ Kizilov, Mikhail (2007). "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim and Jewish Sources". Journal of Early Modern History. Brill. 11 (1–2): 1. ISSN 1570-0658.
  61. ^ Filjushkin, Alexander (2008). Ivan the Terrible: A Military History. ISBN 978-1-848-32504-3.
  62. ^ Williams, Brian Glyn (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013.
  63. ^ Dunning, Chester. "Crisis, Conjuncture, and the Causes of the Time of Troubles". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. 19: 97–119. JSTOR 41036998.
  64. ^ Wójcik, Zbigniew (1982). "Russian Endeavors for the Polish Crown in the Seventeenth Century". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 41 (1): 59–72. doi:10.2307/2496635. JSTOR 2496635. ...the commonwealth gained a military advantage over its eastern neighbor. This was especially evident during the Time of Troubles (smutnoe vremia), when the Polish army occupied Moscow (1610-1612)...
  65. ^ Bogolitsyna, Anna; Pichler, Bernhard; Vendl, Alfred; Mikhailov, Alexander; Sizov, Boris (2009). "Investigation of the Brass Monument to Minin and Pozharsky, Red Square, Moscow". Studies in Conservation. Taylor & Francis. 54 (1): 12–22. JSTOR 27867061. ...to Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and merchant Kuzma Minin, who gathered the all-Russian volunteer army which succeeded in expelling the Polish troops from the Kremlin, thus putting an end to the Time of Troubles in 1612.
  66. ^ Orchard, G. Edward (July 1989). "The Election of Michael Romanov". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 67 (3): 378–402. JSTOR 4210028.
  67. ^ a b Cresson, William (2017). History of the Cossacks. ISBN 978-1-544-97818-5.
  68. ^ Kohut, Zenon E. (2003). "The Khmelnytsky Uprising, the Image of Jews, and the Shaping of Ukrainian Historical Memory". Jewish History. 17 (2): 141–63. doi:10.1023/A:1022300121820. JSTOR 20101495. S2CID 159708538.
  69. ^ Khodarkovsky, Michael (1994). "The Stepan Razin Uprising: Was It a "Peasant War"?". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 42 (1): 1–19. JSTOR 41049201.
  70. ^ Wood, Alan (2011). Russia's Frozen Frontier: A History of Siberia and the Russian Far East 1581 - 1991. ISBN 978-0-340-97124-6.
  71. ^ Stein, Stephen K. (2017). The Sea in World History: Exploration, Travel, and Trade. 1. ABC-Clio. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-4408-4786-8.
  72. ^ Oliver, James A. (2006). The Bering Strait Crossing: A 21st Century Frontier between East and West. Information Architects. pp. 36–37. ISBN 978-0-9546995-8-1.
  73. ^ a b Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Early Imperial Russia". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  74. ^ Kohn, Hans (January 1960). "Germany and Russia". Current History. University of California Press. 38 (221): 1–5. JSTOR 45310370. In the Seven Years War (1756-1763) the Russians originally fought as Austria's allies against Prussia. They in-vaded eastern Prussia and in October, 1760, even entered Berlin.
  75. ^ Raeff, Marc (June 1970). "The Domestic Policies of Peter III and his Overthrow". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 75 (5): 1289–1310. doi:10.2307/1844479. JSTOR 1844479. The reign, which lasted only from Christmas Day 1761 to June 28, 1762 is usually dismissed in a few sentences, with notice taken only of the end of compulsory service for the nobility and of Peter's fawning admiration of Frederick II and all things Prussian, a mania that robbed Russia of the fruits of her spectacular victories in the Seven Years' War.
  76. ^ Perkins, James Breck (October 1896). "The Partition of Poland". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 2 (1): 76–92. doi:10.2307/1833615. JSTOR 1833615. Russia was to have the territory beyond the Dnieper and the Düna...Russia recieved in population and ter-ritory the larger portion...
  77. ^ Anderson, M.S. (December 1958). "The Great Powers and the Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 1783–4". The Slavonic and East European Review. Modern Humanities Research Association. 37 (88): 17–41. JSTOR 4205010.
  78. ^ Behrooz, Maziar. "Revisiting the Second Russo-Iranian War (1826–28): Causes and Perceptions". Iranian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 46 (3): 359–381. JSTOR 24482847.
  79. ^ Ragsdale, Hugh (1992). "Russia, Prussia, and Europe in the Policy of Paul I". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 31 (1): 81–118. JSTOR 41046596.
  80. ^ "Finland". The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 4 (3): 350–364. August 1910. doi:10.2307/1945868. JSTOR 1945868. Meanwhile since the winter of 1808-1809 the Russians con-sidered themselves the conquerors of Finland.
  81. ^ King, Charles (July 1993). "Moldova and the New Bessarabian Questions". The World Today. Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House). 49 (7): 135–139. JSTOR 40396520. But as a result of the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-12, the Tsarist Empire annexed the Prut-Dnestr interfluve, the eastern part of the Principality of Moldova, and gave it the name 'Bessarabia'.
  82. ^ "Exploration and Settlement on the Alaskan Coast". PBS. Retrieved 13 January 2022. The Russians, who'd been there first, essentially won the race to claim Alaska.
  83. ^ Chew, Allen F. (2009). An Atlas of Russian History: Eleven Centuries of Changing Borders. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01445-7.
  84. ^ McCartan, E.F. (1963). "The Long Voyages-Early Russian Circumnavigation". The Russian Review. 22 (1): 30–37. doi:10.2307/126593. JSTOR 126593.
  85. ^ Blakemore, Erin (27 January 2020). "Who really discovered Antarctica? Depends who you ask". National Geographic. Retrieved 12 January 2022. ...Though von Bellingshausen was technically the first to see the unknown continent...
  86. ^ Kroll, Mark J.; Toombs, Leslie A.; Wright, Peter (February 2000). "Napoleon's Tragic March Home from Moscow: Lessons in Hubris". The Academy of Management Executive. Academy of Management. 14 (1): 117–128. JSTOR 4165613.
  87. ^ Ghervas, Stella (2015). "The Long Shadow of the Congress of Vienna". Journal of Modern European History. SAGE Publishers. 13 (4): 458–463. JSTOR 26266203.
  88. ^ Grey, Ian (9 September 1973). "The Decembrists: Russia's First Revolutionaries". 23 (9). History Today. Retrieved 23 November 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  89. ^ Vincent, J.R. Vincent (1981). "The Parliamentary Dimension of the Crimean War". Royal Historical Society. Cambridge University Press. 31: 37–49. doi:10.2307/3679044. JSTOR 3679044.
  90. ^ Zenkovsky, Serge A. (October 1961). "The Emancipation of the Serfs in Retrospect". The Russian Review. Wiley. 20 (4): 280–293. doi:10.2307/126692. JSTOR 126692.
  91. ^ Gunter, Michael M. (March 2013). "War and Diplomacy: The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 and the Treaty of Berlin". Journal of World History. University of Hawaiʻi Press. 24 (1): 231–233. doi:10.1353/jwh.2013.0031. ISSN 1527-8050. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, followed by the European-dictated Treaty of Berlin (1878), led to the Ottoman Empire losing practically all of its Balkans territory and parts of eastern Anatolia...
  92. ^ Fromkin, David (1980). The Great Game in Asia. 58. Foreign Affairs. pp. 936–951. doi:10.2307/20040512. JSTOR 20040512.
  93. ^ Frank, Goodwin (1995). "Review: [Untitled]". The Slavic and East European Journal. 39 (4): 641–43. doi:10.2307/309128. JSTOR 309128.
  94. ^ Taranovski, Theodore (1984). "Alexander III and his Bureaucracy: The Limitations on Autocratic Power". Canadian Slavonic Papers. Taylor & Francis. 26 (2/3): 207–219. JSTOR 40868293.
  95. ^ Esthus, Raymond A. (October 1981). "Nicholas II and the Russo-Japanese War". The Russian Review. Wiley. 40 (4): 396–411. doi:10.2307/129919. JSTOR 129919.
  96. ^ Askew, William C. (January 1952). "An American View of Bloody Sunday". The Russian Review. Wiley. 11 (1): 35–43. doi:10.2307/125922. JSTOR 125922.
  97. ^ Doctorow, Gilbert S. "The Fundamental State Laws of 23 April 1906". The Russian Review. Wiley. 35 (1): 33–52. doi:10.2307/127655. JSTOR 127655.
  98. ^ Williamson, Jr., Samuel R. "The Origins of World War I". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. The MIT Press. 18 (4): 795–818. doi:10.2307/204825. JSTOR 204825.
  99. ^ "Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, 1902-1914". The American Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 29 (3): 449–473. April 1924. doi:10.2307/1836520. JSTOR 1836520.
  100. ^ Schindler, John (2003). "Steamrollered in Galicia: The Austro-Hungarian Army and the Brusilov Offensive, 1916". War in History. 10 (1): 27–59. doi:10.1191/0968344503wh260oa. JSTOR 26061940. S2CID 143618581.
  101. ^ a b c Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Revolutions and Civil War". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  102. ^ Walsh, Edmund (March 1928). "The Last Days of the Romanovs". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  103. ^ Mosse, W. E. (April 1964). "Interlude: The Russian Provisional Government 1917". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 15 (4): 408–419. JSTOR 149631.
  104. ^ "Bolsheviks revolt in Russia". History. A&E Networks. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2022. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in the Russian capital of Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) and within two days had formed a new government with Lenin as its head. Bolshevik Russia, later renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was the world's first Marxist state.
  105. ^ Figes, Orlando (November 1990). "The Red Army and Mass Mobilization during the Russian Civil War 1918-1920". Past & Present. Oxford University Press (190): 168–211. JSTOR 650938.
  106. ^ "Treaties of Brest-Litovsk". History. A&E Networks. 9 November 2009. Retrieved 24 November 2021. The total losses constituted some 1 million square miles of Russia’s former territory; a third of its population or around 55 million people; a majority of its coal, oil and iron stores; and much of its industry.
  107. ^ Figes, Orlando (25 October 2017). "From Tsar to U.S.S.R.: Russia's Chaotic Year of Revolution". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 November 2021. The new Soviet Republic lost 34 percent of her population, 32 percent of her agricultural land, 54 percent of her industrial enterprises, and 89 percent of her coal mines.
  108. ^ Carley, Michael Jabara (November 1989). "Allied Intervention and the Russian Civil War, 1917-1922". The International History Review. 11 (4): 689–700. doi:10.1080/07075332.1989.9640530. JSTOR 40106089.
  109. ^ Blakemore, Erin (2 September 2020). "How the Red Terror set a macabre course for the Soviet Union". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 June 2021. This intensified a burgeoning civil war between the Bolsheviks, called the Reds, and a broad opposition movement known as the Whites, which included elites, members of the military, and people who either wanted a return to monarchy or democracy.
  110. ^ "Russian Civil War - Casualties and consequences of the war". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 January 2022. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties.
  111. ^ Schaufuss, Tatiana (May 1939). "The White Russian Refugees". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. SAGE Publishing. 203: 45–54. doi:10.1177/000271623920300106. JSTOR 1021884. S2CID 143704019.
  112. ^ Haller, Francis (8 December 2003). "Famine in Russia: the hidden horrors of 1921". Le Temps. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  113. ^ "USSR established". History. A&E Networks. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2022. In the decades after it was established, the Russian-dominated Soviet Union grew into one of the world’s most powerful and influential states and eventually encompassed 15 republics—Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belorussia, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
  114. ^ Glassman, Leo M. (April 1931). "Stalin's Rise to Power". Current History. University of California Press. 34 (1): 73–77. JSTOR 45336496.
  115. ^ Getty, J Arch. (January 1986). "Trotsky in Exile: The Founding of the Fourth International". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (1): 24–35. JSTOR 151989.
  116. ^ Bensley, Michael (2014). "Socialism in One Country: A Study of Pragmatism and Ideology in the Soviet 1920s" (PDF). University of Kent. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  117. ^ Kuromiya, Hirosaki. "Accounting for the Great Terror". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 53 (1): 86–101. JSTOR 41051345.
  118. ^ Rosefielde, Steven (January 1981). "An Assessment of the Sources and Uses of Gulag Forced Labour 1929-56". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 33 (1): 51–87. JSTOR 151474.
  119. ^ Kreindler, Isabelle (July 1986). "The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (3): 387–405. JSTOR 151700.
  120. ^ Wolowyna, Oleh (October 2020). "A Demographic Framework for the 1932–1934 Famine in the Soviet Union". Journal of Genocide Research. 23 (4): 501–526. doi:10.1080/14623528.2020.1834741. S2CID 226316468.
  121. ^ Rosefielde, Steven. "Excess Deaths and Industrialization: A Realist Theory of Stalinist Economic Development in the 1930s". Journal of Contemporary History. SAGE Publishing. 23 (2): 277–289. JSTOR 260849.
  122. ^ Kornat, Marek (December 2009). "Choosing Not to Choose in 1939: Poland's Assessment of the Nazi-Soviet Pact". The International History Review. Taylor & Francis. 31 (4): 771–797. JSTOR 40647041.
  123. ^ Roberts, Geoffrey (1992). "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 44 (1): 57–78. JSTOR 152247.
  124. ^ Spring, D. W. (April 1986). "The Soviet Decision for War against Finland, 30 November 1939". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 38 (2): 207–226. JSTOR 152247.
  125. ^ Saburova, Irina (January 1955). "The Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States". The Russian Review. Wiley. 14 (1): 36–49. doi:10.2307/126075. JSTOR 126075.
  126. ^ King, Charles (1999). The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-817-99791-5.
  127. ^ Chapple, Amos (22 June 2021). "Operation Barbarossa: The Nazi Invasion Of The U.S.S.R. 80 Years Ago". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2 July 2021. Nazi Germany led the largest-ever ground invasion force in an attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 that unleashed a brutal conflict that cost the lives of millions of people.
  128. ^ Taylor, Alan (18 September 2011). "World War II: The Eastern Front". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  129. ^ a b D. Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. New York City: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.
  130. ^ Chapoutot, Johann (2018). The Law of Blood: Thinking and Acting as a Nazi. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-66043-4.
  131. ^ Assmann, Kurt (January 1950). "The Battle for Moscow, Turning Point of the War". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 28 (2): 309–326. doi:10.2307/20030251. JSTOR 20030251.
  132. ^ Clairmont, Frederic F. (July 2003). "Stalingrad: Hitler's Nemesis". Economic and Political Weekly. 38 (27): 2819–2823. JSTOR 4413752.
  133. ^ Mulligan, Timothy P. (April 1987). "Spies, Ciphers and 'Zitadelle': Intelligence and the Battle of Kursk, 1943". Journal of Contemporary History. SAGE Publishing. 22 (2): 235–260. JSTOR 260932.
  134. ^ Krypton, Constantin (January 1955). "The Siege of Leningrad". The Russian Review. Wiley. 13 (4): 255–265. doi:10.2307/125859. JSTOR 125859.
  135. ^ Kagan, Neil; Hyslop, Stephen (7 May 2020). "The Soviet victory in the Battle of Berlin finished Nazi Germany". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  136. ^ Goldman, Stuart D. (28 August 2012). "The Forgotten Soviet-Japanese War of 1939". The Diplomat. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  137. ^ "Russia's Monumental Tributes To The 'Great Patriotic War'". Radio Free Europe. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2021. It is known in Russia as the "Great Patriotic War" and there are a number of imposing monuments across the country to mark the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II...
  138. ^ Brinkley, Douglas (2003). The New York Times Living History: World War II, 1942–1945: The Allied Counteroffensive. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-7247-1.
  139. ^ Urquhart, Brian (16 July 1998). Looking for the Sheriff. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  140. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (8 May 2015). "Don't forget how the Soviet Union saved the world from Hitler". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 July 2021. The Red Army was "the main engine of Nazism’s destruction," writes British historian and journalist Max Hastings in "Inferno: The World at War, 1939-1945." The Soviet Union paid the harshest price: though the numbers are not exact, an estimated 26 million Soviet citizens died during World War II, including as many as 11 million soldiers. At the same time, the Germans suffered three-quarters of their wartime losses fighting the Red Army.
  141. ^ Cohen, Stephen F. (6 May 2015). "How America Misremembers Russia's Central Role in World War II". The Nation. Retrieved 15 December 2021. Emphasizing the magnitude of the loss, Cohen remarked, “At least 60 percent of every Soviet family lost a member of the nuclear family—mom, dad, daughter, son—in the war. It meant that millions of children grew up without ever knowing their fathers.
  142. ^ Harrison, Mark (14 April 2010). "The Soviet Union after 1945: Economic Recovery and Political Repression" (PDF). University of Warwick. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  143. ^ Reiman, Michael (2016). "The USSR as the New World Superpower". About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present. Peter Lang. pp. 169–176. ISBN 978-3-631-67136-8. JSTOR j.ctv2t4dn7.14.
  144. ^ "Potsdam Conference concludes". History. A&E Networks. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2022. The massive Soviet army already occupied much of Eastern Europe.
  145. ^ Bunce, Valerie (1985). "The Empire Strikes Back: The Evolution of the Eastern Bloc from a Soviet Asset to a Soviet Liability". International Organization. The MIT Press. 39 (1): 1–46. JSTOR 2706633.
  146. ^ Holloway, David (May 1981). "Entering the Nuclear Arms Race: The Soviet Decision to Build the Atomic Bomb, 1939-45". Social Studies of Science. SAGE Publishing. 11 (2): 159–197.
  147. ^ Wolfe, Thomas W. (May 1966). "The Warsaw Pact in Evolution". The World Today. Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House). 22 (5): 191–198. JSTOR 40393859.
  148. ^ Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2007). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
  149. ^ Jones, Polly (7 April 2006). The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: Negotiating Cultural and Social Change in the Khrushchev Era. Routledge. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1-134-28347-7.
  150. ^ Reid, Susan E. (1997). "Destalinization and Taste, 1953-1963". Journal of Design History. Oxford University Press. 10 (2): 177–201. JSTOR 1316131.
  151. ^ Fuelling, Cody. "To the Brink: Turkish and Cuban Missiles during the Height of the Cold War". International Social Science Review. University of North Georgia. 93 (1). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  152. ^ "USSR Launches Sputnik". National Geographic. Retrieved 15 January 2022. The launch of the first Sputnik signaled the opening salvo in another phase of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  153. ^ Dowling, Stephen (12 April 2021). "Yuri Gagarin: the spaceman who came in from the cold". BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2022. Yuri Gagarin had become the first human to conquer space.
  154. ^ Kontorovich, Vladimir (April 1988). "Lessons of the 1965 Soviet Economic Reform". Soviet Studies (Europe-Asia Studies). Taylor & Francis. 40 (2): 308–316. JSTOR 151112.
  155. ^ Westad, Odd Arne (February 1994). "Prelude to Invasion: The Soviet Union and the Afghan Communists, 1978-1979". The International History Review. Taylor & Francis. 16 (1): 49–69. JSTOR 40106851.
  156. ^ Daley, Tad (May 1989). "Afghanistan and Gorbachev's Global Foreign Policy". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 29 (5): 496–513. doi:10.2307/2644534. JSTOR 2644534.
  157. ^ Brownell, Richard (12 October 2018). "Reagan and Gorbachev's First Brush with Peace". Medium. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  158. ^ McForan, D. W. J. (1988). "Glasnost, Democracy, and Perestroika". International Social Science Review. Pi Gamma Mu. 63 (4): 165–174. JSTOR 41881835.
  159. ^ Beissinger, Mark R. (August 2009). "Nationalism and the Collapse of Soviet Communism" (PDF). Contemporary European History. Princeton University. pp. 331–347. JSTOR 40542830. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  160. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Vishny, Robert W. (1991). "Reversing the Soviet Economic Collapse". Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Brookings Institution. 1991 (2): 341–360. doi:10.2307/2534597. JSTOR 2534597.
  161. ^ Dahlburg, John-Thor; Marshall, Tyler (7 September 1991). "Independence for Baltic States: Freedom: Moscow formally recognizes Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, ending half a century of control. Soviets to begin talks soon on new relationships with the three nations". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  162. ^ Parks, Michael (19 March 1991). "Vote Backs Gorbachev but Not Convincingly : Soviet Union: His plan to preserve federal unity is supported--but so is Yeltsin's for a Russian presidency". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  163. ^ Remnick, David (14 June 1991). "YELTSIN ELECTED PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  164. ^ Gibson, James L. (September 1997). "Mass Opposition to the Soviet Putsch of August 1991: Collective Action, Rational Choice, and Democratic Values in the Former Soviet Union". 97 (3). American Political Science Association: 671–684. doi:10.2307/2952082. JSTOR 2952082. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  165. ^ Foltynova, Kristyna (1 October 2021). "The Undoing Of The U.S.S.R.: How It Happened". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 January 2022. ...in the dissolution of the U.S.S.R., which put 15 new countries on the map.
  166. ^ Shleifer, Andrei; Treisman, Daniel (2005). "A Normal Country: Russia After Communism" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. Harvard University. 19 (1): 151–174. doi:10.1257/0895330053147949. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  167. ^ Watson, Joey (2 January 2019). "The rise of Russia's oligarchs — and their bid for legitimacy". ABC News. Retrieved 28 May 2021. The Russian ultra-rich amassed their wealth during the economic and social turmoil following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the introduction of the market economy.
  168. ^ Johnson, Scott (12 March 2019). "Capital Flight From Russia Carries $750 Billion Price Tag". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  169. ^ Satter, David (2003). Darkness at Dawn. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10591-9.
  170. ^ "Who Was Who? The Key Players In Russia's Dramatic October 1993 Showdown". Radio Free Europe. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  171. ^ Lee, Carol E. (8 April 2010). "Obama, Medvedev sign START treaty". Politico. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  172. ^ Hockstader, Lee (12 December 1995). "CHECHEN WAR REVEALS WEAKNESSES IN YELTSIN, RUSSIA'S NEW DEMOCRACY". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  173. ^ Wesolowsky, Tony; Kotlyar, Yevgenia (13 June 2020). "After 25 Years, Budyonnovsk Hostage Crisis Seen As Horrific Harbinger Of Terror". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  174. ^ Anderson, Scott (30 March 2017). "None Dare Call It a Conspiracy". GQ. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  175. ^ Oetgen, Albert; Balmforth, Tom (23 October 2012). "The Dubrovka Theater Siege in Moscow, a Decade Later". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  176. ^ Phillips, Timothy (2007). Beslan: The Tragedy of School Number 1. Granta. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-86207-927-4.
  177. ^ "26 years on, Russia set to repay all Soviet Union's foreign debt". The Straits Times. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  178. ^ Lipton, David; Sachs, Jeffrey D.; Mau, Vladimir; Phelps, Edmund S. (1992). "Prospects for Russia's Economic Reforms" (PDF). Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 1992 (2): 213. doi:10.2307/2534584. ISSN 0007-2303. JSTOR 2534584.
  179. ^ Chiodo, Abbigail J.; Owyang, Michael T. (2002). "A Case Study of a Currency Crisis: The Russian Default of 1998" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 86 (6): 7–18.
  180. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (1 January 2000). "YELTSIN RESIGNS: THE OVERVIEW; Yeltsin Resigns, Naming Putin as Acting President To Run in March Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  181. ^ Tran, Mark (23 April 2007). "A bold buffoon". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  182. ^ Wines, Mark (27 March 2000). "ELECTION IN RUSSIA: THE OVERVIEW; Putin Wins Russia Vote in First Round, But His Majority Is Less Than Expected". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  183. ^ Crossette, Barbara (28 February 2002). "Russia Using Brutality to Suppress Chechens, Rights Group Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  184. ^ Mydans, Seth (15 March 2004). "As Expected, Putin Easily Wins a Second Term in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  185. ^ Ellyatt, Holly (11 October 2021). "5 charts show Russia's economic highs and lows under Putin". CNBC. Retrieved 19 January 2022. there’s no doubt that Russian President Vladimir Putin has been instrumental in keeping Russia firmly on the global geopolitical stage during his time in office.
  186. ^ Kotkin, Stephen (2015). "The Resistible Rise of Vladimir Putin: Russia's Nightmare Dressed Like a Daydream". Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. 94 (2): 140–153. JSTOR 24483492.
  187. ^ Harding, Luke (8 May 2008). "Putin ever present as Medvedev becomes president". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  188. ^ Lally, Kathy; Englund, Will (4 March 2012). "Putin wins election as Russian president; opponents claim widespread fraud". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  189. ^ "Putin and Medvedev in role swap". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  190. ^ Harding, Luke (15 January 2020). "Dmitry Medvedev: the rise and fall of the Robin to Putin's Batman". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  191. ^ "Ousted Ukrainian President Asked For Russian Troops, Envoy Says". NBC News. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  192. ^ Yekelchyk, Serhy (2020). Ukraine: What Everyone Needs to Know (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-19-753213-6. OCLC 1190722543.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  193. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  194. ^ "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea Region". United Nations. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  195. ^ Janjevic, Darko (4 May 2018). "Western sanctions on Russia: Lots of noise and little impact". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  196. ^ "Putin extends counter-sanctions until end of 2022 — decree". TASS. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021. The counter-sanctions were introduced in 2014
  197. ^ Petkova, Mariya (1 October 2020). "What has Russia gained from five years of fighting in Syria?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  198. ^ Hodge, Nathan; Fox, Kara; Dewan, Angela (19 March 2018). "Putin tightens grip on power with overwhelming Russian election win". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  199. ^ Russell, Martin (May 2020). "Constitutional change in Russia" (PDF). European Parliament. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  200. ^ Reevell, Patrick (16 January 2020). "Russian government resigns as Putin proposes constitutional changes". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  201. ^ "Who is Russia's new prime minister Mikhail Mishustin?". NBC News. 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  202. ^ "Putin strongly backed in controversial Russian reform vote". BBC. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  203. ^ Roth, Andrew (5 April 2021). "Vladimir Putin passes law that may keep him in office until 2036". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  204. ^ a b c d "Russia". National Geographic Kids. National Geographic. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  205. ^ "Is the Caspian a sea or a lake?". The Economist. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2021. Like many lakes, it does not feed into an ocean, but it is sea-like in its size and depth.
  206. ^ "Coastline - The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  207. ^ "Russia - Land". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 December 2021. ...Russia has a maximum east-west extent of some 5,600 miles (9,000 km) and a north-south width of 1,500 to 2,500 miles (2,500 to 4,000 km) ...
  208. ^ Taylor, Callum (2 April 2018). "Russia is huge, and that's about the size of it". Medium. Retrieved 6 July 2021. Russia takes up 17,098,250 square kilometres, roughly one-eighth of the world's total land mass. That's larger than the entire continent of Antarctica...
  209. ^ Clark, Stuart (28 July 2015). "Pluto: ten things we now know about the dwarf planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2021. Pluto's diameter is larger than expected at 2,370 kilometres across. This is about two-thirds the size of Earth's moon, giving Pluto a surface area comparable to Russia.
  210. ^ "Klyuchevskoy". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  211. ^ a b Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Topography and Drainage". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  212. ^ a b "The Ural Mountains". NASA Earth Observatory. NASA. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  213. ^ Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Global Position and Boundaries". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  214. ^ a b "Russia". The Arctic Institute – Center for Circumpolar Security Studies. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  215. ^ Aziz, Ziryan (28 February 2020). "Island hopping in Russia: Sakhalin, Kuril Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula". Euronews. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  216. ^ "Diomede Islands – Russia". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  217. ^ "Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  218. ^ "Total renewable water resources". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  219. ^ Hartley, Janet M. (2020). The Volga: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-25604-8.
  220. ^ "Russia's Largest Rivers From the Amur to the Volga". The Moscow Times. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  221. ^ a b Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  222. ^ a b c d e Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Climate". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  223. ^ Drozdov, V. A.; Glezer, O. B.; Nefedova, T. G.; Shabdurasulov, I. V. (1992). "Ecological and Geographical Characteristics of the Coastal Zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal. 27 (2): 169. doi:10.1007/BF00717701. S2CID 128960702.
  224. ^ a b c d "Russian Federation - Main Details". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  225. ^ "Biodiversity in Russia". REC. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  226. ^ Walsh, Nick Paton (19 September 2003). "It's Europe's lungs and home to many rare species. But to Russia it's £100bn of wood". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 December 2007. Forest makes up 70% of Russia's territory and spans 12 time zones. It is known as Europe's lungs and is second only to the Amazon in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs, and is home to many rare species.
  227. ^ "Species richness of Russia". REC. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  228. ^ "Russian Federation". UNESCO. June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  229. ^ "Look Inside Russia's Wildest Nature Reserves—Now Turning 100". National Geographic. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2021. Russia's tumultuous history includes one legacy little known outside its borders—a vast system of protected lands that conservationists have fought for decades to study and protect. Some are so remote and guarded that few of Russia's own citizens have ever stepped foot in them.
  230. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  231. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 80, § 1). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  232. ^ DeRouen, Karl R.; Heo, Uk (2005). Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies. ABC-CLIO. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-85109-781-4.
  233. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 81, § 3). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  234. ^ Reuter, Ora John (March 2010). "The Politics of Dominant Party Formation: United Russia and Russia's Governors". Europe-Asia Studies. Taylor & Francis. 62 (2): 293–327. JSTOR 27808691.
  235. ^ "Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  236. ^ KARTASHKIN, V.A.; ABASHIDZE, A.KH. (2004). "Autonomy in the Russian Federation: Theory and Practice". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. Brill. 10 (3): 203–220. JSTOR 24675138.
  237. ^ Orttung, Robert; Lussier, Danielle; Paetskaya, Anna (2000). The Republics and Regions of the Russian Federation: A Guide to Politics, Policies, and Leaders. New York City: EastWest Institute. pp. 523–524. ISBN 978-0-7656-0559-7.
  238. ^ Gessen, Masha (2016). Where the Jews Aren't: The Sad and Absurd Story of Birobidzhan, Russia's Jewish Autonomous Region. Schocken. ISBN 978-0-8052-4246-1.
  239. ^ Petrov, Nikolai (March 2002). "Seven Faces of Putin's Russia: Federal Districts as the New Level of State—Territorial Composition". Security Dialogue. SAGE Publishing. 33 (1): 73–91. doi:10.1177/0967010602033001006. JSTOR 26298005. S2CID 153455573.
  240. ^ "Putin integrates Crimea into Russia's southern federal district". TASS. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  241. ^ Russell, Martin (October 2015). "Russia's constitutional structure" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. European Parliament. doi:10.2861/664907. ISBN 978-92-823-8022-2. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  242. ^ "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  243. ^ Hancock, Kathleen J. (April 2006). "The Semi-Sovereign State: Belarus and the Russian Neo-Empire". Foreign Policy Analysis. Oxford University Press. 2 (2): 117–136. JSTOR 24907272. Belarusian President Aleksandyr Lukashenko has placed his state firmly in a Rus-sian neo-empire.
  244. ^ Cohen, Lenard J. (1994). "Russia and the Balkans: Pan-Slavism, Partnership and Power". International Journal. SAGE Publishing. 49 (4): 814–845. doi:10.2307/40202977. JSTOR 40202977.
  245. ^ Tamkin, Emily (8 July 2020). "Why India and Russia Are Going to Stay Friends". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 February 2021. The India-Russia relationship did not begin in 1971. Moscow and Delhi had been strengthening ties, with some interruptions and hiccups, over the course of the 1950s and 1960s.
  246. ^ Nation, R Craig. (2015). "Russia and the Caucasus". 14 (2). Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes: 1–12. JSTOR 26326394. Russian influence in the South Caucasus region has a long history. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  247. ^ Swanström, Niklas (2012). "Central Asia and Russian Relations: Breaking Out of the Russian Orbit?". Brown Journal of World Affairs. 19 (1): 101–113. JSTOR 24590931. The Central Asian states have been dependent on Russia since they gained independence in 1991, not just in economic and energy terms, but also militarily and politically.
  248. ^ Lukin, Alexander (2 April 2018). China and Russia: The New Rapprochement. Polity. ISBN 978-1-509-52171-5. With many predicting the end of US hegemony, Russia and China's growing cooperation in a number of key strategic areas looks set to have a major impact on global power dynamics.
  249. ^ Baev, Pavel (May 2021). "Russia and Turkey: Strategic Partners and Rivals" (PDF) (35). Ifri. Retrieved 6 January 2022. The impression of a solid economic foundation under the construct of the Russian-Turkish "strategic partnership" is often taken for a fact in strategic assessments, but it can hardly withstand closer examination. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  250. ^ Tarock, Adam (June 1997). "Iran and Russia in 'Strategic Alliance'". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 18 (2): 207–223. JSTOR 3993220. In this environment, Russia and Iran have moved towards a much closer relationship than any time since the Iranian Revolution of 1979, based on pragmatic and strategic considerations.
  251. ^ Rumer, Eugene; Sokolsky, Richard; Stronski, Paul (29 March 2021). "Russia in the Arctic—A Critical Examination". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 6 January 2022. Russia’s Arctic ambitions have attracted increasing attention in the West over the past decade as climate change opens up new opportunities in the region for navigation and exploration of its riches.
  252. ^ Hunt, Luke (15 October 2021). "Russia Tries to Boost Asia Ties to Counter Indo-Pacific Alliances". Voice of America. Retrieved 6 January 2022. Russia is attempting to expand its influence in Southeast Asia through meetings and plans with Association of Southeast Asian Nations members...
  253. ^ "Russia in Africa: What's behind Moscow's push into the continent?". BBC. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2022. It's clear Moscow sees its presence in Africa in very broad terms, building on ties from Soviet times.
  254. ^ Cerulli, Rossella (1 September 2019). "Russian Influence in the Middle East: Economics, Energy, and Soft Power". American Security Project: 1–21. JSTOR resrep19825. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  255. ^ Ramani, Dr Samuel (19 August 2021). "Russia Returns to Latin America". Royal United Services Institute. Retrieved 6 January 2022. Russia has extended its aversion to extra-legal regime changes in Latin America to rhetorical and material support, which bolsters its image as a crisis-proof partner for authoritarian and anti-Western governments.
  256. ^ Bildt, Carl (13 April 2021). "Opinion: The U.S. and Europe must be ready to stand up to any Russian aggression in Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  257. ^ Ryan Bauer and Peter A. Wilson (17 August 2020). "Russia's Su-57 Heavy Fighter Bomber: Is It Really a Fifth-Generation Aircraft?". RAND Corporation. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  258. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (25 February 2021). The Military Balance 2021. London: Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-85743-988-5.
  259. ^ Nichol, Jim (24 August 2011). "Russian Military Reform and Defense Policy" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. Retrieved 22 December 2021. There reportedly are about 20 million former military personnel in reserve, 10% of whom have seen active service within the last five years.
  260. ^ "2021 Military Strength Ranking". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  261. ^ "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance". Arms Control Association. August 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  262. ^ Noot, Jurrien; Polmar, Norman (1991). Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies, 1718-1990. United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-570-4.
  263. ^ Paul, T. V.; Wirtz, James J.; Fortmann, Michael (2004). Balance of power: theory and practice in the 21st century. Stanford University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-8047-5017-2.
  264. ^ "Tank Strength by Country (2021)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  265. ^ "Aircraft Strength by Country (2021)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  266. ^ "Navy Fleet Strengths (2021)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  267. ^ Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (26 April 2021). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2020" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  268. ^ Bowen, Andrew S. (14 October 2021). "Russian Arms Sales and Defense Industry". Congressional Research Service. Library of Congress. Retrieved 20 December 2021. Russia is the world’s second-largest arms exporter, behind the United States. Russia exports arms to over 45 countries and has accounted for around 20% of global arms sales since 2016.
  269. ^ Romo, Vanessa (22 April 2021). "At Least 1,700 Protesters In Russia Arrested After Nationwide Anti-Putin Rallies". NPR. Retrieved 25 December 2021. More than 1,700 protesters were arrested in Russia on Wednesday as tens of thousands of Alexei Navalny supporters marched in demonstrations across the country.
  270. ^ "Russian Federation". Amnesty International. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  271. ^ "Russia". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 20 November 2021. Today, Russia is more repressive than it has ever been in the post-Soviet era.
  272. ^ Barber, Lionel; Foy, Henry; Barker, Alex (28 June 2019). "Vladimir Putin says liberalism has 'become obsolete'". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  273. ^ "Russia: Freedom in the World 2021". Freedom House. Retrieved 20 November 2021. Power in Russia’s authoritarian political system is concentrated in the hands of President Vladimir Putin. With loyalist security forces, a subservient judiciary, a controlled media environment, and a legislature consisting of a ruling party and pliable opposition factions, the Kremlin is able to manipulate elections and suppress genuine dissent.
  274. ^ "Global democracy has another bad year". The Economist. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  275. ^ "Russia". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 9 December 2020. With draconian laws, website-blocking, Internet cuts and leading news outlets reined in or throttled out of existence, the pressure on independent media has grown steadily since the big anti-government protests in 2011 and 2012.
  276. ^ Simmons, Ann M. (18 September 2021). "In Russia's Election, Putin's Opponents Are Seeing Double". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  277. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (10 June 2021). "In Shadow of Navalny Case, What's Left of the Russian Opposition?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  278. ^ Seddon, Max (13 February 2021). "Russian crackdown brings pro-Navalny protests to halt". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  279. ^ Goncharenko, Roman (21 November 2017). "NGOs in Russia: Battered, but unbowed". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  280. ^ Yaffa, Joshua (7 September 2021). "The Victims of Putin's Crackdown On The Press". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  281. ^ "Russia: Growing Internet Isolation, Control, Censorship". Human Rights Watch. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2021. Russia has significantly expanded laws and regulations tightening control over internet infrastructure, online content, and the privacy of communications, Human Rights Watch said today.
  282. ^ Reevell, Patrick (18 July 2021). "Russia's mysterious campaign against Jehovah's Witnesses". ABC News. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  283. ^ "Corruptions Perceptions Index 2020". Transparency International. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  284. ^ "New Reports Highlight Russia's Deep-Seated Culture of Corruption". Voice of America. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  285. ^ Alferova, Ekaterina (26 October 2020). В России предложили создать должность омбудсмена по борьбе с коррупцией [Russia proposed to create the post of Ombudsman for the fight against corruption]. Izvestia Известия (in Russian). Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  286. ^ "Russia Corruption Report". GAN Integrity. June 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020. Corruption significantly impedes businesses operating or planning to invest in Russia.
  287. ^ Suhara, Manabu. "Corruption in Russia: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). Slavic-Eurasian Research Center. Retrieved 4 December 2015. There seems to be general agreement among specialists that corruption is particularly rampant in post-communist Russia.
  288. ^ Gerber, Theodore P.; Mendelson, Sarah E. (March 2008). "Public Experiences of Police Violence and Corruption in Contemporary Russia: A Case of Predatory Policing?". Law & Society Review. Wiley. 42 (1): 1–44. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5893.2008.00333.x. JSTOR 29734103.
  289. ^ Klara Sabirianova Peter; Zelenska, Tetyana (2010). "Corruption in Russian Health Care: The Determinants and Incidence of Bribery" (PDF). Georgia State University. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  290. ^ "Corruption Pervades Russia's Health System". CBS News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  291. ^ Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Leontyeva, Elvira; Prytula, Yaroslav (2014). "Corruption at Universities is a Common Disease for Russia and Ukraine". Harvard University. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  292. ^ Brade, Isolde; Rudolph, Robert (2004). "Moscow, the Global City? The Position of the Russian Capital within the European System of Metropolitan Areas". Area. Wiley. 36 (1): 69–80. doi:10.1111/j.0004-0894.2004.00306.x. JSTOR 20004359.
  293. ^ "From where do we import energy?". Eurostat. Retrieved 14 January 2022. Russia is the main EU supplier of crude oil, natural gas and solid fossil fuels
  294. ^ "Mixed economy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2021. Mixed economies also arose in many countries that formerly had centrally planned and socialist economies. The mixed economies in modern China and Russia, for example, evolved from communist systems that were too inefficient to compete in the modern global economy.
  295. ^ Excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia - Natural Resources". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021. Russia is one of the world's richest countries in raw materials, many of which are significant inputs for an industrial economy. Russia accounts for around 20 percent of the world's production of oil and natural gas and possesses large reserves of both fuels. This abundance has made Russia virtually self-sufficient in energy and a large-scale exporter of fuels.
  296. ^ "Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (national estimate) – Russian Federation | Data". World Bank. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  297. ^ "Putin highlights Russia's middle class as comprising more than 70% of population". TASS. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  298. ^ Braun, Bernhard (6 October 2020). "In search of Russia's middle class". Centre for East European and International Studies. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  299. ^ Alexandrov, Ivan (26 March 2020). Сколько в России среднего класса? [How many middle class is there in Russia?] (in Russian). Eurasianet. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  300. ^ "14% of Russians Are Considered Middle Class – Official Data". The Moscow Times. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  301. ^ "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Central Bank of Russia. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  302. ^ "Labor force - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  303. ^ "2020 PRODUCTION STATISTICS". OICA. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  304. ^ "Exports - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  305. ^ "Imports - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  306. ^ "Russia – Analysis". EIA. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  307. ^ "Russia's Natural Resources Make Up 60% of GDP". The Moscow Times. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021. Russia's Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimates that the combined worth of the country's oil, gas and other resources amounts to 60 percent of its gross domestic product...
  308. ^ "Russia's foreign debt small, about 5% of GDP — first deputy PM". TASS. 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  309. ^ "Ease of Doing Business rankings". The World Bank. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  310. ^ "Global personal taxation comparison survey–market rankings". Mercer (consulting firms). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  311. ^ Guilford, Gwynn (12 April 2018). "On incomes, Russia and the US are now equally unequal". Quartz. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  312. ^ Kuznets, Dmitry; Grigorieva, Nastya; Rothrock, Kevin (23 January 2019). "The top 1% controls a third of the wealth, and the poor are getting poorer. How Russia became one of the most unequal places on Earth". Meduza. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  313. ^ "Railways - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  314. ^ "О развитии дорожной инфраструктуры" [On the development of road infrastructure]. Government of Russia. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  315. ^ "Europe continues to report the world's highest Road Network Density, followed by East Asia and Pacific". International Road Federation. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  316. ^ "Waterways - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  317. ^ "Pipelines - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  318. ^ "Airports - The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  319. ^ Warren, Katie (3 January 2020). "I rode the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway on a 2,000-mile journey across 4 time zones in Russia. Here's what it was like spending 50 hours on the longest train line in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  320. ^ D. Elagina (22 January 2021). "Cargo throughput volume in Russia in 2020, by port". Statista. Retrieved 10 June 2021. The Russian sea port Novorossiysk, located in the Azov-Black Sea basin, handled almost 142 million metric tons of cargo in 2020 and became the leading port in the country by the cargo throughput.
  321. ^ "Nuclear icebreakers – what's so special about them?". Poseidon Expeditions. Retrieved 24 May 2021. Russia is the only country constructing nuclear-powered icebreakers in the world. They were purposely built for the strategic importance of the Northern Sea Route and a more evident need to guarantee the safety of the Russian trade vessels in winter and Arctic settlements' dependency on supplies.
  322. ^ Gustafson, Thane (20 November 2017). "The Future of Russia as an Energy Superpower". Harvard University Press. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  323. ^ N. Sönnichsen (15 June 2021). "Natural gas - countries with the largest reserves 2009-2019". Statista. Retrieved 2 July 2021. Russia has the largest proved natural gas reserves in the world. As of 2019, it had 38 trillion cubic meters worth of the fossil fuel, four trillion cubic meters more than ten years prior.
  324. ^ "Statistical Review of World Energy 69th edition" (PDF). bp.com. BP. 2020. p. 45. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  325. ^ "Crude oil – proved reserves". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  326. ^ 2010 Survey of Energy Resources (PDF). worldenergy.org. World Energy Council. 2010. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-946121-02-1. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  327. ^ "Natural gas – exports". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  328. ^ "Natural gas – production". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  329. ^ "Crude oil – production". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  330. ^ "Crude oil – exports". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  331. ^ Sauer, Natalie (24 September 2019). "Russia formally joins Paris climate pact". Euractiv. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  332. ^ Hill, Ian (1 November 2021). "Is Russia finally getting serious on climate change?". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 19 December 2021. Russia is the world’s fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases, pumping out five per cent of the world’s carbon.
  333. ^ "Electricity – production". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  334. ^ Whiteman, Adrian; Rueda, Sonia; Akande, Dennis; Elhassan, Nazik; Escamilla, Gerardo; Arkhipova, Iana (March 2020). Renewable capacity statistics 2020 (PDF). IRENA. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency. p. 3. ISBN 978-92-9260-239-0. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  335. ^ Long, Tony (27 June 2012). "June 27, 1954: World's First Nuclear Power Plant Opens". Wired. Retrieved 8 June 2021. 1954: The first nuclear power plant to be connected to an external grid goes operational in Obninsk, outside of Moscow...
  336. ^ "Nuclear Power Today". www.world-nuclear.org. World Nuclear Association. October 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  337. ^ Whiteman, Adrian; Akande, Dennis; Elhassan, Nazik; Escamilla, Gerardo; Lebedys, Arvydas; Arkhipova, Lana (2021). Renewable Energy Capacity Statistics 2021 (PDF). Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency. ISBN 978-92-9260-342-7. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  338. ^ a b c d "Russia - Economy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  339. ^ "Arable land (% of land area) - Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  340. ^ Medetsky, Anatoly; Durisin, Megan (23 September 2020). "Russia's Dominance of the Wheat World Keeps Growing". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  341. ^ Shahbandeh, M. (8 July 2021). "Global barley producers by country 2020/21". Statista. Retrieved 18 July 2021. This statistic provides a forecast of barley production volume worldwide in 2020/2021, by country. In that year, Russia produced about 20.63 million metric tons of barley.
  342. ^ Shahbandeh, M. (12 November 2020). "Global leading oats producers 2020". Statista. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  343. ^ Shahbandeh, M. (10 February 2021). "Top countries in rye production 2019/2020". Statista. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  344. ^ Shahbandeh, M. (25 February 2021). "Sunflower seed production in major countries 2019/20". Statista. Retrieved 18 July 2021. Russia is also a major producer of sunflower seeds worldwide, with a production volume of 15.3 million metric tons in 2019/2020.
  345. ^ Lustgarten, Abrahm (16 December 2020). "How Russia Wins the Climate Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  346. ^ "The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome: United Nations. 2018. ISBN 978-92-5-130562-1. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  347. ^ Уровень финансирования российской науки недостаточен для обеспечения технологического прорыва [The level of funding for Russian science is insufficient to ensure a technological breakthrough]. ach.gov.ru (in Russian). Accounts Chamber of Russia. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  348. ^ "SJR – International Science Ranking". www.scimagojr.com. SCImago Journal & Country Rank. April 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  349. ^ "RUSSIAN FEDERATION" (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization. United Nations. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  350. ^ Кто из российских и советских ученых и литераторов становился лауреатом Нобелевской премии [Which of the Russian and Soviet scientists and writers became the Nobel Prize laureate]. ТАСС (in Russian). TASS. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  351. ^ Usitalo, Steven A. (2011). "Lomonosov: Patronage and Reputation at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. Franz Steiner Verlag. 59 (2): 217–239. JSTOR 41302521.
  352. ^ Vucinich, Alexander (1960). "Mathematics in Russian Culture". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 21 (2): 161–179. doi:10.2307/2708192. JSTOR 2708192.
  353. ^ Leicester, Henry M. (1948). "Factors Which Led Mendeleev to the Periodic Law". Chymia. University of California Press: 67–74. doi:10.2307/27757115. JSTOR 27757115.
  354. ^ Rappaport, Karen D. (October 1981). "S. Kovalevsky: A Mathematical Lesson". The American Mathematical Monthly. Taylor & Francis. 88 (8): 564–574. doi:10.2307/2320506. JSTOR 2320506.
  355. ^ Overbye, Dennis (1 July 2010). "A Math Problem Solver Declines a $1 Million Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  356. ^ Chang, Kenneth (22 August 2006). "Highest Honor in Mathematics Is Refused". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  357. ^ Marsh, Allison (30 April 2020). "Who Invented Radio: Guglielmo Marconi or Aleksandr Popov?". IEEE Spectrum. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  358. ^ Shampo, Marc A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Steensma, David P. (January 2012). "Nikolay Basov—Nobel Prize for Lasers and Masers". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87 (1): e3. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2011.11.003. PMC 3498096. PMID 22212977.
  359. ^ Ivanov, Sergey (10 September 2019). "Remembering Zhores Alferov". Nature Photonics. 13 (10): 657–659. doi:10.1038/s41566-019-0525-0.
  360. ^ Zheludev, Nikolay (April 2007). "The life and times of the LED — a 100-year history". Nature Photonics. 1: 189–192. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2007.34.
  361. ^ Ghilarov, Alexej M. (June 1995). "Vernadsky's Biosphere Concept: An Historical Perspective". The Quarterly Review of Biology. The University of Chicago Press. 70 (2): 193–203. JSTOR 3036242.
  362. ^ Gordon, Siamon (3 February 2016). "Elie Metchnikoff, the Man and the Myth". 8 (3): 223–227. doi:10.1159/000443331. PMID 26836137. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  363. ^ Anrep, G. V. (December 1936). "Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. 1849-1936". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. Royal Society. 2 (5): 1–18. JSTOR 769124.
  364. ^ Gorelik, Gennady (August 1997). "The Top-Secret Life of Lev Landau". Scientific American. Scientific American, a division of Nature America, Inc. 277 (2): 72–77. JSTOR 24995874.
  365. ^ Janick, Jules (1 June 2015). "Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov: Plant Geographer, Geneticist, Martyr of Science" (PDF). HortScience. 50 (6). doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.50.6.772.
  366. ^ Wang, Zhengrong; Liu, Yongsheng (2017). "Lysenko and Russian genetics: an alternative view". European Journal of Human Genetics. 25 (10): 1097–1098. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.117. ISSN 1476-5438. PMC 5602018. PMID 28905876.
  367. ^ Hunsaker, Jerome C. (15 April 1954). "A Half Century of Aeronautical Development". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 98 (2): 121–130. JSTOR 3143642.
  368. ^ "Vladimir Zworykin". Lemelson–MIT Prize. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  369. ^ Ford, Edmund Brisco (November 1977). "Theodosius Grigorievich Dobzhansky, 25 January 1900 - 18 December 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 23: 58–89. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1977.0004. ISSN 1748-8494. PMID 11615738.
  370. ^ "The Distinguished Life and Career of George Gamow". University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  371. ^ Gautschi, Walter (March 2008). "Leonhard Euler: His Life, the Man, and His Works". SIAM Review. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 50 (1): 3–33. JSTOR 20454060.
  372. ^ Jorpes, J. Erik (3 January 1959). "Alfred Nobel". The British Medical Journal (The BMJ). 1 (5113): 1–6. JSTOR 25386146.
  373. ^ "Mir Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  374. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. (2000). Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. United States Government Publishing Office. ISBN 978-0-160-61305-0.
  375. ^ "Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space". History. A&E Networks. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2022. On June 16, 1963, aboard Vostok 6, Soviet Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to travel into space.
  376. ^ Rincon, Paul (13 October 2014). "The First Spacewalk". BBC. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  377. ^ Wellerstein, Alex (3 November 2017). "Remembering Laika, Space Dog and Soviet Hero". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  378. ^ "Luna 9". NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021. Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to achieve a lunar soft landing and to transmit photographic data from the Moon's surface to Earth...
  379. ^ Betz, Eric (19 September 2018). "The First Earthlings Around the Moon Were Two Soviet Tortoises". Discover. Retrieved 18 January 2022. ...on September 18, 1968, the Soviet Union's Zond 5 spacecraft circled the moon, ferrying the first living creatures known to have orbited another world. On board were two Russian steppe tortoises along with some worms, flies and seeds.
  380. ^ Avduevsky, V. S.; Ya Marov, M.; Rozhdestvensky, M. K.; Borodin, N. F.; Kerzhanovich, V. V. (1 March 1971). "Soft Landing of Venera 7 on the Venus Surface and Preliminary Results of Investigations of the Venus Atmosphere". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union: 263–269. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1971)028<0263:SLOVOT>2.0.CO;2.
  381. ^ Perminov, V.G. (July 1999). The Difficult Road to Mars - A Brief History of Mars Exploration in the Soviet Union (PDF). NASA History Division. ISBN 0-16-058859-6.
  382. ^ "Lunokhod 01". NASA. Retrieved 1 June 2021. The Lunokhod 1 rover was delivered to the lunar surface by the Luna 17 spacecraft and was first successful rover to operate beyond Earth.
  383. ^ "50 Years Ago: Launch of Salyut, the World's First Space Station". NASA. 19 April 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021. On April 19, 1971, the Soviet Union placed into orbit Salyut, the world's first space station.
  384. ^ Burgueño Salas, Erick (21 July 2021). "Number of satellites in orbit by country as of January 1, 2021". Statista. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  385. ^ Wood, Johnny (4 March 2019). "The countries with the most satellites in space". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 18 January 2022. ...and Russia is third with 147.
  386. ^ a b "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer English Version. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 18 (6): 18. 2020. doi:10.18111/wtobarometereng. ISSN 1728-9246.
  387. ^ Uppink Calderwood, Lauren; Soshkin, Maksim. Fisher, Mike (ed.). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019 (PDF). www3.weforum.org. Geneva: World Economic Forum. p. xiii. ISBN 978-2-940631-01-8. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  388. ^ Выборочная статистическая информация, рассчитанная в соответствии с Официальной статистической методологией оценки числа въездных и выездных туристских поездок – Ростуризм [Selected statistical information calculated in accordance with the Official Statistical Methodology for Estimating the Number of Inbound and Outbound Tourist Trips – Rostourism]. tourism.gov.ru (in Russian). Federal Agency for Tourism (Russia). Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  389. ^ Вице-премьер считает, что вклад туризма в ВВП России может вырасти в три раза за 10 лет [Deputy Prime Minister believes that the contribution of tourism to Russia's GDP could triple in 10 years]. ТАСС (in Russian). TASS. 26 September 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  390. ^ Tomb, Howard (27 August 1989). "Getting to the Top In the Caucasus". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  391. ^ "Tourism Highlights 2014" (PDF). UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  392. ^ Vlasov, Artem (17 December 2018). Названы самые популярные достопримечательности России [The most popular sights of Russia are named]. Izvestia (in Russian). Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  393. ^ Sohlman, Eva; MacFarquhar, Neil (7 October 2019). "Forged by Volcanoes, Kamchatka Offers Majestic, Magnetic Wilds". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  394. ^ "Karelia: the still unspoiled beauty in Russia". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  395. ^ Sullivan, Paul (7 March 2021). "48 hours in . . . Moscow, an insider guide to Russia's mighty metropolis". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  396. ^ Hammer, Joshua (3 June 2011). "White Nights of St. Petersburg, Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  397. ^ Herfort, Frank (1 November 2021). "The Stunning Grandeur of Soviet-Era Metros". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  398. ^ a b "EAll- Russian population census 2010 - Population by nationality, sex and subjects of the Russian Federation". Demoscope Weekly. 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  399. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Demographics". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  400. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  401. ^ D. Clark (28 January 2021). "Population of selected European countries 2020". Statista. Retrieved 16 June 2021. In 2020, Russia had the largest population among European countries at 145.93 million people.
  402. ^ O'Neill, Aaron (31 March 2021). "Countries with the largest population 2019". Statista. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  403. ^ "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  404. ^ Koehn, Jodi. "Russia's Demographic Crisis". Kennan Institute. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  405. ^ "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  406. ^ "Russia's Putin seeks to stimulate birth rate". BBC. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  407. ^ Foltynova, Kristyna (19 June 2020). "Migrants Welcome: Is Russia Trying To Solve Its Demographic Crisis By Attracting Foreigners?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Russia has been trying to boost fertility rates and reduce death rates for several years now. Special programs for families have been implemented, anti-tobacco campaigns have been organized, and raising the legal age to buy alcohol was considered. However, perhaps the most successful strategy so far has been attracting migrants, whose arrival helps Russia to compensate population losses.
  408. ^ Saver, Pjotr (13 October 2021). "Russia's population undergoes largest ever peacetime decline, analysis shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2021. Russia's natural population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in recorded history over the last 12 months...
  409. ^ "Russia - The Indo-European Group". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 18 July 2021. East Slavs—mainly Russians but including some Ukrainians and Belarusians—constitute more than four-fifths of the total population and are prevalent throughout the country.
  410. ^ Taagepera, Rein (2013). The Finno-Ugric Republics and the Russian State. New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91977-7.
  411. ^ Sabine Ipsen-Peitzmeier, Markus Kaiser (Hrsg.): Zuhause fremd – Russlanddeutsche zwischen Russland und Deutschland. Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 978-3-89942-308-2.
  412. ^ Kirk, Ashley (21 January 2016). "Mapped: Which country has the most immigrants?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  413. ^ Ragozin, Leonid (3 April 2019). "Russia and Ukraine Fight, But Their People Seek Reconciliation". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  414. ^ Surinov, A.; et al., eds. (2016). "5. Population: Cities with population size of 1 million persons and over". Russia in Figures (PDF) (Report). Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). p. 82. ISBN 978-5-89476-420-7. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  415. ^ Оксенойт, Г. К. (2016). 31. Численность населения городов и поселков городского типа по федеральным округам и субъектам Российской Федерации. In Рахманинов, М. В. (ed.). Численность населения Российской Федерации: По муниципальным образованиям (Report) (in Russian). Москва: Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Росстат). Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  416. ^ a b Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год. gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  417. ^ Предварительная оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год по городским округам и муниципальным районам Красноярского края. krasstat.gks.ru. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  418. ^ Численность населения по муниципальным районам и городским округам Новосибирской области на 1 января 2017 года и в среднем за 2016 год (PDF). novosibstat.gks.ru. Retrieved 12 June 2017.